(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Memoirs of the American Entomological Society"

m ~m ^ r mzum + * 










§531 ^* All, Av 



MEMOIRS 

OF THE 

AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

NUMBER 18 



THE GENUS BUCCULATRIX 
IN 

AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 

(MICROLEPIDOPTERA) 

BY 
ANNETTE F. BRAUN 




PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

AT THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

PHILADELPHIA 

1963 



Harold J. Grant, Jr. 
Editor 



(Issued May 31, 1963) 



Printed in the United States of America 

WICKERSHAM PRINTING COMPANY 

Lancaster, Pennsylvania 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Introduction 1 

Genus Bucculatrix Zeller 4 

Key to the species based on coloration and markings 15 

Key to the species based on male genitalia 25 

Key to the species based on female genitalia 30 

Section I — species 1 to 16 37 

Bucculatrix fusicola Braun 38 

Bucculatrix solidaginella new species 39 

Bucculatrix montana Braun 41 

Bucculatrix magnella Chambers 42 

Bucculatrix necdhami Braun 44 

Bucculatrix longula new species 45 

Bucculatrix simulans new species 47 

Bucculatrix niveclla Chambers 48 

Bucculatrix parvinotata new species 49 

Bucculatrix ochritincta new species 49 

Bucculatrix viguierae new species 50 

Bucculatrix micro punctata, new species 51 

Bucculatrix inusitata new species 52 

Bucculatrix seneciensis new species 54 

Bucculatrix bicristata new species 55 

Bucculatrix cuneigera Meyrick 56 

Section II — species 17 to 64 58 

Bucculatrix albaciliclla Braun 59 

Bucculatrix ochristrigella Braun 60 

Bucculatrix eurotiella Walsingham 61 

Bucculatrix tenebricosa Braun 63 

Bucculatrix ericameriae new species 64 

Bucculatrix variabilis Braun 65 

Bucculatrix separabilis new species 66 

Bucculatrix brunnescens new species 68 

Bucculatrix evanescens new species 68 

Bucculatrix benenotata new species 69 

Bucculatrix floccosa Braun 70 

Bucculatrix flourensiae new species 72 

Bucculatrix jranseriae new species 73 

Bucculatrix staintonella Chambers 74 

Bucculatrix immaculatella Chambers 76 

Bucculatrix agnella Clemens 77 

Bucculatrix kimballi new species 80 



CONTENTS 

Bucculatrix ivella Busck 81 

Bucculatrix ambrosiaefoliella Chambers 83 

Bucculatrix pallidula new species 86 

Bucculatrix taeniola new species 87 

Bucculatrix carolinae new species 88 

Bucculatrix angustata Frey and Boll 89 

Bucculatrix adelpha new species 91 

Bucculatrix plucheae new species 92 

Bucculatrix eupatoriella Braun 94 

Bucculatrix polymniae new species 95 

Bucculatrix speciosa new species 97 

Bucculatrix subnitens Walsingham 98 

Bucculatrix sexnotata Braun 99 

Bucculatrix divisa Braun 101 

Bucculatrix illecebrosa new species 103 

Bucculatrix insolita Braun 104 

Bucculatrix transversata Braun 105 

Bucculatrix koebelella Busck 106 

Bucculatrix salutatoria Braun 107 

Bucculatrix leptalca new species 109 

Bucculatrix arnicella Braun Ill 

Bucculatrix tridenticola new species 113 

Bucculatrix spectabilis new species 115 

Bucculatrix seorsa new species 116 

Bucculatrix angustisquamclla Braun 117 

Bucculatrix columbiana new species 118 

Bucculatrix sororcida new species 119 

Bucculatrix nigripunctella Braun 120 

Bucculatrix atrosignata new species 121 

Bucculatrix enceliae new species 122 

Bucculatrix latclla Braun 125 

Section III — species 65 126 

Bucculatrix sporobolella Busck 126 

Section IV — species 66 to 90 128 

Bucculatrix packardella Chambers 129 

Bucculatrix albertiella Busck 132 

Bucculatrix coniforma new species 133 

Bucculatrix platyphylla new species 134 

Bucculatrix ochrisuffusa new species 135 

Bucculatrix trifasciella Clemens 136 

Bucculatrix quinquenotella Chambers 138 

Bucculatrix domicola new species 140 



CONTENTS ill 

Bucculatrix 20 pho pasta new species 142 

Bucculatrix Utigiosella Zeller 144 

Bucculatrix coronatella Clemens 145 

Bucculatrix canadensis ella Chambers 147 

Bucculatrix improvisa new species 149 

Bucculatrix polytita new species 151 

Bucculatrix luteclla Chambers 153 

Bucculatrix rccoguita new species 155 

Bucculatrix paroptila new species 157 

Bucculatrix fugitans Braun 158 

Bucculatrix callistricha new species 160 

Bucculatrix eugraplia new species 162 

Bucculatrix carina new species 163 

Bucculatrix copeuta Meyrick 163 

Bucculatrix locuplcs Meyrick 165 

Bucculatrix ainsliella Murtfelclt 167 

Bucculatrix eclecta new species 169 

Section V — species 91 to 93 171 

Bucculatrix anaticula new species 171 

Bucculatrix disjuncta new species 173 

Bucculatrix ceanothiella Braun 174 

Section VI — species 94 175 

Bucculatrix pomijoliella Clemens 175 

Section VII — species 95 178 

Bucculatrix ilecella Busck 179 

Section VIII— species 96 to 99 180 

Bucculatrix quadrigcmiiia Braun 180 

Bucculatrix gossypiella Morrill 182 

Bucculatrix sphaeralceae new species 184 

Bucculatrix thurberiella Busck 185 

List of the North American species of Bucculatrix 188 

Literature Cited 189 

Explanation of Figures 190 






MEMOIRS 
OF Tl 
AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

NUMBER 18 



THE GENUS BUCCULATRIX 

IN 

AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 

(MICROLEPIDOPTERA) 

BY 
ANNETTE F. BRAUN 




PUBLISHED BY THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

AT THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

PHILADELPHIA 

1963 



Memoirs 

of THE 

American Entomological Society 

Number 18 

THE GENUS BUCCULATRIX IN 

AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 
( MICROLEPIDOPTER A ) 

By Annette F. Braun 
( Cincinnati, Ohio) 

Introduction 

Bucculatrix is one of the most easily recognized genera of Micro- 
lepidoptera. The elongate pointed face, tufted head, basal eye-cap of 
the antenna, and, in the male, the notched first segment of the flagellum 
assure recognition by casual examination. 

In the early stages, species of this genus may be recognized by the 
short, very narrow, almost thread-like mines, and in the later stages 
by the feeding-pattern on the leaf made by the exposed larvae. 

About 200 species are now known, occurring in all continents ex- 
cept New Zealand, with about three-fourths of the species in the north- 
ern hemisphere. About one-half are within the area of this mono- 
graph. In number of species, the genus is best represented in warmer 
regions, particularly in arid regions, where any collection is likely to 
contain representatives of it, some of them probably undescribed. 

A total of 99 North American species are included in the genus. 
Of the 54 species listed in McDunnough's Check List of the Lepidop- 
tera of Canada and the United States of America, Part II, Microlepi- 
doptera (1939), eight (capitialbella Chambers, albicapitella Chambers, 
rileyi Frey & Boll, crescentella Braun, chrysothamni Braun, tetrella 



VSS JUN3 1983 



Z BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Braun, althaeae Busck, pertenuis Braun ) are reduced to synonymy. 
Bucculatrix subnitens Walsingham, previously known only from Mex- 
ico, is here recorded from Arizona. Bucculatrix gossypiella Morrill, 
of Mexico, is included because of the probability of its introduction in 
the Southwest. Bucculatrix needhami Braun was recently (1956) de- 
scribed. Fifty species are described as new. Examples of all of the 
species here treated have been examined, with the exception of nivcclla 
Chambers and immaculatella Chambers of which no types are in exist- 
ence ; these latter two species are assigned to their probable positions. 

In connection with the evaluation of Chambers' types (e.g. the 
series of luteella and packardclla at the Museum of Comparative Zool- 
ogy) the following quotation is of interest. " But a few years ago I 
began to make a collection to be preserved as types of all my species. . . . 
Unfortunately, during my absence in Colorado, the greater part of this 
collection was destroyed. One or more specimens of the greater num- 
ber of species were fortunately preserved, and most of the other species 
can be supplied. This collection is now in the Cambridge Museum. 
It contains types — pinned and spread — of something over 200 species." 
(Chambers, Canad. Ent, IX, 39, 1877.) There is thus no assurance 
that his " types " actually represent the species described. Such un- 
certainty is apparent in the presumed types of B. packardella and B. 
luteella in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

In the preparation of the slides of genitalia certain precautions must 
be observed to insure the retention of the tufts and patches of special- 
ized scales on the intersegmental membrane between the seventh and 
eighth segments and on the eighth abdominal segment in the female. 
Such tufts of scales often constitute the only reliable characters for 
species separation. They are loosely attached and tend to float off en 
masse in spite of the utmost care ; it is therefore advisable to make 
measurements and sketches during the progress of the work. In the 
female, the minute size and the transparency of the abdominal wall per- 
mit examination of the bursa copulatrix and signum in situ, and it is 
not necessary and usually not desirable to separate the anal segments 
from the rest of the abdomen. However, if this is desired, the separa- 
tion should be made between the sixth and seventh segments, retaining 
segment 7 connected to the genital segments. In the species of Section 
IV, the position of segment 7 overlying the basal half of segment 8 



AXNETTE V. HRAUN 

has been retained in slides and drawings to show the natural position 
of the specialized scale structures attached to the intersegmental mem- 
brane and lying ventral to the ostium. The degree of telescoping of 
segment 8 into segment 7 may vary on the slides, and thus the apparent 
positions of the fringing scales of segment 7 and the specialized scale 
patches on the intersegmental membrane may vary in relation to one 
another and to the specialized scale tufts on segment 8. In the males of 
Section IV, no attempt was made to spread the harpes ; in spreading, 
the thread-like vinculum may be broken ; the twisting of the harpes to 
a ventral position is shown to best advantage unspread. Because of the 
weak articulation of the harpes on the vinculum in other sections, they 
may be lost easily. Unless otherwise noted, all slides were made by the 
writer. 

With the exception of the setal map of the larva of Bucculatrix 
canadensisella Chambers, all figures were drawn by the writer. 

All genitalia drawings were made by transmitted light, using a 
binocular microscope (fitted with a micrometer disc) for the gross 
structure, with details added by examination under a compound micro- 
scope. The degree of magnification of the figures of genitalia was 
determined by the amount of detail. The figures of less specialized 
female genitalia are one-half the scale of males. Small inset figures of 
specialized characters to a higher magnification may accompany the 
larger figures ; such details are often visible only under the compara- 
tively high magnification of a compound microscope. In so far as pos- 
sible, ventral structures are shown by full lines, dorsal by broken lines. 
In particular this refers to female genitalia where characters of value 
are present on the dorsal surface of segment 8. It will be noted that 
the bursa copulatrix is omitted in most of the figures ; it is impossible 
to show details of the complete signum without a higher magnification 
and larger figures than is desirable. 

A total of over 2500 specimens has been examined in the study of 
the genus. Included are some 750 specimens in my own collection, 
many of them reared, and including types, allotypes or paratypes of 19 
new species; over 900 specimens in the United States National Mu- 
seum, including types, allotypes or paratypes of 30 new species; over 
250 specimens in the Canadian National Collection, including types, 
allotypes or paratypes of 9 new species; some 150 in the collections 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



4 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, including the 
Clemens' types and the Darlington Collection ; the collections of Cornell 
University, some 250 specimens, including a recent collection of a large 
amount of material from the Southern Appalachians, an area scarcely 
represented in other collections, and several species from Arizona ; the 
Cornell collections have contributed types and type material of 7 new 
species ; the collection of A. E. Brower of Augusta, Maine, with rep- 
resentatives of three new species ; Charles P. Kimball of Barnstable, 
Massachusetts and Sarasota, Florida submitted material from New 
York and Massachusetts, and a less extensive collection from Florida, 
including type material of three new species ; from J. R. Eyer, State 
College, New Mexico, from the Los Angeles County Museum, from C. 
L. Remington, Yale University, and from J. McDunnough, Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, I have received material for study. To all of these, grate- 
ful acknowledgement is made. To Dr. J. F. Gates Clarke of the United 
States National Museum, for slides of types, for notes from literature 
not available to me, and for the many courtesies extended throughout 
the progress of the work, I express my sincere thanks. 

Under Literature Cited (p. 189) is a short list of books and papers 
referred to in the text; of these, Friend's paper on Bucculatrix can- 
adensisella Chambers (1927) is a valuable detailed study of a typical 
species of the genus. 

Abbreviations when used in the text in referring to the location of 
material are as follows: A.F.B.Coll. (A. F. Braun Collection): 
A.N.S.P. (Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia) ; B.M. (Brit- 
ish Museum) ; C.N. Coll. (Canadian National Collection) ; M.C.Z. 
(Museum of Comparative Zoology) ; U.S.N.M. (United States Na- 
tional Museum). Location of material from other collections is listed 
without abbreviation or with obvious abbreviations. 

Genus Bucculatrix Zeller 

Bucculatrix Zeller, 1839. Isis, XXXII, 214. Generotype, albedinella Zeller 

(= boyerella Duponchel). 
Ceroclastis Zeller, 1848. Linn. Ent., Ill, 295, t. 2, fig. 47. Generotype, nigri- 

comclla Zeller. 

Face smooth, obliquely produced into a point extending well below the eyes 
(fig. 1), head tufted with long hair-scales, a forward-directed section of the tuft 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 5 

attached to the vertex, the upward- and backward-directed section attached to 
the posterior part of the epicranium ; tongue short, naked, maxillary palpi rudi- 
mentary, labial palpi minute, one-segmented, sometimes visible as a slender fila- 
ment ( fig. 1 ) ; antennae shorter than the wing length, basal segment of antenna 
(scape) enlarged forming an eye-cap clothed with projecting scales, and anteri- 
orly fringed with long bristly setae ; first segment of flagellum long, and in male 
typically with a deep notch (slight in some species) ; eye subglobose, large in 
some desert-inhabiting species. 

Fore wings (Plates III and IV) lanceolate, more or less acuminate, costa 
and subcosta fused into a strongly sclerotized marginal vein, retinaculum a 
curved membranous hook in both sexes; radius obsolescent near base, R x from 
before middle of cell, R 2 , R3 and R 4 from near end of cell, R 4 closely approxi- 
mate to or connate or stalked with the stalk of R 5 + M 1; or rarely absent ; media 
two-branched, M x stalked with R 5 , rarely separate ; cubitus unbranched, running 
through the middle or near to middle of wing, the cell thus chiefly in the upper 
half of the wing, cubitus sometimes obsolescent or absent beyond cell (figs. 20, 
23) ; 1st anal, the fold; A 2 not forked, strong, reaching margin beyond middle 
of dorsum ; A 3 short, closely approximating the wing margin. 

Hind wings lanceolate, from less than half the breadth of the fore wing to 
nearly as wide ; frenulum of male a single strong seta, frenulum of female, two 
closely associated, or sometimes partially fused setae; Sc + R x to near middle of 
costa, R s to costa near apex, media two-branched, cell open, cubitus unbranched ; 
two anal veins often distinct. 

Posterior tibiae with long hairs above and below, the upper decumbent, the 
latter pendant; middle pair of spurs articulating near base of segment, the inner 
twice or three times the length of the outer, apical pair shorter, inner twice the 
length of the outer. 

Abdomen of the male in most of the species with an eversible scale sac, 
which is a mid-dorsal invagination of the body wall in the suture between the 
second and third segments ( fig. 177, et al.), the distal circular area clothed with 
scales ; the walls of the sac form the stalk when the sac is protruded and the 
scales expanded (fig. 82a) ; when expanded it resembles a flower-head of a Com- 
posite, the scales of different proportions and lengths in the several species. It 
may serve as an alluring organ. 

Male genitalia. Although specialization within the sections and groups has 
resulted in apparent great diversity of structure, certain characters (or their 
modifications) are, with few exceptions, common to all the species of the genus: 
harpe weakly articulating with vinculum or closely associated with anellus and 
partially fused with it, of various shapes, commonly more or less inflated, with 
rounded apex (representing cucullus) usually defined by setal armature, or, 
harpe sometimes deeply bilobed (a specialization), the lobes distinguished by 
differences of setal armature, basal angles of costa produced as free arms, saccu- 
lus not defined ; transtilla present in ambrosiaefoliclla, then articulating with the 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC. 18. 



6 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

basal costal arms of harpe, and perhaps in ainslieUa represented by a narrow 
sinuate band ; anellus a broad or slender cone, often with lateral supporting 
sclerotizations ; aedeagus more or less cylindric, often sinuate, or with apex pro- 
duced beyond the aperture, aperture often elongate and armed with opposing 
teeth, proximal end rarely dilated and semi-globose, entrance of penis dorsal at 
the proximal end, cornuti rarely present; vinculum a mere thread (Plates XXIII 
to XXXIX) or a broader band rarely anteriorly greatly produced, often with a 
narrow thin median perpendicular plate ; a definitive gnathos rarely present in 
completeness, lateral arms seldom present, gnathos most often undifferentiated, 
or represented merely by a minutely spinulose strip ventral to the anal tube for 
which the term subscaphium (sensu Diakonorf, 1954) is here adopted; socii usu- 
ally two erect setose lobes, rarely reduced and nearly obsolete ; uncus absent, ex- 
cept in a few species. Segment 8 modified in one section of the genus ( Plates 
XLIV and XLV). 

Female genitalia. The most distinctive characteristics of the female geni- 
talia are the signum, consisting of a series of spined ribs, usually forming a ring 
nearly or quite encircling the bursa copulatrix near its posterior end, and the 
single pair of apophyses, those of the ninth segment (a second pair, those of the 
eighth segment, initiated in some specialized species) ; position of ostium vari- 
ous, opening either near center of sclerotized basal half of segment 8, or (in 
Section VIII) at the posterior margin of the sclerotized basal half of segment 8, 
or at the anterior margin of segment 8, or in the intersegmental membrane be- 
tween segments 7 and 8; specializations may include the fringing of the poste- 
rior margins of the sclerotized section of segment 7 with specialized scales, the 
development of tufts or rows or patches of specialized (non-striated) scales on 
the intersegmental membrane and on segment 8, sclerotized outgrowths on seg- 
ment 8, and finally extreme modification of the inner margins of the ovipositor 
lobes for rasping or piercing — the rasping rods — and the transfer of the func- 
tion of the lobes to the terminal portion of the vagina, with its specialized vagi- 
nal setae (Braun, 1958) ; ductus bursae usually sclerotized for a greater or less 
length near ostium; inception of ductus seminalis adjacent to ostium, or more 
generally at the junction of the sclerotized section with the more anterior mem- 
branous section ; in B. platyphylla only, a posterior lobe of the bursa copulatrix 
receives the ductus seminalis. Signum near posterior end of bursa and usually 
constricting it. 

The preceding" brief and of necessity inadequate description of the 
genitalia scarcely suggests the great diversity of structure within the 
genus. Genitalic structure is often correlated with food-plant groups 
and is the basis for division of the genus into sections. 

Among the known food plants of Bucculatrix are representatives 
of some twenty-five plant families. In our area, members of the Com- 
positae are probably hosts to nearly two-thirds of the species; trees or 



ANNETTK F. HRAUN / 

shrubs of the amentiferous families to a fifth or more of the species. 
The larvae of a few species feed upon members of each of several plant 
families. 

The species may be grouped into two main divisions on the basis 
of larval habits. ( 1 ) The typical division, which includes the majority 
of the species (Sections II to VIII). In this division, the larvae are 
leaf-miners in the first two instars and part of the third, and in the 
fourth and fifth instars (with few exceptions) feed exposed, usually on 
the under surface of the leaf, skeletonizing" it or sometimes completely 
consuming the leaf substance, leaving irregular holes. A few species 
in this division are miners throughout larval life, never feeding ex- 
ternally. (2) A division apparently confined to this continent, in 
which the larvae, so far as known, are gall-formers, feeding within the 
gall throughout larval life, or, if miners in the earlier instars, stem 
borers in the later instars (Section I). 

In those species comprising the typical division of the genus, the 
egg may be deposited on either the upper or the lower surface of a leaf. 
Eggs are usually flattened ovoid, and cemented to the leaf surface by 
an adhesive material which encircles them in a narrow band (figs. 35, 
36, 37). An apparent exception to this general shape is the egg of 
Bucculatrix thurberiella Busck, which is described as " elongate, pro- 
jectile shaped with about 10 projecting ridges and stands perpendicular 
to the leaf" (Morrill, 1927). The surface of the egg is variously 
sculptured ; the hexagonal pattern of sculpturing is most common, and 
is that found in species of the amentiferous plant feeders (fig. 37) ; the 
sculpturing may take the form of longitudinal ridges converging to- 
ward the micropylar end, or the egg may be irregularly ridged in a 
more or less concentric pattern, the ridges breaking into knobs toward 
the micropylar end (fig. 36). Upon hatching, the larva enters directly 
into the leaf tissue. 

The mines are narrow, almost thread-like tracks with parenchyma 
entirely consumed, and vary in length in different species from two or 
three to five or six centimeters, or even more in thin-textured leaves. 
They may at first follow a vein, abruptly turning out onto the leaf blade 
(fig. 52a), or be contorted (fig. 54b), or long and irregularly winding 
(fig. 43). A darkening of the leaf adjacent to the earliest portion of 
the mine, observed in some species, suggests a resting period preceding 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



8 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

resumption of feeding. In those few species which are miners through- 
out larval life, the mines of the fourth and fifth instars broaden into 
characteristically shaped blotches (figs. 45, 56). In the linear mines, 
the frass is deposited as a central blackish line, with the grains of ex- 
crement tending to appear as separated particles ; a small blotch at the 
beginning of the mine contiguous to the egg-shell is free of frass ; here 
the frass is contained within the egg-shell. 

The first and second instars and part of the third are passed in the 
mine. On leaving the mine, without further feeding, the larva spins 
the flat " moulting cocoon," usually a thin smooth sheet of silk within 
which it moults. After this moult, the larvae are external feeders. A 
second moulting cocoon similar to the first but slightly larger is spun 
at the end of the fourth instar. In general, the exposed larvae feed on 
the underside of the leaf, skeletonizing small patches of leaf, which may 
have a characteristic shape and appearance, recognizable from field ex- 
perience. In the fifth instar, in some species, the entire leaf tissue may 
be consumed, the small holes margined by veinlets. When the leaf is 
jarred, the larva may drop down on a silken thread. In the last in- 
stars, the larvae of B. divisa, feeding on the leaves of Balsamorrhiza, 
of B. arnicella on Arnica cordifolia, and of B. salutatoria on Artemisia 
tridentata enter the leaf through circular holes and mine out the leaf 
tissue, with only head and thorax inside the mine. Such mines resem- 
ble Coleophora mines, but can be recognized by the position of the cir- 
cular entrance holes at one edge of the mine (fig. 48b), instead of near 
the center. 

In the two instars of the leaf-mining stage, the larva is flattened, 
apodal, the head lying in a horizontal plane, but as it is a tissue feeder, 
there is no great modification of mouth parts. The first and second 
moults take place within the mine ; during the third instar the larva 
leaves the mine. In this instar and in the two following, the structure 
is that of the usual tissue-feeding larva (fig. 32). The body is cylin- 
drical, the head nearly vertical ; three pairs of thoracic legs are present, 
the prothoracic smaller than the meso- and metathoracic legs and fur- 
nished with but a single claw. The prolegs are comparatively long and 
slender, present on abdominal segments 3, 4, 5, 6, and 10, the abdom- 
inal prolegs bearing two transverse rows of uniordinal crochets, the 
anal prolegs a single transverse row. The anal prolegs in dorsal aspect 



ANNETTE F. BR. UN 9 

( fig. 33 ) are slender and diverging, presenting a good field recognition 
character. The last instars of those species which are miners through- 
out larval life ( e.g. angustata ) agree in general with the corresponding 
instars of the typical exposed-feeding larva, except that the head lies in 
a more nearly horizontal plane. The setal pattern of the fifth instar 
(fig. 34) is constant throughout this division of the genus with but 
minor variations ; it will be noted from the setal map that, in this divi- 
sion of the genus, the setae are comparatively long. 

The other main division of the genus (Section I) includes such 
species as Biicculatrix fusicola Braun, B. needhami Braun, B. viguierae 
new species, which are gall-formers and feed throughout larval life 
within the gall, and such species as B. solidaginiella new species and B. 
cuneigera Meyrick, which are leaf-miners in the early instars, and stem- 
borers in the later instars. In the gall-former, B. needhami, Dr. Need- 
ham's studies (1948) show that a non-feeding instar is interpolated 
between the last feeding instar and the pupal stage. This condition 
is probably present in all of the gall-formers, although to date no care- 
ful studies have been made of other species. In all observed instances, 
the full-fed larva passes the winter in the gall, emerging from the gall 
in the spring by a minute circular aperture, and spinning a typical Buc- 
culatricid cocoon. Of the stem-borers, the mine of B. cuneigera only 
has been observed ; in this instance the larva spins, in the end of the 
mine, a dense flat circular chamber, similar to the moulting cocoon of 
the species of the typical division of the genus, in which it passes the 
winter, emerging in the spring to crawl to the tip of a growing shoot 
and bore into it. 

Biicculatrix needhami Braun may be taken as an example of larval 
structure in the gall-forming members of the genus. The larva in the 
last feeding instar, and still within the gall when full-fed, differs from 
the fifth instar larva of the leaf-mining and exposed-feeding species in 
several notable characters (fig. 31). The body is moniliform, with 
deep constrictions between the segments ; the head is small, spinnerets 
non-functional ; all three pairs of thoracic legs bear but a single claw ; 
prolegs absent, their position merely indicated by a flatfish area; setae 
are minute, almost microscopic. The larva is not capable of locomo- 
tion ; " it did not creep, but lay on its side with the front end thrown 
back in a T-shaped hook, the head at the tip of the hook. It spun no 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



10 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

silk, not even enough to hold back the pellets of frass " (Needham, 
Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc, LVI, 43-50, 1948). In this condition the 
larva passes the winter in the gall. In the spring a moult takes place 
within the gall, and the larva which emerges is of the normal lepidop- 
terous form with functional spinnerets and long setae ; it agrees with 
the typical fifth instar exposed-feeding larva in structure, except that a 
single claw is present on all three pairs of thoracic legs. " Here was 
a non-feeding instar, interpolated between larval and pupal stages ; a 
clear case of hypermetamorphosis " (Needham, I.e.). This non-feeding 
larva gnaws a hole through the wall of the gall, emerging and spinning 
a typical ridged Bucculatricid cocoon. For additional details refer to 
Dr. Needham's paper in the Journal of the New York Entomological 
Society. 

In the stem-borers of this division of the genus, larvae of which are 
leaf-miners in the early instars, the change to normal lepidopterous 
form must occur with the moult taking place at the end of the mine, 
since the power of active locomotion is necessary to reach the growing 
tip of the food plant. 

The ridged cocoon is characteristic of the genus Bucculatrix. and is 
one of the most beautiful and intricate structures to be observed in the 
Lepidoptera. The manner of its spinning is briefly described below ; 
for a detailed description of the process, the paper by R. E, Snodgrass 
in the Report of the Smithsonian Institution, 1920 (1922) entitled 
" The ribbed-cocoon maker of the apple," pages 496 to 509, and Plates 
2 and 3, should be consulted. The larva spins, on whatever substratum 
is to serve as the location of the cocoon, a thin oval mat of silk; in some 
species a " palisade " of upright silken poles, each consisting of several 
united silk strands, previously encloses the area (fig. 57). The cocoon 
is spun in two sections, the two sections joined on meeting; spinning 
begins at what is to be the posterior end. The ridges are formed by 
the projecting ends of a series of loops spun from side to side, the larva 
backing away as the work progresses. At about two-thirds or three- 
fourths of what is to be the final length of the cocoon, the larva reverses 
its position and commences to spin at the other end of the mat, grad- 
ually enclosing itself and bringing the two sections together. The 
ridges seldom meet exactly and the joint is usually discernible and 
often conspicuous. Within this ridged and somewhat open structure, a 
close-woven inner lining is spun. To complete the entire structure may 



ANNETTE K. BRAUN 1 1 

require an incredibly short time — a few hours, or more often, as much 
as a half day. The proportions of the cocoons of the several species 
may vary from rather broad and stout to elongate and slender ; the 
number of ridges is constant (with some slight variation) for the spe- 
cies. Shape and number of ridges may thus be diagnostic characters 
of a species (Plates VII, VIII, IX). In color, cocoons vary from pure 
white to dark brown. The pale green color of the cocoon of Buccula- 
fn.v flourensiae new species is unique in the genus. 

The ridges of the cocoon are ill-defined in some species or are oc- 
casionally wanting. Cocoons spun by parasitized larvae are often not 
characteristic of the species and may be abnormal in some respect, for 
example, smooth instead of ridged. 

Pupae (figs. 38, 39, 40) with the appendages free from the body 
wall; abdominal segments 3—7 movable in the male, 3—6 in the female; 
the tenth abdominal segment with a projection on each side ending in a 
short strong spine, and a small dorsal tubercle at its anterior margin 
bearing a pair of minute spines ; on dorsal surface of abdominal seg- 
ments 2—7, a row of minute strong spines along the anterior margins ; 
the hind wings usually concealed by the fore wings, but sometimes their 
tips visible ; foreshadowing the genital openings of the imago is the 
single genital opening of the male on the ninth segment (fig. 39) ; and 
the two genital openings of the female on the eighth and ninth segments 
respectively (fig. 40). 

On emergence, the pupa is thrust through the anterior end of the 
cocoon, exposing half or more of its length. The skin splits trans- 
versely between vertex and prothorax and longitudinally along the 
prothorax and mesothorax ( fig. 42a ) . 

The majority of the species have but one generation in a year; 
two, or even three generations occur in some of the oak-feeding species, 
and in some Composite feeders. The winter is passed in the pupal 
state in species of temperate latitudes or more or less humid regions ; it 
is probable that the period of emergence in arid regions is dependent 
on the season of precipitation. Some few species may hibernate in the 
imaginal state. 

The percentage of parasitism is unusually high ; a third or more of 
the larvae of any rearing may prove to be parasitized ; sometimes as 
high as 90 percent of the larvae may be parasitized. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



12 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Wing expanse of the imagoes varies from 4 mm. to 14 or 15 mm. 
in our largest species, members of the gall-forming section of the genus 
(Section I). 

Except in Section I (the gall-formers and stem-borers), character- 
ized by very oblique or longitudinal streaks on a white ground ( Plate 
I, figs. 3, 4, 5, 6), the wing pattern of the imagoes conforms to a gen- 
eral type, which is however often obscured by expansion or contraction 
or obsolescence of marks. This pattern consists of an alternation of 
dark and white (or whitish) oblique bars or streaks from costa ; the 
first of these dark areas from base to about one-third, followed by a 
pale bar, a second dark bar, a second pale bar separated from a whitish 
bar or streak near apex by the darker color or a dusted area ; on the 
dorsal margin, a little distad of the first costal bar, a white or whitish 
area separated from a second whitish area or streak by a darker area 
which (in most species) includes a patch of black or black-tipped 
raised scales, sometimes conspicuous, which is one of the identifying 
characters of the genus. This series of marks may perhaps be most 
clearly recognized in some species of Section IV (Plate II, figs. 15, 16,- 
17, 18). Any one or more of these bands or streaks may be obscured 
or somewhat displaced by dark dusting, or be obsolescent ; for example, 
in a white species, the darker bands are reduced or obsolescent, and the 
wing would then be described as white, with darker or dusted streaks 
(figs. 7, 8, 13, 14) ; in other species, the condition is reversed, and the 
extent of dark marks increased (figs. 11, 17, 18) ; all gradations may 
exist between these various modifications of the general wing pattern 
(figs. 9, 10, 12). A pale median basal streak is sometimes present. 
There is thus an apparent great diversity of wing markings. 

In general, resemblance of wings can not be assumed to indicate 
relationship ; variation within a species may be greater than differences 
between species, and unrelated species may superficially resemble one 
another. For example, Bucculatrix sexnotata Braun and B. callistricha 
new species are both dark brown with silvery marks ; the former is a 
Composite feeder and belongs to Section II, the latter, on Corylus, to 
Section IV, the two unrelated, as evidenced by examination of geni- 
talia. Genitalia must be examined for certain determination except in 
the most distinct species. 



ANNETTE F. BRA IN 13 

Bucculatrix is an isolated genus, without near relationship to any 
existing genus. It has generally been associated with the Lyonetiidae, 
hut is sometimes regarded as constituting a separate family, Buccula- 
trigidae. The median position of the strong cubital vein (lower mar- 
gin of the cell ) in the middle or above the middle of the wing, and the 
tendency for the veins to disappear by obsolescence rather than by 
coalescence are distinctive Lyonetiid characters, and thus ally Buc- 
culatrix to the Lyonetiidae whether or not the genus is regarded as a 
separate family. 

Characters supporting family rank for the genus are the more prim- 
itive pupa with appendages free in contrast with the obtect pupae of the 
reduced genera of the Lyonetiidae, the antennal structure of the male, 
the eversible scale sac of the male abdomen, the characteristic signum 
and the single pair of apophyses of the female, the larval structure and 
habits and the unique cocoon. 

The diversity of genitalic structure and the accompanying special- 
ization, with similar specializations in widely separated geographic 
areas, indicates an ancient genus with a long period of development and 
differentiation. This points to wide distribution in ancient times with 
specializations characterizing the several sections of the genus devel- 
oped before the period of isolation. 

There is no evidence to substantiate any of the proposed theories 
of the phylogenetic origin of Bucculatrix. Various conjectures have 
been made. Meyrick (Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, VII (Se- 
ries 2nd), 1892, p. 601) makes the following statements: " Probably 
a development of the Nematobola group, but no immediate connection 
can be made out. . . . The peculiar larval habits may be compared with 
those of Nematobola " [now assigned to the Yponomeutidae]. The 
larval structure and habits as described for Nematobola candescens 
Meyrick {I.e., p. 593) are very similar to those of Bucculatrix. The 
antennae of the male in Comodica Meyrick (Lyonetiidae) " with deep 
notch immediately above basal joint " (I.e., p. 561) suggests a possible 
relationship to Bucculatrix. Markings of several of the species in- 
cluded in Comodica are similar to those of some species of Bucculatrix. 
Later, Meyrick (1927) derives the Lyonetiidae, including Bucculatrix, 
from the Tineidae as " a specialised development of the Tineidae." 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



14 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Philouome Chambers, stated by Forbes (1923) to be " hardly dis- 
tinct from Bucculatrix " is shown by genitalia, which are Lyonetiid, 
to be unrelated to Bucculatrix. 

Examination of genitalia has disclosed an unusual number of sib- 
ling species. 1 These may be either allopatric or sympatric species. 
Such pairs of species may be characterized by essentially similar geni- 
talia which however differ in the more minute morphological charac- 
ters. Some such pairs, in addition to morphological differences, may 
be separated by differences of habitat requirements. Among the sibling- 
species are Bucculatrix variabilis Braun and B. separabilis new species, 
which feed on the same food plant at the same time ; these had been 
considered varieties of a single species ; genitalia demonstrate their re- 
productive isolation. Bucculatrix arnicella Braun and B. tridenticola 
new species are almost indistinguishable in the imaginal state ; by geni- 
talia they are distinct ; one is a forest species, the other, a species of the 
sagebrush desert. Some pairs of species (as B. evanesceus new species 
and B. benenotata new species) are easily separated by wing marks, 
but the similar and often unique character of the genitalia indicate very 
close relationship. 

In the present treatment of Bucculatrix, the species are grouped 
into eiffht sections : 



■s' 



I. Species 1-16 p 



II. Species 17-64 p. 59 

III. Species 65 p. 126 

IV. Species 66-90 p. 128 

V. Species 91-93 p. 171 

VI. Species 94 p. 175 

VII. Species 95 p. 178 

VIII. Species 96-99 p. 180 

These sections are based primarily on genitalic structure, which is how- 
ever often correlated with food plant groups. 

1 Sibling species are defined as " Pairs or groups of closely related species which 
are reproductively isolated but morphologically identical or nearly so" (Methods and 
Principles of Systematic Zoology, Mayr, Linsley and Usinger, 1953). 



37 



ANNETTE F. BRAIN 15 

A section or subsection or group can not be assumed to be derived 
from another. Each must have originated independently from ances- 
tral stock, although evolutional")- trends may be followed in some sec- 
tions or groups. Highly specialized characters of the genitalia have 
developed in each section, distinct from those of other sections, often 
resulting in great diversity of form within a section. Within each 
section there may be several ramifications, each culminating in species 
with specialized characters. Divergence of structure from the general 
type of the section or group is regarded as a specialization ; the most 
complex (in genitalia structure) are considered to be the most special- 
ized. Thus the degree of specialization determines the sequence of 
species. 



s 2 



Key to the Species of Bucculatrix Based on Coloration and Marking 

1. Ground color of fore wings white, creamy white or pale, i.e., the greater 

area of wing light, the markings formed by spots or streaks of darker 
or dark-tipped scales ; the basic pale ground color sometimes obscured 
by dusting of dark-tipped scales, the wings thus sometimes appearing 

dark 2 

Ground color of fore wings not white ; whitish ocherous, ocherous to dark 
brown or black, or sometimes irrorate. (Included here are species of 
which the general aspect of the ground color is ocherous, although the 
scales may shade from white at base through ocherous to brown or 
fuscous at tips) 60 

2. Ground color clear white or creamy white, often lustrous, with little or no 

dusting except that the scales of the marks may be dark-tipped (if 

dusting present minute and scarcely evident) 3 

Basic ground color white, but often obscured by dusting of dark-tipped 
scales 48 

3. Size usually large (8 to 15 mm. wing expanse) ; wings (of some species) 

almost wholly white or creamy white, markings if any, at least in part 
longitudinal ; mostly gall-formers or stem-borers in larval state .... 4 

2 Because of the similarity of many species, sometimes unrelated, and variation 
within a species, this key, except in the case of species with distinct and well-defined 
markings, can serve only as a partial aid to determination. In variable species there 
are some individuals in which the general color may appear dark even though the 
basic ground color (i.e. bases of scales) is white. Although the aspect of two species 
may be different, the characters are often too intangible to be expressed in a key. 
Genitalic characters are the only certain means of identification. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



16 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Expanse usually less than 8 mm., markings usually consisting of oblique 
costal and dorsal streaks or blotches ; a longitudinal streak may be 
present along the fold; leaf miners and external feeders (as far as 
known) in larval state 20 

4. Elongate ocherous streaks and patches, longitudinal streaks near costa and 

in fold ; no ciliary line 5 

If marked with elongate ocherous streaks, then costal and dorsal marks are 
oblique streaks, rather than patches 6 

5. Fore wings snowy white (17) albaciliella 

Fore wings creamy white ( 18) ochristrigella 

6. Fore wings lustrous creamy white (10) ochritincta 

Ground color of fore wings pure white 7 

7 . Fore wing immaculate except for a few dark scales 8 

Fore wing with longitudinal streaks or lines and/or oblique streaks, scales 

more or less dark-tipped 9 

8. Two lines of dark-tipped scales in the terminal cilia (8) niveella 

No dark lines in cilia ; a few black scales in fold and at end of cell 

(9) parvinotata 

9. A conspicuous median dark streak from base curving to termen beyond 

middle and following termen to apex 10 

Median streak from base if present not as above 11 

10. Dark median streak from base to termen and apex the only longitudinal 

marking (15) bicristata 

Above outer part of median streak, close to and parallel to it, a slender 
longitudinal streak (4) magnella 

11. An oblique streak from before middle of costa 12 

Oblique streak near base, if present, arising below costa 15 

12. A streak of blackish scales in line with the longitudinal axis of the wing 

from termen near apex to tip of apical cilia (3) montana 

Blackish scales on termen and in apical cilia, if present, not in line with 
longitudinal axis of wing 13 

13. Wing marked with two longitudinal lines of black dots and groups of pale 

ocherous brown-tipped scales ; expanse 8 mm. ... (12) micro punctata 
Wing not thus marked 14 

14. Third costal streak oblique, crossing wing to termen, white area beyond 

not attaining termen (2) solidaginiella 

Third costal spot irregular, not reaching termen, white area beyond con- 
spicuous and extending across wing to termen near tornus, its outer 
margin a narrow lustrous bar lying along the black-tipped scales of 
margin of termen (13) innsitata 

15. No defined longitudinal streak, except a faint yellowish shade along fold; 

costal and dorsal spots irregular ; apex of wing white 

(14) seneciensis 



AXXETTE F. BRAUN 17 

Longitudinal streak from base well-defined ; longitudinal streaks also pres- 
ent on disc 16 

16. An oblique longitudinal streak arising below costa at basal third; costal 

streak beyond middle crossing wing to tornus (1) fusicola 

Longitudinal streaks in disc lying along axis of wing 17 

17. Basal streak broken in mid-length by a patch of black scales; a broad 

sometimes ill-defined stripe beyond parallel to termen 18 

Basal streak along fold to two-fifths the wing length 19 

18. A slender long discal streak parallel to basal streak; a line of fuscous 

scales between it and the basal streak; black-tipped scales along ter- 
men continued as a blackish apical hair pencil (5) needhami 

Discal streak broad ; no terminal row of dark-tipped scales ; apex of wing 
white, no dark hair pencil (11) viguierae 

19. Lines of dark-tipped scales along termen approximate and nearly parallel, 

wing lustrous, acute, expanse 12 to 12.5 mm (6) longula 

Lines of dark-tipped scales along termen distant and converging toward 
apex; wing less lustrous, less acute, expanse 9.5 to 10 mm. 

(7) simulans 

20. The white ground color immaculate or nearly so, any dark scales confined 

to apex and cilia 21 

Dark or dark-tipped scales grouped into more or less defined costal and 
dorsal or transverse markings (a faint longitudinal streak may be 
present in fold) 23 

21. Immaculate, no dark dusting (31) immacnlatella 

With at least a few dark or dark-tipped scales 22 

22. Nearly immaculate, or a few pale-tipped scales suggesting position of 

marks some (63 ) enceliae 

A few brownish or black-tipped scales in apex and cilia of termen 

some (25) evanescens 
some (30) staintonella 

23. Fore and hind wings pure white; conspicuously contrasting areas of black 

or blackish scales (62) atrosignata 

Both pairs of wings not white, no large black contrasting areas ; if some 
marks are black, then hind wings not white 24 

24. Some black or black-tipped scales placed singly or grouped to form small 

or minute round or elongate dots ; at least such a dot at end of cell . . 25 

No such defined small black dots on wing ; black-tipped scales if present 

clustered into more diffuse markings 32 

25. Black scales and dots numerous (61) nigripunctella 

Not more than three such groups or dots of black scales, but sometimes a 

few scattered black scales 26 

26. A black discal dot either round or elongate the only such black mark . . 27 
A black discal dot not the only black mark 30 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



18 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

27. Black spot or dot elongate, lying longitudinally 28 

Black spot a mere dot, but usually distinct (64 ) latella 

28. Markings ill-defined, sometimes obsolescent; black discal dot sometimes 

absent (60) sororcida 

Markings well-defined, discal spot on outer margin of oblique mark from 
costa 29 

29. Black spot at middle of oblique clay colored band from middle of costa 

(91) anaticula 
Black spot at apex of broad triangular streak from middle of costa 

(92) disjuncta 

30. Longitudinal faint yellowish streaking only ; scattered black scales 

(25 ) evanescens 
At least some oblique ocherous streaks 31 

31. Black discal dot farther from spot in fold than from black scales at apex 

(53) leptalea 
Black dots equally spaced (57) seorsa 

32. Fore wings lustrous white, ocherous oblique costal and dorsal streaks ; 

three black marks in a series at apex (87) copeuta 

Fore wings not lustrous 33 

33. Dark or dark-tipped scales grouped to form four costal patches, the first 

near base (cf. figs. 7, 13) 34 

Dark scales not thus characteristically grouped 36 

34. Deeply black-tipped scales predominating in the marks 35 

Brown-tipped ocherous scales predominating in the marks 

(98) spliaeralceae 

35. Scales deeply black-tipped, first three costal patches almost black 

(99) thurberiella 
More or less ocherous admixture in the markings (97) gossypiella 

36. A mid-dorsal oval or half-crescent dark mark including a patch of raised 

scales 37 

Dark marks on mid-dorsum if present made up of a more or less irregular 
group of ocherous, dark- or black-tipped scales 38 

37. Dorsal oval well-defined, margined by whitish scales ; ground color shaded 

with pale ashy gray some (47) divisa 

Dorsal mark a half-crescent, not a well-defined oval .... (59) cohinibiana 

38. With at least one longitudinal streak (faint in some species) 39 

Without any longitudinal streaks 47 

39. With several slender longitudinal ocherous or dark dusted streaks 

some (30) staintonella 
Longitudinal streaks short, along costa and/or in fold 40 

40. Lines of darker scales in fold and along costa 41 

Longitudinal streaks from base along costa only (sometimes a luteous 

streak above fold in No. 33) 43 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 19 

41. Basal third of wing above fold immaculate, except for a line of black- 

tipped scales along costa, and contrasting with remainder of wing 

(23) separabilis 
Not as above; basal and apical areas not contrasting 42 

42. Costal marks more or less quadrate (93) ceanothiella 

Costal marks attenuate below costa (58) angustisquamella 

43. Streak along costa diverging from costa before middle and forming an 

oblique streak 44 

Costal streak not diverging to form an oblique streak 46 

44. Second costal streak recurving upward toward apex and enclosing a simi- 

larly curved white streak (33) kimballi 

Second costal streak and its outer margin straight or nearly so 45 

45. Second costal streak prolonged to middle of termen, there meeting a few 

black scales ; eastern some (32) agnclla 

Second costal streak not ending in black scales on termen ; western 

(21) cricameriae 

46. Wings narrow, costal streak sometimes absent (27) floccosa 

Wings broad, costal streak ending in a patch of brown-tipped scales ; eyes 

large (63 ) enceliae 

47. Markings chiefly bright ocherous (19) eurotiella 

Markings formed by clusters of dark-tipped scales (20) tenebricosa 

48. Fore wings so densely dusted with dark brown- or fuscous-tipped scales as 

to obscure the whitish ground color 49 

A considerable area of the white ground color still evident in bases of 
scales or appreciable white areas 51 

49. A well-defined dorsal oval (89) ainsliella 

Dorsal oval if present blending with the general color of the area .... 50 

50. An irrorated dark brown median area lying between the pairs of costal 

and dorsal white streaks some (22) variabilis 

Pale ground color largely obscured by dark-tipped scales, the markings 
blackish, the only white area of the wing a wedge-shaped streak from 
base to one-third (51 ) kocbelella 

51. Basal half of wing paler than outer half 52 

Basal half of wing not or not appreciably paler than outer half ; a few spe- 
cies with wings of general white aspect included here 53 

52. Dorsal oval present, elongate, markings black; a broad patch of black- 

tipped scales on costa curves in middle of wing and extends to termen 

above tornus (56) spectabilis 

Dorsal oval of the usual form ; markings not black, scales brown-tipped 

some (94) pomifoliella 

53. Size minute, expanse 4 to 4.4 mm., an oblique band from two-thirds of 

costa the best defined mark (95) ilecella 

Size not minute 54 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



20 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

54. With four costal dark patches or streaks, the first near base 55 

Costal patches not thus characteristically placed 56 

55. Costal patches becoming indistinct in middle of wing and blending with 

the ground color ; western some (96) quadrigemina 

Costal patches crossing or nearly crossing wing; the third costal the dark- 
est and most conspicuous ; eastern (90) eclecta 

56. Wing scales of two sizes ; wing below fold toward base clothed with very 

small pale gray scales, a few normal black scales may dot this area 

(26) benenotata 
Wing scales all of one kind 57 

57. Beyond middle of costa, a broad patch of black-tipped scales narrows 

abruptly below costa, curves into disc almost to tornus, thence curves 

upward to apex (29) jranseriae 

Not as above 58 

58. Fore wings with slight ocherous tinge, dusted with brownish ocherous 

scales ; groups of closely placed brown-tipped ocherous scales form the 

narrow oblique streaks (24) brunnescens 

General aspect of fore wing white, more or less dusted with dull ocherous 
scales 59 

59. First and second costal streaks blending into the general dusted ground 

color below middle of wing, a black dot in middle of wing at end of 
second costal spot; a sinuate line of black-tipped scales through outer 

third of cilia (52) salutatoria 

First costal streak short, second prolonged to termen, there meeting a few 
black-tipped scales ; a line of dark-tipped scales through middle of 
cilia some (32) agnella 

60. Ground color of fore wing black, faintly tinged with dark brown ; marks 

lustrous silvery or pale golden 61 

Ground color not black ; brown or dark fuscous, or ocherous or whitish, 
with white or silvery or whitish markings ; either with or without a 
dusting of dark-tipped scales 64 

61. A transverse silvery or pale golden fascia at one-fourth . . . (83) fugitans 
No fascia ; costal and dorsal silvery spots 62 

62. A silvery spot or streak at base of wing 63 

No silvery mark at base of wing (88) locuples 

63. Tegulae and a short streak from base below fold silvery; three costal and 

two dorsal silvery spots, and silvery scales around apex 

(84) callistricha 

An oblique silvery spot from base of costa, silvery spots from near middle 

and two-thirds of costa, and two silvery dorsal spots ; silvery scales at 

apex (46 ) sexnotata 

64. With silvery marks 65 

Marks not silvery 71 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 21 

65. Costal and dorsal spots or streaks silvery in male only, raised scales never 

preceded by a silvery spot; cocoon stout, typically dark gray 

(71) trifasciella 
Costal and dorsal spots or streaks silvery in both sexes 66 

66. Ground color of fore wing ocherous, sometimes darkened by dark-tipped 

scales ; three costal and two dorsal pale or silvery spots 67 

Fore wings ocherous or brown, not speckled with dark-tipped scales ; two sil- 
very costal streaks and a transverse silvery streak or arc at apex . . 69 

67. Scales golden brown, each scale tipped with dark brown, wing thus appear- 

ing speckled brown ; hind wings darker than the fore wings 

(82) paroptila 

Fore wings if golden brown, not thus evenly speckled with dark brown, 

hind wings never conspicuously darker than fore wings 68 

68. Silvery spots usually broad and brilliantly lustrous, raised scales preceded 

by a silvery spot ; cocoon stout, brown, similar to that of trifasciella 

(72) quinquenotella 
Silvery spots or streaks narrower, sometimes tending to be obscured ; pale 
spot preceding raised scales not silvery; cocoon slender, pale stra- 
mineous (73) domicola 

69. Basal area of fore wing evenly ocherous to dark margin of first costal 

streak 70 

Brown of basal area of fore wing divided by longitudinal ocherous streaks ; 
a line of overlapping scales from apex to tip of apical cilia 

(43) polymniae 

70. Outer half of fore wing blackish and strongly contrasting with the paler, 

ocherous basal half (45) subnitens 

Outer half of fore wing not strongly contrasting, but wing usually dark- 
ened between the costal streaks (42) eupatoriella 

71. Ground color dark brown or fuscous, usually not or little dusted with darker- 

tipped scales, sometimes irrorate (but usually evenly colored) .... 72 
Ground color of fore wing pale to darker ocherous, sometimes dusted, or 
if whitish ocherous, the ground color obscured by dusting; if brown or 
fuscous, then much dusted or irrorated; the markings whitish or paler 
than the ground color or often delimited by dark-tipped scales of the 
ground color 79 

72. Fore wing irrorated fuscous, two white transverse fasciae . . (37) taeniola 
No transverse fasciae, transverse bands if present, broken or angulate . . 73 

73. A white longitudinal streak from base of wing 74 

No such longitudinal streak 77 

74. Longitudinal streak close to costa and gradually widening 

( 16) cuneigera 
Longitudinal streak becoming median, not widening 75 

75. Median streak extending to three-fifths the wing length . . ( 39 ) angustata 
Median streak short, one-half or less the wing length 76 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



22 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

76. Median streak obsolescent beyond one-fourth the wing length 

(40) ctdelpha 

Median streak distinct nearly to one-half wing length and margined on 

each side by a line of black scales (41) plucheae 

77. Two costal, two dorsal and an apical white spot; wing below fold to first 

dorsal spot grayish ocherous or tawny (44) speciosa 

Three oblique costal, two dorsal and an apical white spot 78 

78. Base of wing white below fold to dorsum (85) eugrapha 

White at base of wing not attaining dorsum (77) canadensisella 

79. No apical ciliary line of dark-tipped scales 80 

Apical ciliary line well denned 83 

80. Wings broad, hind wings one and one-half times as broad as typical 

(69) platyphylla 
Hind wings narrow, typical 81 

81. Fore wings bright reddish ocherous, markings ill-defined, raised scale patch 

large ; expanse 8 mm (70) ochrisuffusa 

Fore wings creamy white to pale ocherous, size very small, 5 to 6 mm. . . 82 

82. No defined marks, minutely brown-tipped scales most numerous in outer 

costal area; no patch of raised scales (36) paUidula 

Wing color shading to pale orange in middle of wing, there forming inner 
margin of a pale streak; raised scales variable, sometimes absent 

(80) luteella 

83. The white basal third and the outer somewhat dusted third contrasting 

sharply with the black median area of fore wing (49) insolita 

Basal third of fore wing not white and not sharply contrasting with the 
median area 84 

84. Fore wing irrorated dark gray, with white or whitish streaks 85 

Fore wing not dark gray ; if dark, then brown 86 

85. Contiguous to black streak in fold, a short basal dash of elongate white 

scales (55) tridenticola 

No such white basal dash (54) arnicella 

86. General aspect of the wing dark, brown or ocherous brown, not densely 

dusted ; if dusted general aspect remaining rather uniform 87 

Scales of ground color whitish ocherous, darker tipped, pale ocherous or 
yellow to dark ocherous, with a greater or less degree of dark tipping ; 
markings paler, white to ocherous or yellowish ; or ground color pale, 
the markings formed by darker or dark-tipped scales 92 

87. Wings suffused with brownish or reddish ocherous, longitudinal and oblique 

markings obliterated some (30) staintoneUa 

At least some pale markings present 88 

88. Before middle of wing, a pair of curved white streaks meeting or nearly 

meeting ; at apical third, a white costal streak meets the apices of a 

pair of white streaks from near tornus some (22) variabilis 

Not as above 89 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 23 

S9. A narrow pale streak from costa to tornus 90 

Whitish diffuse spots on costa and at tornus; a transverse line of black- 
tipped scales across apical cilia ( 54) traiisversata 

90. Costal margin darkened from base to pale streak ; a line of black scales 

along termen (38) carol inac 

Costal margin not darker than ground color or if darker a pale streak 
below it ; no line of black scales along termen 91 

91. A pale costal streak from before middle; dorsal oval conspicuous 

some (47) divisa 
Wing almost uniformly brown some ( 47 ) divisa 

92. Markings paler, white to ocherous or yellowish ; ground color whitish 

ocherous, ocherous to dark ocherous. the scales to a greater or less 
degree darker tipped, this color occupying the greater area of the 

wing 93 

Markings formed by darker streaks of brown-, fuscous- or black-tipped 
scales; ground color whitish or more or less ocherous or reddish 
ocherous in general aspect, and more or less densely dusted, the paler 
color occupying the greater area of the wing 105 

93. Base of fore wing pale, concolorous with the pale markings 94 

Base of fore wing of the general ground color 102 

94. Scales of the fore wing deeply tipped with blackish fuscous, the ground 

color thus appearing irrorated fuscous; pale markings white or whitish 

some (74) zopho pasta 
Ground color not appearing irrorated fuscous 95 

95. Basal half of wing creamy white, lightly dusted, apical half pale golden or 

orange-tinged, scales brown-tipped (66) packardclla 

Basal half of wing not paler than outer half 96 

96. Pale color predominating; darker streaks narrow or obsolescent toward 

dorsum 97 

The greater proportion of the wing occupied by the darker or dusted areas 
separating the pale streaks and spots 98 

97. Marks consisting of oblique streaks more deeply ocherous than the yellow 

ground color, with some scales brown-tipped (86) ccrina 

Dusted streaks obsolescent below costa and shading into the pale ground 
color in dorsal half of wing (75) litigiosella 

98. First costal pale streak or spot narrowly separated from costal margin by 

ground color 99 

First costal pale streak or spot arising on costal margin 100 

99. Ground color uniform orange ocherous or brownish, not darkened behind 

the raised scales (76) coronatella 

Ground color darkened behind the raised scales and between the second 
and third costal streaks (78) im proviso 

MEM. AMES. ENT. SOC, 18. 



24 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

100. Middle of wing occupied by a broad angulated transverse dark band, into 

which projects a pale costal streak, nearer its proximal than its distal 

border (79) polytita 

No such dark transverse band 101 

101. Angulated pale fascia from basal fourth to dorsum produced along middle 

of wing and sometimes meeting the second pale bar ; pale markings 

sometimes obscured by darker dusting some (74) zophopasta 

Pale costal and dorsal marks at one-fourth not produced along middle of 
wing and thus separated from the second pale bar by ocherous often 
dusted ground color (67) alberticlla 

102. Ground color brownish ocherous to brown, usually dark brown below fold, 

considerable dusting of black-tipped scales ; dorsal oval apparent and 

margined with pale scales (48) illecebrosa 

General aspect creamy white to yellow or yellowish, the darker areas more 
or less dusted 103 

103. Fore wings creamy white, whitish ocherous or ocherous, dusted with 

ocherous- or brown-tipped scales, the markings paler 104 

Fore wings yellow or yellowish ; three very oblique parallel costal bars or 
streaks ; each antennal segment shading from buff to dark brown, an 
occasional pale segment near tip of antenna (81) recognita 

104. Four costal dark patches, the first near base, separating the creamy white 

marks near costa, but fading out below the middle of the wing and 

blending with the pale color some (96) quadrigemina 

Dusted areas separating pale marks extending to dorsum, the dusted area 
of basal fourth produced along fold ; antennal segments extremely 
short and annulate with dark brown (68) coni forma 

105. Whitish ground color obscured by the slight to dense dusting of dark- 

tipped scales 106 

Fine dusting not obscuring the pale ground color, except sometimes in dark- 
est specimens ; dark oblique costal, dorsal and longitudinal streaks . . 108 

106. Prevailing ground color a speckled dark grayish brown; head and thorax 

white contrasting with the dark wings ; cocoon pale green 

(28) flourensiae 
Prevailing color reddish ocherous or reddish brown 107 

107. Dorsal oval conspicuous; costal streak beyond middle broad on costa; basal 

half of wing usually paler than outer half . . . some (94) pomifoliclla 
Dorsal oval not defined ; markings produced by very oblique and longitudi- 
nal dark streaks (65) sporobolclla 

108. Oblique costal and dorsal streaks very oblique, a brownish fuscous streak 

in fold from base and above it and parallel, a long white or whitish 

ocherous streak ; eastern coastal (34) ivella 

Costal and dorsal streaks less oblique, whitish basal streak short and nearer 
costa ; widespread (35) ambrosiaefoliella 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 25 

Key to the Species of Bucculatrix Based on Male Genitalia 3 

1. Harpe with definite ventral and dorsal lobes usually distinguished by setal 

differences, or indistinctly bilobed at apex 2 

Harpe without ventral and dorsal lobes, not bilobed at apex, but sometimes 
with a small apical projection or lobe 15 

2. Sternite of eighth abdominal segment with sclerotized plates (see figs. 

235a, 237c. 239c) 3 

Sternite of eighth abdominal segment not thus specialized 5 

3. Sclerotized plate produced into a pair of free arms 4 

Sclerotized plate with merely a low median lobe (98) sphacralceae 

4. Tergite of segment 8 a large flat plate terminating in two black pillars 

(99) thurberiella 
Tergite of segment 8 not specialized (96) quadrigemina 

5. Harpe deeply divided into a long slender dorsal lobe and a broad ventral 

lobe as long as the dorsal lobe 6 

If harpe deeply divided, then dorsal lobe much exceeding ventral lobe . . 7 

6. Ventral lobe clothed with decumbent setae, dorsal lobe setose in outer half 

(95) ilecella 
Outer (ventral) lobe thin and sparsely setose, dorsal lobe with heavy api- 
cal setae (29) franseriae 

7. Ventral lobe of harpe arising near middle or outer third of harpe 8 

Harpe lobed near or at apex 10 

8. Lobes of harpe separated by a broad sinus 9 

Lobes of harpe not thus separated, differentiated by setal armature 

(90) e electa 

9. Apex of dorsal lobe with heavy setae, ventral lobe with short fine setae 

(46) sexnotata 

Dorsal lobe with long setae laterally, ventral lobe with a few very long 

setae (97) gossypiella 

10. Harpe distinctly lobed at apex, the lobes separated by a deep sinus ... 11 
Harpe indistinctly lobed at apex, or with a small inner lobe near apex . . 12 

11. Lobes armed with long strong setae; long free arms of gnathos present 

(13) inusitata 
Lobes armed with short strong setae, gnathos not differentiated 

(40) adelpha 

12. A small inner lobe near apex of harpe (87) copeuta 

No inner lobe, harpe lobed at apex 13 

13. Harpe indistinctly lobed, but parts fused and strongly sclerotized, apex 

dark-pigmented ; vinculum expanded at base into lateral wings 

(94) pomifoliella 
Not as above 14 

3 Omitted from the key : niveella Chambers, ochritincta n. sp., ericameriae n. sp., 
benenotata n. sp., immacitlatclla Chambers, pallidula n. sp., carolinac n. sp., speciosa 
n. sp., subnitens Walsingham, spectabitis n. sp., nigripunctclla Braun, coniforma n. sp., 
platyphylla n. sp., ochrisuffusa n. sp., litigiosella Zeller, ccanothiclta Braun. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



26 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

14. Harpe slender, abruptly widening at apex, where bilobed, each lobe armed 

with strong setae ; socii diverging and tapering to pointed apices 

(42) eupatoriella 

Harpe not abruptly widening at apex, apex rounded, scarcely lobed; socii 

broadly rounded (43) polymniae 

15. Harpes sharply bent inward near apex, the pointed tips dark-pigmented ; 

a median elongate pointed process (gnathos) 16 

Harpes not sharply bent near apex; gnathos not differentiated 17 

16. Socii large, broadly flattened (92) disjuncta 

Socii smaller, incurved (91 ) anaticula 

17. Vinculum a narrow almost thread-like band; anellus with lateral sclero- 

tized rods 18 

Vinculum not thread-like; anellus without lateral sclerotized rods (except 
in No. 85) 29 

18. Apical margin of harpe evenly rounded 19 

Apical margin of harpe with a small pointed projection 24 

19. Harpes very slender, parallel-sided; aedeagus elongate, gradually tapering 

to the acuminate tip (78) improvisa 

Harpes if slender toward base, then not parallel-sided ; aedeagus if acumi- 
nate, not elongate 20 

20. Aedeagus short, stout, abruptly contracting and bent dorsad to the acute 

tip 21 

Aedeagus longer, and tapering to acute tip 22 

21. Harpes and socii with long setae (67) albertiella 

Harpes and socii with short setae (66) Packard ella 

22. Vinculum curving posteriorly midventrally ; harpes very broad 

(79) polytita 
Vinculum evenly convex or but slightly curving midventrally 23 

23. Aedeagus widest beyond middle, thence tapering to acute tip ; harpe with 

long setae (82) paroptila 

Aedeagus abruptly tapering near tip ; most of setae of harpe short 

(83) fugitans 

24. Pointed apical projection of harpe evident 25 

Apical margin of harpe merely indistinctly angled by a slight projection 

(84) call is trie ha 

25. Aedeagus with conspicuous rounded bulges before the abruptly acute tip; 

socii widely separated ( 71 ) trifasciella 

Aedeagus not or very slightly bulging before the acute tip 26 

26. Aedeagus very slightly bulging before the acuminate tip; an elongate patch 

of minute cornuti (72) quinquenotclla 

Aedeagus not bulging before the acute tip ; cornuti absent 27 

27. Aedeagus abruptly curving dorsad near tip and tapering to the acute tip; 

tegumen sclerotized in a narrow band between socii . . (74) sopho pasta 
Aedeagus not abruptly curving dorsad ; tegumen not as above 28 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 27 

28. Aedeagus gradually tapering to the elongate acuminate tip .. (73) domicola 
Aedeagus abruptly tapering, not long acuminate before tip 

(76) coronatclla, (77) canadensisella 

29. Anellus with strongly sclerotized lateral arms; a ventral bilobed membra- 

nous flap before apex of aedeagus (85) eugrapha 

Anellus witbout sclerotized lateral arms; no such membranous flap of aede- 
agus 30 

30. Lateral margins of tegumen modified 31 

Lateral margins of tegumen not modified 35 

31. Tegumen expanding laterally into large broad wings . . (65) sporobolella 
Lateral margins of tegumen not produced into broad wings 32 

32. On margin of tegumen below each socius. a sharp curved hook 

(34) ivella 
Xo sharp curved hooks on tegumen 33 

33. Socii decurrent on tegumen, thus appearing pendulous and directed ven- 

trally, posteriorly along margin of tegumen narrow transversely fur- 
rowed rods; transtilla present (35) ambrosiacfoliella 

Socii erect ; transtilla absent 34 

34. Tegumen below socii swollen, forming two setose lobes . . (55) tridenticola 
Tegumen incurved, forming two elongate lobes simulating arms of gnathos 

(11) viguierae 

35. Anellus in general cone-shaped, broad, or broad at base or slender through- 

out, or rarely cylindric 38 

Anellus if present not as above 36 

36. Anellus a sclerotized ring, aedeagus long and acuminate ... (80) Uiteella 
Anellus absent, or not differentiated 37 

37. No definitive anellus, but the membrane minutely setose ; aedeagus stout, 

aperture margined by toothed flaps (81 ) recognita 

Anellus absent, aedeagus narrow cylindric, enlarging to a bulbous base 

(89) ainsliella 

38. Aperture of aedeagus elongate, emitting a long slender spine from its 

proximal angle ( 88 ) locuples 

No spine from aperture of aedeagus 39 

39. Harpe broad basally, with heavy setae, abruptly contracting at middle and 

thence slender and parallel-sided (86 ) cerina 

Harpe if slender toward apex not abruptly contracting at middle ( harpe 
may be slender throughout ) 40 

40. Aedeagus appearing as if jointed, with a slender apical section 41 

Aedeagus not appearing jointed 45 

41. Slender apical section of aedeagus arising from a depression in the wider 

basal section 42 

Apical section of aedeagus arising from the convex end of the wider basal 
section ( 52 ) sahttatoria 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



28 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

42. Socii elongate, three times as long as wide 43 

Socii shorter and broader, not over twice as long as broad 44 

43. Socii widely separated, diverging (20) teiicbricosa 

Socii widely separated, curving toward midline (22) variabilis 

44. Tegumen between socii produced as a rounded lobe (19) eiirotiella 

Tegumen not produced between socii (23) separabilis 

45. Vinculum produced anteriorly into a long slender rod . . (30) staintonella 
Vinculum not thus produced 46 

46. Harpe cylindric, terminating in a nearly circular flat setose area 

(15) bicristata 
Harpe not as above 47 

47. Harpe at apex with a convex dorsal surface clothed with strong dark setae, 

a concave ventral surface with fine long setae (41) seneciensis 

Harpe not conspicuously modified or specialized 48 

48. Socii very small, widely separated; aedeagus forked at tip, with opposing 

teeth (25 ) evanescens 

Socii variable in size, but never very small 49 

49. Socii with short setae at apex, long decumbent setae below apex 

(37) taeniola 
Setae of socii not of two kinds 50 

50. Socii long, densely clothed with long fine setae 51 

Socii if long, not thus clothed 52 

51. Aedeagus long, gradually tapering to slender apex (6) longula 

Aedeagus short, wide-mouthed (7) simulans 

52. Aedeagus straight or nearly so, gradually and evenly narrowing to tip, or 

gently curving from base to tip 53 

Aedeagus sinuate, or abruptly narrowing, or curled or bent near tip . . 70 

53. Uncus present, erect, elongate tongue-shaped, densely setose 

(28) flourensiac 
Uncus absent 54 

54. Tegumen very short, hence sinus between socii deep, socii elongate ... 55 
If sinus between socii deep, tegumen not short 56 

55. Socii columnar, tegumen merely a narrow sclerotized band uniting their 

bases ( 41 ) plucheae 

Socii, two long curved connivent arms (12) micro punctata 

56. Socii elongate, parallel, decurrent on tegumen ; costa of harpe concave be- 

fore the sharp-pointed apex ( 39 ) angustata 

Socii if very long then diverging ; if arising low on tegumen not decur- 
rent; apex of harpe not sharp-pointed 57 

57. Apical area of harpe with short conical specialized setae 58 

Apical area of harpe with normal setae, setae if heavy not conical .... 65 

58. Aperture of aedeagus with opposing teeth 59 

Aperture of aedeagus without opposing teeth 60 

59. Socii slender, setae moderately long ( 1 ) fusicola 

Socii broader, setae shorter, subscaphium differentiated ... (5) needhami 



ANNETTE F. BRAl'N 29 

60. Aedeagus elongate, tapering to slender tip 61 

Aedeagus shorter, tip not slender 64 

61. Harpes smaller than the socii, swollen at hase, slender in outer half 

(3) montana 
Harpes large, but little tapering toward apex 62 

62. Socii very long, diverging, slender but enlarging toward tip 

(2) solidaginiella 
Socii long, diverging, but less slender and not enlarging toward tip ... 63 

63. Socii setose over entire surface (4) magnolia 

Socii setose mostly at tip ( 16 ) cuneigera 

64. Harpes almost cylindric, socii very long, diverging, enlarging at apex 

(62) atrosignata 
Harpes broad, flattened, socii not unusually long (9) parvinotata 

65. Harpe broad, apical margin evenly rounded, costa margined for two-thirds 

its length by short strong setae ; two rows of acute teeth near aperture 

of aedeagus (63) enceliae 

Not with the above combination of characters 66 

66. Harpes cylindric, curved, their tips meeting in median line . . (64) latella 
Not as above 67 

67. Harpe short and broad, nearly parallel-sided, apical margin weakly emar- 

ginate or concave 68 

Harpe not short and broad, narrowing at apex 69 

68. Apical margin of harpe weakly emarginate ; socii rounded ; aedeagus with 

teeth at aperture (32) agnella 

Apical margin of harpe indistinctly concave, socii truncate at apex; minute 
teeth at aperture of aedeagus (33) kimballi 

69. Socii short, broad; anellus conical, contracting above middle; entrance of 

penis elongate ( 17 ) albaciliclla 

Socii longer, more slender ; anellus slender, almost cylindric ; entrance of 
penis not elongate (18). ochristrigella 

70. Harpe inwardly concave and furrowed, the margin of furrow joining costa 

near apex, the broad apex produced and bent toward the median 

line 71 

Harpe not as above 72 

71. Apex of harpe with several rows of conical setae; below socius a narrow 

erect setose lobe arising near margin of tegumen .... (60) sororcula 

A few conical setae at apex of harpe, and a row of such setae along upper 

margin (59) colunibiana 

72. Aedeagus stout, sinuate before apex, cornutus present; vinculum asym- 

metric (24) brunnescens 

Aedeagus elongate, slender in outer half ; vinculum symmetric 73 

73. Socii broad, widely separated, each bearing on its ventral surface a narrow 

elongate lobe, setose along its free margin (53) leptalea 

Socii without such lobes 74 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



30 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

74. Harpe with a distinct apical lobe delimiting cucullus 75 

Area of cucullus appearing merely as a narrowing of apex of harpe . . . 77 

75. Uncus present, a small sharp hook ; cucullus a short abrupt lobe 76 

Uncus absent, cucullus a slender less abrupt lobe (51) koebelella 

76. Aedeagus wide in basal half, thence abruptly and irregularly narrowing to 

the slender curved apex; basal sclerotization of tegumen with free 

arms (27) floccosa 

Aedeagus, beyond wide basal half, abruptly slender to the curved apex 

(57) seorsa 

77. Uncus present, a slender setose hook ; tegumen broad, parallel-sided 

(58) angustisquamella 
Uncus absent 78 

78. Tegumen bulging before socii, then narrowing to socii 79 

Tegumen narrower, socii wider than tegumen before them 80 

79. Socii small, margin of tegumen incurved at their bases (47) divisa 

Socii larger, margin of tegumen evenly sloping to their bases 

(49) insolita 

80. Subscaphium a dorso-ventral plate (48) illecebrosa 

Subscaphium a spinulose strip 81 

81. Tips of socii curved ventrad (50) transversata 

Socii curving toward midline (54) amicella 

Key to the Species of Bucculatrix Based on Female Genitalia 4 

A. Ovipositor of the normal lepidopterous form — two soft setose lobes (species 
1-46, 65-99). 

1. No specialized scales or scale tufts or patches on segment 8 or interseg- 

mental membrane 2 

Specialized scales, scale tufts or patches of specialized scales on segment 8, 
or on segment 8 and intersegmental membrane, or on segment 7 . . 21 

2. No modification or lobing of lateral posterior margins of segments 7 

or 8 3 

Lateral posterior margins of segments 7 or 8 or both with acute projec- 
tions ; anterior apophyses present 20 

3. Without specialization in the region of the ostium ; modifications if present 

merely sclerotizations of membrane of ductus bursae or ostium .... 4 
Curved processes from lateral margins of ostium 19 

4. Ductus bursae scarcely widening before ostium, without sclerotization, 

only the margins of ostium sclerotized 5 

Ductus bursae widening before ostium, sclerotized before ostium, or with 
lateral sclerotized bands ; or a broad sclerotized depression posterior 
to ostium 12 

4 Omitted from the key : niveella Chambers, parvinotata n. sp., micro punctata 
n. sp., bicristata n. sp., briinnescens n. sp., immaculatella Chambers, transversata Braun, 
litigiosella Zeller, eugrapha n. sp., cerina n. sp., disjuncta n. sp. 



ANNETTE V. HRAUN 31 

5. Ostium at posterior margin of sclerotized basal half of segment 8 

(97) gossypiella 

Ostium at or near anterior margin of segment 8, or in intersegmental 

membrane 6 

6. Ostium widely flaring, broad saucer-shaped; depression spinulose 

(41) plucheae 
Ostium not widely flaring 7 

7. Dorsal margin of ostium produced posteriorly 8 

Dorsal margin of ostium not produced posteriorly ; lateral margins may be 

produced posteriorly 9 

8. Dorsal posterior margin of ostium indistinctly lobed (3) montana 

Dorsal posterior margin of ostium not lobed; dorsal membrane spinulose 

(2) solidaginidla 

9. Lateral margins of ostium somewhat produced (13) inusitata 

Lateral margins of ostium not produced ; ostium margin circular or nearly 

circular 10 

10. Regular spining of signum ribs interrupted at intervals by groups of large 

spines (11) viguierae 

Spines of ribs of signum of nearly even size 11 

11. Ductus bursae forked in segment 7 (16) cuneigera 

Ductus bursae not forked (1) fusicola 

12. Ductus bursae expanded and parallel-sided before ostium; signum ribs ex- 

tending posteriorly into ductus bursae for one-third its length 

(95) ilecella 
Not as above ; signum wholly within bursa copulatrix 13 

13. Ductus bursae with sclerotized ventral plate at or before ostium 14 

Ostium opening into a broad, dorsally sclerotized depression ; signum leaf- 
shaped, composed of radiating ribs (40) adelpha 

14. Sclerotized plate of ductus bursae relatively short, ostium thus appearing 

saucer-shaped, cup-shaped or goblet-shaped 15 

Sclerotized plate of ductus bursae not as above ; elongate, broad, or pos- 
teriorly produced 17 

15. Ostium saucer-shaped (4) magnella 

Ostium goblet-shaped or cup-shaped 16 

16. Ostium goblet-shaped (5) needhami 

Ostium cup-shaped (6) longida, (7) simulans 

17. Ventral margin of ductus bursae produced posteriorly to an acute angle 

(94) pomifoliella 
Ventral margin of ductus bursae not produced 18 

18. Ductus bursae abruptly enlarged and broad in segment 7, anteriorly den- 

tate (33) kimballi 

Ductus bursae sclerotized through segment 7, gradually widening to 
ostium (32) agnella 

19. Curved processes short; ductus bursae not sclerotized before ostium 

(42) eupatoriella 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



32 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Curved processes branching toward apex; ductus bursae sclerotized before 
ostium; tergite of segment 8 specialized (38) carolinae 

20. Lateral posterior margins of segments 7 and 8 sharply projecting; signum 

ribs radiating from median ventral area (91 ) anaticula 

Lateral posterior margins of segment 8 less sharply projecting; signum 
ribs diverging obliquely from median ventral line . . (93) ceanothiella 

21. Ostium at the posterior margin of the sclerotized basal half of seg- 

ment 8 22 

Ostium near middle of or near anterior margin of segment 8, or in inter- 
segmental membrane 24 

22. Anterior apophyses present, well developed 23 

Anterior apophyses represented by curved processes ; two setae on a dorso- 
lateral sclerotized surface near anterior margin of membranous section 
of segment 8 (99) thurberiella 

23. Tergite of segment 8 with two anteriorly projecting lobes, and two tufts of 

hair-like scales (96) quadrigemina 

Ductus bursae expanding before ostium to nearly the width of the seg- 
ment ; lateral groups of setae at base of membranous posterior section 
of segment 8 (98) sphaeralceae 

24. Lateral clusters of specialized scales on segment 8 the only such speciali- 

zation 25 

Clusters of specialized scales if present on segment 8 not the only speciali- 
zation ; specializations may include specialized scales on segment 8, on 
intersegmental membrane, on segment 7, and membranous flaps ... 31 

25. Ductus bursae without sclerotization, margin of ostium only sclerotized . 26 
Ductus bursae sclerotized to form cup-shaped ostium, or sclerotized in seg- 
ment 7 28 

26. Lateral clusters of scales directed midventrally (14) seneciensis 

Lateral clusters directed posteriorly, either hair-like or short 27 

27. Bursa copulatrix very small, signum ribs very slender, with fine short spines 

and borne on a slightly sclerotized rugose surface .... (36) pallidula 
Bursa copulatrix not very small ; signum ribs strong, spines heavy 

(10) ochritincta 

28. Ductus bursae sclerotized at ostium and flaring cup-shaped 29 

Ductus bursae sclerotized in segment 7, not flaring 30 

29. Lateral specialized scales short and margining sclerotized segment 8 

(17) albaciliclla 
Lateral scales hair-like in a dense median tuft (18) ochristrigella 

30. Lateral hair-scale clusters borne on rounded lobes of segment 8 

(34) ivella 
Lateral scale clusters borne on elongate wings of lateral margins of seg- 
ment 8 (29) jranseriae 

31. Posterior lateral margins of segment 7 produced laterally or posteriorly 

into specialized lobes 32 



ANNETTE 1". BRAUN 33 

Posterior lateral margins of segment 7 not modified (slight lobes in No. 
35) 35 

32. Lobes of segment 7 Mat plates, margined with short comb-like scales; 

ostium in a large deep chamber (22) ■z'ariabilis 

Lobes of segment 7 not flat plates 33 

33. Lobes rounded, clothed with short narrowly club-shaped scales ; ostium in 

a deep chamber, one-half as deep as No. 22 {23) separabilis 

Lobes rounded, margined with slender hair-like scales, and overlying a tuft 
of specialized scales on intersegmental membrane; ostium in a furrow 
with strongly sclerotized sides 34 

34. Signum ring longitudinally placed (19) eurotiella 

Signum ring transversely placed (20) tcncbricosa 

35. Near posterior margin of segment 8, a pair of membranous lobes, clothed 

with flattened wing-like setae (21 ) ericameriae 

No such lobes of segment 8 36 

36. Lateral to ostium, a pair of internal curved sclerotized processes 

(30) staintonella 
No such internal processes 37 

37. Free pigmented flaps arising lateral to ostium 38 

No such free flaps of segment 8 39 

38. Free flaps tapering to slender base ; dense patches of dark-pigmented scales 

lateral to ostium on intersegmental membrane .... (65) sporobolclla 
Free flaps semicircular ; no dense patches of scales on intersegmental mem- 
brane ( 35 ) ambrosiaefoliella 

39. Lateral tufts of slender elongate scales on intersegmental membrane and 

on segment 8; signum leaf-shaped, composed of radiating ribs 

( 39 ) angustata 
Not as above 40 

40. Specialized scales margining sclerotized dorsal and ventral bands of the 

basal area of segment 8 (28) flourensiae 

No such sclerotized bands on segment 8 41 

41. Segment 8 ventrally clothed and margined with clusters of specialized 

scales 42 

Segment 8 not clothed with clusters of specialized scales ; specialized scales 
if present on segment 8 in defined groups 43 

42. A pair of arcs of dark-pigmented small scales, curving outward and pos- 

teriorly from mid-anterior margin of segment 8 . . . . (26) benenotata 
No such dark-pigmented arcs ( 25 ) evanescens 

43. On each side of ostium on segment 8, a large patch of minute specialized 

scales, with strongly sclerotized margin toward midventral line 

(27) floccosa 
Specialized scales if present on sternite of 8 not thus margined 44 

44. Near each lateral margin of intersegmental membrane, a dense patch of 

minute dark scales in a more or less depressed pocket 45 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



34 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Patches of minute specialized scales if present on the intersegmental mem- 
brane not in lateral depressed pockets 49 

45. Ostium in a shallow sinus, margined by a strongly sclerotized horseshoe- 

shaped structure (46) sexnotata 

No such horseshoe-shaped structure 46 

46. Ostium in a large nearly circular depression in segment 8 . . (44) speciosa 
No such large circular depression 47 

47. Ductus bursae opening into a broad heart-shaped depression 

(45) subiiitens 
No such heart-shaped depression, ostium circular 48 

48. Ventral posterior margin of segment 7 with lateral pointed projections; 

ductus bursae forked in segment 7 (43) polymniae 

Lateral margins of ostium produced into truncated flanges . . (37) taeniola 

49. Ductus bursae several times the length of the body and coiled, and except 

in its posterior third, armed with rows of teeth ; on anterior dorsal 
margin of segment 8, a mass of small specialized scales 

(89) ainsliella 

Ductus bursae short; segment 7 and intersegmental membrane overlying 

basal half of segment 8 50 

50. Clusters, lines or masses of minute specialized scales attached at the ante- 

rior dorsal margin of segment 8 (litigiosella will fall under this head- 
ing) 51 

Without such groups of specialized scales 63 

51. On each side of ostium on sternite of segment 8, a tuft of pigmented spe- 

cialized scales 52 

No tufts of specialized scales attached to sternite of segment 8 on each side 
of ostium 58 

52. Specialized scale patches on intersegmental membrane ventral to ostium . 53 
No specialized scale patches on intersegmental membrane ventral to ostium 

(78) improvisa 

53. Specialized scales on the intersegmental membrane forming an arch or a 

broad arc 54 

Specialized scales on the intersegmental membrane in two tufts 56 

54. Specialized scales forming a semicircular arch 55 

Specialized scales forming an arc, scales short (72) quinquenotella 

55. Scales of arch long, projecting beyond margin of segment 7; scales of tufts 

of sternite of 8 all alike (71 ) trifasciella 

Scales of arch shorter, scarcely projecting; scales of tufts of sternite of 
8 of two kinds (79) polytita 

56. Tufts on intersegmental membrane dense, connected by less closely placed 

scales (76 ) coronatella 

Tufts not connected 57 

57. Tufts large, lateral to ostium {77) canadensisella 

Tufts small, placed midventrally (70) ochrisuffusa 



ANNETTE I". BRAUN 35 

58. A dense median tuft of specialized scales on intersegmental mem- 

brane 59 

No median tuft of specialized scales on intersegmental membrane : special- 
ized scales forming an arch or an arc 60 

59. Near posterior ventral margin of segment 7 on intersegmental membrane 

an arc of specialized scales ; a mass of minute scales at anterior mar- 
gin of tergite of segment 8 (73 ) domicola 

No such arc of specialized scales on intersegmental membrane; on ante- 
terior margin of tergite of segment 8, a short group of specialized 
scales, and anterior to it, on intersegmental membrane, a mass of small 
scales (74) copliopasta 

60. Specialized scales on intersegmental membrane forming an acute arch . . 61 
Specialized scales on intersegmental membrane forming an arc 62 

61. Specialized scales of the anterior dorsal margin of segment 8 cvlindric, 

tapering to a conical apex ; fringing scales of segment 7 of several 

sizes (68) coniforma 

Specialized scales of dorsal margin of segment 8 not as above; bursa 
copulatrix bilobed, the posterior lobe receiving the ductus seminalis 

(69) platyphylla 

62. Arc of specialized scales long; apophyses long (84) callistricha 

Arc of specialized scales shorter; apophyses short (83) jugitans 

63. Sternite of segment 7 strongly sclerotized and transversely wrinkled 

(90) eel acta 
Sternite of segment 7 not transversely wrinkled 64 

64. Long specialized scales fringing the posterior margins of segment 7 the 

only specialized scales 65 

Specialized scale patches present on intersegmental membrane 66 

65. A free pouch-like invagination of membrane within ventral margin of 

ostium (88) locitples 

No pouch-like invagination, margin of ostium and ductus bursae immedi- 
ately before ostium armed with teeth (81 ) recognita 

66. Specialized scales forming an arch or an arc on intersegmental membrane 

ventral to ostium 67 

Specialized scales grouped into two small tufts ; ostium with pouch-like 
lateral expansions (80) htteella 

67. Arch acute, dark-pigmented and conspicuous ; ductus bursae dentate 

(66) packardclla 
An arc or a low rounded arch on intersegmental membrane 68 

68. A dentate sclerotized band near middle of ductus bursae . . (67) albertiella 
No such dentate band on ductus bursae 69 

69. An arch, broad at ends, with several rows of scales (87) copeuta 

An arc of short broad specialized scales (82) paroptila 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



36 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

B. Segment 9 of abdomen modified ; ovipositor modified, inner margins of lobes 
developed into rasping or cutting rods (species 47-64). 

1. With a lateral depressed pocket of minute specialized scales on interseg- 

mental membrane near anterior margin of segment 8 2 

Without such a depressed pocket of minute specialized scales 5 

2. With a narrow raised plate near each lateral margin of sternite of seg- 

ment 8 (57) seorsa 

Without such a raised plate 3 

3. With lateral fan-shaped tufts of specialized scales on segment 8 or at mar- 

gin of intersegmental membrane 4 

Without such fan-shaped tufts ; lateral ventral surface of segment 8 finely 
reticulate (58) angustisquamella 

4. Fan-shaped tufts near anterior margin of segment 8 . . . . (55) tridenticola 
Fan-shaped tufts near posterior margin of segment 8 . . . . (56) spcctabilis 

5. Sclerotized section of ductus bursae bending to the right 6 

Sclerotized section of ductus bursae not bending to the right, but lying in 

median line 13 

6. On each side of ostium, the inner margin of a rounded depressed area rises 

to form a narrow erect plate 7 

Without such an erect plate 8 

7. Ostium and sclerotized section of ductus bursae abruptly wide 

(52) sahitatoria 
Ostium and sclerotized section of ductus bursae not abruptly widening 

(51) koebelella 

8. Ductus bursae opening into a deep broad depression with pointed flaring 

lateral margins (59) columbiana, (60) sororcula 

Not as above 9 

9. Ostium in a more or less funnel-shaped depression, with lateral obliquely 

flaring bands, sculptured or reticulate 10 

Ostium not in a funnel-shaped depression; lateral bands transverse; a pair 
of circular spinulose areas on tergite of segment 8 . . . . (53) leptalea 

10. Lateral bands sharply defined and parallel-sided; fan-shaped tufts of scales 

laterally on segment 8 11 

Lateral bands not well defined 12 

11. Sclerotized section of ductus bursae extending into segment 6 

(48) illecebrosa 
Sclerotized section of ductus bursae short, not extending anterior to seg- 
ment 7 (49) insolita 

12. A fan-shaped group of slender specialized scales near each lateral posterior 

margin of intersegmental membrane (54) amicella 

Without such tufts of specialized scales (47) divisa 

13. Tips of ovipositor lobes prolonged into strongly sclerotized cutting points; 

segment 8 with latero-ventral scale tufts and lateral margining hair- 
scales (64) latella 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 37 

Inner margins of ovipositor lobes modified into rasping rods (typical of 
the subsection) 14 

14. Posterior apophyses heavy, clavate, appearing as anterior prolongations of 

the sclerotized segment 9 15 

Posterior apophyses long and slender ; on segment 8, lateral patches of spe- 
cialized scales and midventrally a pair of reticulate patches 

(61) nigripunctella 

15. Segment 9 partially dark-pigmented ; anterior lateral margins of segment 8 

produced; a pair of midventral scale tufts and lateral to these a second 

pair ( 63 ) enceliae 

Segment 9 not dark-pigmented ; no such elaborate scale tufts 

(62) atrosignata 

Section I 
Species 1 to 16 

In this section are included a number of species whose larvae, in-so- 
far as the life histories are known, are gall-formers or stem borers, 
feeding on various species of Compositae with the possible exception of 
inusitata new species, which is reported as " bred from Juniperus com- 
munis" (Brower). All are comparatively large species, the ground 
color of the fore wing (except in cuneigera) white or nearly white; the 
markings, if any, at least in part longitudinal. The largest species of 
the genus belong in this section, in wing expanse measuring up to 15 
mm. Venation appears to be less stabilized than in the typical mem- 
bers of the genus. Figures 28, 29, 30, 30a illustrate variation within 
a species in this section. 

Except in the most specialized species of the section, the genitalia 
are closely similar, but with slight and constant differences. The male 
genitalia are characterized by the (usually) broad harpes, their apices 
bearing heavy setae, often modified into short blunt cones, or long 
strong setae ; socii usually arising low on the tegumen, often long and 
tending to diverge widely ; aedeagus short cylindric or attenuated to- 
ward apex, often bearing opposing teeth at apex. The female genitalia 
are of a simple type, without specialization in the region of the ostium; 
rarely groups of specialized scales may be present on sternite of seg- 
ment 8. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



38 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

(1) Bucculatrix fusicola Braun (Figs. 3, 41, 58, 58a, 58b, 59, 59a.) 

1920. Bucculatrix fusicola Braun, Ent. News XXXI: 76. Type ?, Cincinnati, 
Ohio [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Head white, middle of tuft sometimes with a faint ocherous tinge ; antennae 
white, shading to pale fuscous toward the tips. Thorax and fore wings white, 
the wing (fig. 3) marked with ocherous streaks, which are sometimes slightly 
dusted with brown; a median streak from base, sometimes faint, extends nearly 
to the middle of the wing; a second streak lying below costa and arising at 
about basal third, is obliquely placed and curves slightly dorsad ending beyond 
the tip of the basal streak; just beyond middle of costa, a straight oblique streak 
from costa crossing the wing and meeting on the termen the end of a line of 
black scales which extends along termen to apex but does not extend outward 
through the cilia ; beyond this streak an oblique patch of slightly brownish- 
dusted ocherous scales, its inner edge parallel to the preceding costal streak ; a 
faint and somewhat irregular curved streak from mid-dorsum is marked on the 
fold by a few black scales ; a line of black scales in the cilia from tornus to apex 
is slightly convex outwardly and meets the tip of the terminal row of black 
scales at apex. Cilia white, below apex faintly tinged with ocherous. Hind 
wings and cilia brownish ocherous. Legs white, tips of tarsal segments spotted 
with black. Abdomen whitish, shaded with fuscous. 

Alar expanse 12 to 12.5 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 58, 58a, 58b). Harpes broadly rounded, apical half 
setose, setae ranging from heavy short blunt conical at apical margin to longer 
and more pointed, and finally to slender hairs proximad; socii slender elongate, 
setae moderately long; aedeagus short, straight, with two pairs of opposing teeth 
at apex ; scale sac present. 

Female genitalia (figs. 59, 59a). Ostium circular, ductus bursae immedi- 
ately before ostium minutely spinulose ; signum a narrow oblique ring ; spines of 
signum ribs short and curved. 

Specimens examined. — 3 5,69. 

Ohio: Cincinnati, 2 type, May 24, 1919, rearing record B.1014; 1 $ para- 
type, June 16, 1906; 2 <J, 4 2, rearing record B.1014, with dates of emergence 
from June 5 to June 22, 1920; 1 2, June 30, 1934 [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

The larvae form slender spindle-shaped galls (fig. 41) on stems of 
Helianthus trachelifolius Mill, usually toward the upper part of the 
stem. Galls vary in length and diameter from 2 cm. in length with a 
diameter of .5 cm. to 4 or 5 cm. in length with a correspondingly lesser 
diameter. Feeding is completed in the latter half of September, the 
larva hibernating in the gall through the winter, escaping in the spring 
through a minute circular aperture. The cocoon is blackish fuscous, 



ANNETTE V. BRA IN 39 

with five or six sharp ridges which stand out as pale lines; the smooth 
cocoon described for the type is abnormal. 

This species is separated from its allies by the longitudinal ocherous 
streak below costa, which nowhere touches costa, and the configuration 
of the lines of black scales along termen. 

The reared specimens and the two flown specimens listed above are 
the only representatives of this species I have seen. Most of the cap- 
tured specimens referred to this species in the original description be- 
long to the following species, solidagiiiiella, new species. The speci- 
mens identified by Breland and Schmitt in their paper on the " Biology 
of Two Sunflower Gall Makers" (Ent. News, LIX, pp. 225-234, 
1948) as B. fusicola Braun are examples of B. simulans, new species, 
and are included in the type series of that species. The galls figured by 
these authors do not resemble those of B. fusicola. 

(2) Bucculatrix solidaginiella new species 

(Figs. 1. 2, 30, 30a, 62, 62a, 63, 63a, 63b.) 

Head white, antennae white, shading- outwardly to pale fuscous in darker- 
marked specimens. Thorax and fore wings white, the wings marked with pale 
ocherous to brownish ocherous streaks ; a median streak from base to beyond 
one-third, usually broadening outwardly, but often faint or nearly absent; from 
basal third of costa an oblique streak, which may meet a second costal streak, 
slightly less oblique, which passes across the wing to a group of dark-tipped 
scales (rarely wanting) on termen; a third costal streak, less oblique than the 
second, crosses the wing to termen ; from middle of termen, a line of dark-tipped 
scales extends to apex, and is continued as a brown hair pencil to the tips of 
the apical cilia, contrasting with the white costal cilia; cilia below apex brown- 
ish ocherous, with a line of dark scales which meets the apical brown pencil at 
about its middle; just within the dorsal margin and near its middle, rarely 
touching the margin, an ocherous streak, lying mostly in the fold and sometimes 
attaining the second costal streak near termen, is marked on the fold by a few 
black scales, absent in pale specimens. Hind wings and cilia brownish ocherous, 
slightly darker in the male. Legs, including tarsal segments, wholly whitish. 
Abdomen whitish. 

Alar expanse 11 to 12.5 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 62, 62a). Apical costal area of harpe with heavy blunt 
conical setae (fig. 62a) ; socii diverging, very long, slender, enlarged distally, 
arising remote from tip of tegumen ; a slight sclerotization ventral to the ali- 
mentary canal suggests a rudimentary subscaphium ; aedeagus straight, slender 
and tapering to tip. Scale sac present. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



40 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Female genitalia (figs. 63, 63a, 63b). Anterior ventral margin of ostium 
sclerotized, lateral margins produced posteriorly and converging, the area thus 
enclosed microscopically spinulose ; ductus bursae expanding before ostium ; sig- 
num a broad ring, somewhat narrower dorsally, near posterior end of bursa and 
slightly constricting it ; ribs regularly or irregularly spined, spines short. 

Type. — $, C. Mo. (probably near St. Louis), on Solid ago, 6/7, 85 (Miss 
Murtfeldt) and bearing the number 244 [U.S.N.M., Type No. 65013]. 

Allotype. — 2, same data as the type, except date of emergence 6/10, 85 
[U.S.N.M.]. 

Paratypes. — 36 $ , 36 2 , distributed as follows : 1 2 , same data as the type 
[U.S.N.M.]; 2 $, 2 2, Missouri, labeled "on Solidago," June 6-9 (Murtfeldt 
Coll.) [Cornell U.] ; 1 $ , Putnam Co., 111., June 25, 1950, " reared ex larva on 
Solidago" (M. O. Glenn) [U.S.N.M.] ; 1 $, Decatur, 111., June 17 [U.S.N.M.]; 
8 S, 6 2, Cincinnati, Ohio, June 17 to July 8 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.] ; 

1 $ , 1 2, Ft. Hill, Highland Co., Ohio, on Solidago ulmifolia Muhl., rearing 
record B.2169, dates of emergence June 10, June 11 [A.F.B.Coll.]; 3 2, Oak 
Station, Allegheny Co., Pa., June 25, July 14, July 18 (Fred Marloff) [A.F.B. 
Coll. and U.S.N.M.); 1 $, Ocean View, Va. (W. D. Kearfott) [U.S.N.M.]; 
8 $, 6 2, Essex Co. Park, N. J., June 29 to July 20 (W. D. Kearfott) 
[U.S.N.M.] ; 2 S, Essex Co. Park, N. J., June 29, June 30 ( W. D. Kearfott) 
[A.F.B.Coll.] ; 1 3,1 2, New Lisbon, N. J., June 24, June 26 (E. P. Darling- 
ton) [A.N.S.P.]; 1 S, Montclair, N. J., July 17 (W. D. Kearfott) [Cornell 
U] ; 1 S. E. Aurora, N. Y., July 25 (W. Wild) [Cornell U.] ; 1 $, East River, 
Conn., July 10, 1909 (C. R. Ely) [U.S.N.M.]; 1 3,2 2, Martha's Vineyard, 
Mass., July 1, 18, 28; 1 2, without data (F. M. Jones) [U.S.N.M.] ; 1 3,4 2, 
Barnstable, Mass., June 30 to July 11 ( C. P. Kimball) [Kimball Coll.]; 1 3, 
Augusta, Maine, July 14 (A. E. Brower) [Brower Coll.]; 1 3 , 1 2, without 
locality, Pergande 3397, " Solidago " [U.S.N.M.] ; 1 2 , White Pt. Bch., N. S., 
July 21, 1934 (J. McDunnough) [C.N. Coll. ] ; 1 2, Knowlton, Que., June 30 
(J. McDunnough) [C.N. Coll.] ; 2 2, Ottawa, Out, June 13 ( C. H. Young) 
[C.N. Coll.]; 1 <?, 2 2, Vineland Station, Ont, July 12, 13, "host Solidago" 
(W. L. Putman) [C.N. Coll.] ; 1 2, Bottineau, N. D. (C. N. Ainslie) [U.S.N.M.] ; 

2 3,12, Bonneville, Clark Co., Wn, July 14, 15 (J. F. G. Clarke) [U.S.N.M.] ; 
1 3, Walla Walla, Wn., June 18 (J. F. G. Clarke) [U.S.N.M.]. 

The specimen in the National Museum chosen as the type bears a 
label " Bucculatrix solidaginiella Riley; " I am glad here to validate 
this manuscript name. Both the type and allotype are in unusually 
perfect condition. 

A common and widely distributed species. 

The larvae feed in the spring in the growing tips of young shoots 
of various species of Solidago, destroying the terminal bud, but barely 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 41 

boring into the tip of the stem. It is probable tbat a mine on a leaf is 
made in the preceding" late summer or early autumn, as has been re- 
corded for B. cuneigera Meyr., which displays habits identical with this 
species. The surface of the white cocoon is roughened, but the ridges 
are obsolete in all examples I have seen. Figures 30, 30a show vari- 
ations in venation of the fore wings. 

This species has been confused with both B. fusicola Braun and B. 
magnella Chambers, and specimens are thus misidentified in collections. 
From B. fusicola, it is separated by the costal streak which arises on 
the costa at basal third, instead of lying below it as in B. fusicola, and 
by the wholly whitish legs. B. magnella is characterized by the dark 
longitudinal streak from base to termen. 

(3) Bucculatrix montana Braun (Figs. 60, 60a, 61.) 

1920. Bucculatrix montana Braun, Ent. News XXXI: 77. Type 8, Mountain 
Lake, Virginia [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Heail white, a few fuscous hairs in the tuft ; antennal stalk pale fuscous. 
Thorax and fore wings white, the fore wings marked with ocherous, more or 
less fuscous dusted, or sometimes dark fuscous streaks ; from base of wing and 
lying above the fold, a more or less well defined basal streak (absent in the 
type) extends along the axis of the wing where in darker specimens it may join 
the apices of the three costal streaks ; three equally spaced oblique costal streaks, 
the first hefore middle of costa and bending below costa to join in the middle of 
the wing the second costal streak which runs into some fuscous dusting on the 
termen, and just before its tip is marked with a few fuscous scales; from termen 
just before apex a streak of blackish fuscous scales, in line with the axis of the 
wing, extends to the tip of the apical cilia ; from beyond middle of dorsum, a 
curved streak bending back along fold is marked, especially on the fold, with 
fuscous dusting. Cilia whitish, except just below the apical fuscous line; a fine 
line of scattered dark-tipped scales in the terminal cilia meets the fuscous apical 
line at a very acute angle at about half its length. Hind wings pale fuscous, 
darker in males, especially in dark-marked specimens. Legs pale ocherous, hind 
tarsal segments tipped with fuscous, except in the palest specimens. Abdomen 
ocherous, fuscous above in the middle segments in females, entirely fuscous in 
males. 

Alar expanse 10.5 to 13 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 60, 60a). Harpes small, swollen at base, tapering to 
narrow cucullus bearing short blunt conical setae ; socii short setose, variable 
in length, somewhat enlarged distally and arising well before tip of tegumen; 
aedeagus long, tapering to the slender apex. Scale sac large. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



42 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Female genitalia (fig. 61). Ostium narrowly sclerotized anteriorly, pro- 
duced posteriorly ; signum as in solidaginiella. 

Specimens examined. — 43 3, 28 2. 

Virginia: Mountain Lake, 3 type, June 18 [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Ohio: Adams Co., 1 2, June 30, 1928 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Michigan: E. S. George Reserve, Livingston Co., 1 3. July 10, 1950 (Ralph 
Beebe) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

New York: De Ruyter Res., Madison Co., 2 3,19, July 4, 1922 (Crosby 
and Forbes) [Cornell U.]. 

Georgia: Charlton Co., 1 5, June 19, 1916 (Otto Buchholz) [A.N.S.P.]. 

New Jersey: New Lisbon and Whitesbog, 4 3, June 22 to July 11 ( E. P. 
Darlington) [A.N.S.P.]; Essex Co. Park, 1 3, June 29 (W. D. Kearfott) 
[Cornell U.]. 

Connecticut: East River, 1 $,\ 2, July (C. R. Ely) [U.S.N.M.]. 

Massachusetts: Hyde Park, 1 2, July 8 (F. Haimbach) [A.N.S.P.]; 
Woods Hole, 1 $, July 18 [J. R. Eyer Coll.] ; 1 3, July 18 [Cornell U.] ; Barn- 
stable, 15 3, 12 2, June 25 to July 14 (C. P. Kimball) [C. P. Kimball and 
A. E. Brower Coll.]; Martha's Vineyard (MV), 1 2, ]ulv 6 (F. M. Jones) 
[U.S.N.M.]. 

Maine: Bar Harbor, 3 3,3 2. July 10 to Aug. 3; Augusta, 1 3, July 30; 
Ashland, 3 3,12, July 16 to 31 (A. E. Brower) [A. E. Brower Coll.]. 

Ontario: Bell's Corners, 2 3, June 16, 19 (G. A. Hobbs) [CN.Coll.] ; 
Ottawa, 1 2, July 15 (C. H. Young) [CN.Coll.]. 

Nova Scotia: Parrsboro, 5 3,3 2, July 7 to 25 (J. McDunnough) [C.N. 
Coll.]; Petite Riviere, 1 3. July 15 (J. McDunnough) [CN.Coll.]; Smith's 
Cove, 1 2, July 25 (J. McDunnough) [CN.Coll.]; Baddeck, 1 2, Aug. 7 (J. 
McDunnough) [CN.Coll.]. 

Food plant and early stages unknown. The type specimen emerged 
from a cocoon typical of the genus ; cocoon reddish ocherous, with ten 
low ridges. 

The distinguishing character of B. montana is the blackish streak 
extending in a line with the longitudinal axis of the wing from near 
apex of the wing to the tip of the apical cilia. 

(4) Bucculatrix magnella Chambers (Figs. 6, 64, 64a, 65, 65a.) 

1875. Bucculatrix magnella Chambers, Canad. Ent. VII: 54. Type 2, Texas 
[M.C.Z., Type No. 1309]. 

Head white, tuft more or less mixed with reddish ocherous ; antennal stalk 
fuscous. Thorax and fore wings white, the wing (fig. 6) marked with golden 
brown and blackish streaks ; from base a longitudinal ocherous to dark brown 
streak, slightly darker along its costal margin, extends beyond the middle of the 



ANNETTE F. BRA IX 43 

wing - , where in darker-marked specimens it is joined by an oblique blackish 
costal streak and curves downward to tennen. thence following the margin of 
the wing to apex, and extending through the apical cilia; in paler specimens 
( £ paratype, U.S.N.M. ) this oblique streak from costa to basal streak is indi- 
cated only by a faint line of scales (fig. 6), beyond this point as in darker speci- 
mens; lying above, parallel, ami close to the outer part of the basal streak is a 
slender pale ocherous streak; arising on the dorsal margin opposite the oblique 
costal streak is a more or less distinct (sometimes absent) oblique straight dor- 
sal streak, which meets the costal streak at the median basal streak, forming in 
dark-marked specimens, a conspicuous V; an irregular patch of dark-tipped 
scales on costa before apex ; dark-tipped scales in cilia below apex. Hind wings 
varying from nearly white with white cilia ( 9 paratype, U.S.N.M.) to brown- 
ish fuscous, with somewhat paler cilia. Legs whitish, tarsal segments tipped 
with blackish fuscous. 

Alar expanse 12 to 14 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 64, 64a). Setae of apical margin of harpe short blunt 
cones, proximad gradually more slender ; socii long, arising distant from tip of 
tegumen, short setose ; subscaphium defined ; aedeagus wide proximally, rapidly 
tapering to slender apex ; scales of scale sac long and slender. 

Female genitalia (figs. 65, 65a). Ostium shallow cup-shaped, ventral half 
sclerotized, microscopically spinulose ; signum a narrow ring, spines short. 

Specimens examined. — 2 6,5 9 . 

Texas: 9 type [M.C.Z.] ; 1 $ paratype, labeled by Busck "undoubtedly 
one of Chambers' type specimens," " compared with type Cambridge," is here- 
with designated $ paratype [U.S.N.M.]; 1 2 paratype (without abdomen) 
labeled in Chambers' handwriting [U.S.N.M.]. 

Missouri ( ?) : 1 2 (without abdomen), Coll. C. V. Riley [U.S.N.M.]. 

Illinois: Chicago, 2 9, July [U.S.N.M.]. 

Florida: Lakeland, 1 $, March, 1913 (C. N. Ainslie) [U.S.N.M.], in poor 
condition. 

Food plant and early stages unknown. 

This species is distinguished by the conspicuous median streak 
curving to tennen beyond middle and following termen to apex. 

The male paratype in the United States National Museum ( fig. 6) 
agrees in fore wing markings more closely with Chambers' description 
than does the type at the Museum of Comparative Zoology. In gen- 
eral, females are more heavily marked than males. In the description 
of magnella, Chambers writes that in the hind wings " the apical vein 
goes to the apex, and the median vein gives off only a single branch, 
instead of two." In all specimens I have examined, the venation of the 
hind wings is typical of the genus, i.e., media is two-branched. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



44 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

(5) Bucculatrix needhami Braun (Figs. 5, 31, 42, 42a, 66, 66a, 67, 67a.) 

1956. Bucculatrix needhami Braun, Ent. News LXVII : 69. Type $ , Engle- 
wood, Florida [Cornell U., Type No. 3123]. Allotype 2, Englewood, 
Florida [Cornell U., Type No. 3123]. 

1948. A Bucculatricid Gall and its hypermetamorphosis, James G. Needham, 
Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. LVI : 43-50. 

Head white, tuft brown in the center ; antennae pale gray. Thorax white, 
tegulae shaded with fuscous anteriorly. Fore wings white, marked with irro- 
rated fuscous streaks which may vary in distinctness, or one or more of them 
be absent. In well-marked specimens, the following markings can be distin- 
guished (fig. 5) : a median streak from base broadening outwardly for about 
one-third the wing length, its broad portion ending before the black patch of 
slightly raised scales lying just below the fold; above the patch of raised scales 
this streak continues as an attenuated line to the middle of the wing; just pos- 
terior to the raised black scales, a broad streak, parallel to termen, extends to 
the end of the cell, meeting a small black spot; costad of the median streak, 
starting at basal fifth is a narrower streak, its point directed toward the small 
black spot at end of cell ; below this streak there is usually a short fine fuscous 
line; beginning just beyond and below middle of costa is a more or less broad 
very oblique streak which extends into the apical area ; apical costal area dusted 
with fuscous scales ; scattered fuscous dusting along dorsal margin ; scales along 
termen black-tipped and forming a more or less conspicuous cluster about half- 
way along the cilia ; these scales extend along the wing margin to the apex, 
where the dark color is continued as a blackish pencil in the apical cilia; a line 
of slender finely dark-tipped scales near the base of the cilia extends parallel to 
termen, converging to apex. Hind wings pale gray, cilia rufous at base. Legs 
white, with fuscous shading, tarsal segments black-tipped. Abdomen whitish. 

Alar expanse 13 to 15 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 66, 66a). Harpes broad, parallel-sided; apical setae 
blunt conical, proximad slender conical ; socii short, arising near tip of tegumen, 
setae short; subscaphium present; aedeagus with two pairs of opposing teeth 
near tip. Scale sac large. 

Female genitalia (figs. 67, 67a). Ostium goblet-shaped, sclerotized, micro- 
scopically spinulose ; signum a very narrow ring, ribs irregularly spined. 

Specimens examined. — 12 $ , 10 2. 

Florida: Englewood, <5 type, March 29, 1946, 2 allotype, March 24, 1946; 
3 S , 3 2 paratypes, April 5 to April 17 (J. G. Needham) ; Sarasota, 1 2 para- 
type, March 24, 1946 (J. G. Needham), all reared from galls on stem of Heli- 
anthus agrestis Pollard [Cornell U.] ; 8 mi. W. of Moore Haven, Glades Co., 
6 $, 3 2 paratypes, ex pupa, April 7 to May 17, galls on stems of Helianthus 
agrestis ( C. L. Remington and L. Brass.) [Yale University]. 

Kentucky : Hiseville, Barren Co., 1 $ , 1 2 , paratype, imagoes June 3 and 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 45 

June 12, 1941, from galls on stems of Helianthus angustifolius L., rearing rec- 
ord B.1853 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Illinois: Chicago, 1 5 paratype, VI.3.04 (G. McElhose) [U.S.N.M.]. 

New York: Karner, 1 6 paratype, April 21, 1903, "from gall on Helianthus 
strumosus" (N.Y.S.Coll.) [U.S.N.M.]. 

The galls occur on several species of Helianthus, and their size and 
shape appears to vary with the species of sunflower. Figure 42 shows 
a gall on Helianthus agrestis Pollard (H. curtisii Fernald). The fol- 
lowing are a few excerpts from Dr. Needham's paper (cited ahove) : 
" gall is a thickening of the walls of the stem, about an inch long and 
four-fifths as wide, and with a large oval cavity inside. It varies in 
form from oblong to almost round. It tapers a little more abruptly to 
the stem at the upper end." ..." Galls occur singly on the stems; very 
rarely two, and when two, one or both are imperfectly formed. They 
are generally located somewhat below mid-height of the plant." In 
contrast on Helianthus angustifolius, the irregular galls occur amongst 
the inflorescence, the peduncles of the flower heads branching out from 
the gall. The gall may be quite slender when on an individual pedun- 
cle and up to as large or larger than that of Gnorimo schema gallae- 
solidaginis (Riley), when several peduncles branch from it. Full- 
grown larvae pass the winter within the gall, leaving in the spring by a 
small circular opening. The cocoon (fig. 42a) is marked by eight 
longitudinal ridges, the boundary between the posterior section and 
anterior one-third clearly defined. 

In his paper on this species, Dr. Needham calls attention to the 
change from the inactive, legless and non-spinning larva (fig. 31) in 
the gall to the normal Lepidopterous type with prolegs and capable of 
spinning. These changes take place within the gall, preparatory to 
leaving it. " Here was a non-feeding instar, interpolated between lar- 
val and pupal stages : a clear case of hypermetamorphosis " (p. 45, I.e.). 

The distinguishing characters of the wing markings are the longi- 
tudinal streaks, i.e., a slender longitudinal discal streak parallel to the 
basal streak with a line of fuscous scales between it and the basal streak. 

(6) Bucculatrix longoila new species (Figs. 68, 68a, 69, 69a.) 

Head white, tuft with ocherous and brown hairs ; antennal stalk whitish at 
base, shading outwardly to pale brownish and indistinctly annulate ; antennal 
notch of male slight. Thorax white, tegulae anteriorly faintly yellowish. Fore 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOG, 18. 



46 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

wings shining white, with pale ocherous marks, some of which may be faint or 
absent ; from base along fold to two-fifths the wing length, a slender ocherous 
streak; a second longitudinal streak in the cell, arising just basad of the end of 
the first, extends nearly to the end of the cell ; from three-fifths of costa, a nar- 
row straight line of pale ocherous scales extends diagonally across the wing to 
tornus, at its costal end and at end of cell the scales are dark-tipped, at tornus 
meeting a larger group of more conspicuously dark brown-tipped scales ; on 
costa midway between this diagonal line and apex, a group of pale ocherous 
narrowly dark-tipped scales ; on middle of dorsum a pale ocherous oblique spot, 
bearing a group of blackish-tipped raised scales, sometimes the most conspicuous 
mark on the wing; from the group of dark-tipped scales at tornus, a line of 
dark-tipped scales along termen to apex ; a second line of scales in the cilia, 
their dark tips lying near to and nearly parallel to the terminal row (less than 
one-third the length of the cilia from their bases) meets it at apex; cilia white. 
Hind wings and cilia white, faintly ocherous tinged. Legs ocherous, tarsal seg- 
ments, especially of the fore and middle legs dark-tipped. Abdomen ocherous, 
grayish in the male. 

Alar expanse 12 to 12.5 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 68, 68a). Harpes nearly parallel-sided, apical area 
with short heavy conical setae; socii long, densely clothed with very long fine 
setae; membrane ventrad of the alimentary canal microscopically spinulose; 
anellus a slender cone ; aedeagus long, tapering to slender apex, a pair of oppos- 
ing teeth near mouth. Scale sac large, numerous small scales. 

Female genitalia (figs. 69, 69a). Ostium goblet-shaped, microscopically 
spinulose; ductus bursae forked in segment 6 just before entering bursa; signum 
ribs variously spined, posteriorly usually one or more heavy spines, sometimes 
branched, grading to short or slender spines. 

Type. — $, Wilma, Whitman Co., Washington. 24. IV. 34, reared from Hcli- 
anthns annuus L. (J. F. G. Clarke) [U.S.N.M., Type No. 65014]. 

Allotype. — $, same data as the type, except date of emergence 29. IV. 34 
[U.S.N.M.]. 

Paratypes.—l $,4 2, Wilma, Whitman Co., Washington, April 14 to 29, 
1934; 1 S, Snake River, Whitman Co., Washington, 25.V.34; 1 8, Almota, 
Washington, 26. IV. 34, all reared from Helianthus annuus L. (J. F. G. Clarke) 
[U.S.N.M.]; 1 2, Salt Lake, Utah, Jl. 18, 13, "from gall on Helianthus" 
(Timberlake Coll.) [U.S.N.M.]. 

The type series was reared from stem galls on Helianthus annuus 
L. The type and allotype display clearly all the marks mentioned in 
the description ; in some specimens these marks are faint or obsolete. 

The approximate and nearly parallel lines of dark-tipped scales 
along termen, the second near bases of the cilia, are distinctive of this 
species and also serve to separate it from the closely allied B. simalans 



ANNETTE K. BRAUN 47 

new species, and from B. niveella Chambers. The fore wings are also 
more acute than in that species, and the whole aspect is different. The 
long slender aedeagus (checked by a second slide) of this species con- 
trasts with the short wide-mouthed aedeagus of B. simulans. The very 
long, fine setae clothing the socii are characteristic of both B. longula 
and B. simulans and occur in no other species. 

(7) Bucculatrix simulans new species (Figs. 70, 70a, 70b, 70c. 71, 71a.) 

1948. Bucculatrix fusicola Breland and Schmitt (not Braun), Ent. News LIX: 
225, 231-234. 

Head white, tuft more or less mixed with brownish ocherous ; antennal stalk 
white at base, shading outwardly to pale fuscous, antennal notch of male slight. 
Thorax white, tegulae posteriorly ocherous. Fore wing white, less lustrous than 
in B. longula. markings ocherous with the scales brown-tipped in the darker 
specimens ; a longitudinal streak in fold from base for one-third the wing length ; 
in the cell, and arising just basad of the end of the streak in the fold, a similar 
streak runs to the end of the cell, often meeting a straight diagonal line of scales 
crossing the wing from costa to tornus ; this diagonal line broadens on costa, 
and at end of cell is marked by a group of more broadly dark-tipped scales, and 
at tornus meets a group of dark-tipped slightly raised scales ; between the diago- 
nal line and apex on costa, a patch of ocherous scales reaching half-way across 
the wing; dorsal margin near base sometimes pale ocherous, with rarely a few 
of the scales dark-tipped ; beyond middle of dorsal margin a large patch of dark- 
tipped scales extends across the fold and bears on the fold a few blackish-tipped 
raised scales ; from the group of dark-tipped scales at tornus, a line of dark- 
tipped scales along termen to apex ; a second line of scales, their dark tips near 
middle of cilia at tornus, converges toward the first line, nearly or quite meeting 
it at apex ; cilia white. In several of the type series, some of the markings de- 
scribed above are without dark-tipped scales, and some may be obsolescent. 
Hind wings and cilia pale ocherous. Legs pale ocherous, fore and middle pair 
shaded with fuscous, hind tarsal segments fuscous-tipped. Abdomen pale ocher- 
ous, with slight fuscous shading above in the male. 

Alar expanse 9.5 to 10 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 70, 70a, 70b, 70c). Differing from B. longula only by 
the short aedeagus, with wide mouth, and the number of opposing teeth near 
mouth, this number not constant in the species (figs. 70a, 70b, 70c) ; scale sac 
with numerous small scales. 

Female genitalia (figs. 71, 71a). Scarcely distinguishable from the female 
genitalia of B. longula, except by characters of the signum ; signum with spines 
longer and more slender, some of the ribs with one long spine and several very 
small spines (cf. fig. 69a). 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



48 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Type. — S, East St. Louis, Illinois, Helianthus annuus L., IV. 4. 30, issued 
V. 22.30 (Webster Grove, No. 30019c, R. C. Lange Coll.) [U.S.N. M., Type No. 
65015]. 

Allotype. — 2, same data as the type except Webster Grove No. 30019 
[U.S.N.M.]. 

Paratypes. — 1 $, East St. Louis, Illinois, "in stem gall, Helianthus annuus, 
IV.22.30, iss. V.21.30" (Webster Grove No. 30040, R. C. Lange Coll.) 
[U.S.N.M.]; 1 9, Fairmount, Illinois, "sunflower, 9.27.30, iss. VI.9 " (Satter- 
thwait Coll.) [U.S.N.M.] ; 1 S , Austin, Texas, "sunflower, forms gall on stem, 
1.6.39, em. 4.15.39" (Breland Coll.) [U.S.N.M.]; 4 $. 4 9, Austin, Texas, 
"summer '47, sunflower" (Schmitt Coll.) [U.S.N.M.]. 

In addition to the type series, there are two additional specimens 
(badly greased) from East St. Louis, with cocoons; also a gall with 
cocoon spun immediately above the gall. 

The life history of this species is described and the galls and co- 
coons figured by Breland and Schmitt under the name Bucculatrix 
fusicola Braun. The galls are somewhat variable in shape (as figured) 
often appearing as a swelling on the side of the stem. The larvae be- 
come full-fed in the fall passing the winter in the larval state within 
the gall, leaving the gall to spin and pupate in the spring; a raised ring 
may encircle the exit hole of the larva. Cocoons are described by Bre- 
land and Schmitt as " white to a light gray color." Cocoons accom- 
panying the types from Illinois are pale gray with eight to ten fine 
ridges, some of the lateral ridges anastomosing. 

This species is very close to B. longula, but differs from it in the 
smaller size, less lustrous fore wing with less acute apex, and more dis- 
tant and diverging ciliary lines. It is possible that B. niveella Cham- 
bers (described from Texas) is a nearly immaculate form of this 
species. 

Five specimens (3 S , 1 2 [U.S.N.M.], 1 9 [A.F.B.Coll.] labeled 
" Colorado (G. Ainslie)," are doubtfully assigned to this species on 
the basis of the short aedeagus (fig. 70c). The aspect of these speci- 
mens, which are in poor condition, is that of B. longula, with which 
they agree in size and configuration of the ciliary lines. 

(8) Bucculatrix niveella Chambers 

1875. Bucculatrix niveella Chambers, Canad. Ent. VII : 54. Type locality, Texas 
( ? Bosque Co., or Waco, McLennan Co.). Type not in existence. 



ANNETTE 1". BRAUN 49 

I quote Chambers' description of this species. " Snow white, very faintly 
tinged with yellowish on the front of the tuft and in the apical part of the fore 
wings, and with a very few scattered brown scales in the costal ciliae. but with 
two distinct dark brown hinder marginal lines in the dorsal ciliae. one at their 
base, the other beyond their middle, slightly converging towards the apex. Al. 
ex. a little under half an inch." 

It is possible that niveella is an immaculate form of the preceding- 
species, described as B. simulans; in the latter species, the markings 
sometimes tend to be obsolescent. In the absence of the type, however, 
definite determination is impossible and niveella must be regarded as 
an unrecognized species. 

(9) Bucculatrix parvinotata new species (Fig. 72.) 

Head white, tuft faintly ocherous in middle ; antennal stalk shading out- 
wardly to fuscous. Thorax white ; fore wings white ; three or four black scales 
in a line in the fold at two-thirds its length; a similar longitudinally placed line 
of scales at end of cell, and one or two such black scales at extreme apex; cilia 
white. Hind wings and cilia faintly ocherous tinged. Legs white, tarsal seg- 
ments minutely dark-tipped. 

Alar expanse 11 mm. 

Male genitalia (fig. 72). Harpes concave inwardly, apically with short coni- 
cal setae; socii moderately long, scarcely enlarging apically, setose; subscaphium 
undefined, membrane laterally microscopically spinulose ; aedeagus slightly 
curved, gradually tapering. Scale sac bilobed by a median constriction, scales 
unpigmented. 

Type.— $, Mesilla Park, New Mexico, at light, May 8 (Ckll.) [U.S.N.M., 
Type No. 65016]. 

Food plant and early stages unknown. 

The white fore wings, marked only with a few black scales charac- 
terize this species. B. immaculatella Chambers, described as " Silvery 
white, immaculate. Al. ex. 5/16 inch." is the only species of our fauna 
which approaches B. parvinotata. The type of B. immaculatella is 
apparently not now in existence ; it however seems to be a smaller 
species. 

(10) Bucculatrix ochritincta new species (Figs. 73, 73a, 73b.) 

Head white, tuft with a few fuscous hairs ; antennae whitish, stalk darkening 
toward tip. Thorax creamy white. Fore wing shining creamy white, tinged 
with ocherous, especially in the fold; extreme costal margin ocherous to nearly 
half the wing length, where a very oblique and slender ocherous streak diverges 
from the costa; beyond this, a slightly less oblique and broader costal streak 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



50 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

crosses the wing to termen near tornus, there meeting a group of a few blackish- 
tipped raised scales ; beyond this, a broad triangular ocherous spot is separated 
from the apex by a triangular creamy white area ; from middle of dorsum a pale 
ocherous oblique streak bears a few blackish-tipped scales on its inner margin in 
the fold ; at tornus a faint ocherous spot ; from the group of raised scales on 
termen, a line of dark-tipped scales on termen to apex ; costal cilia white, cilia 
below apex ocherous-tinged, and with a line of dark-tipped scales extending 
dorsad through them from a point opposite apex. Hind wings and cilia creamy 
white, except tip of wing and apical cilia ocherous. Legs pale ocherous. 

Alar expanse 9.5 mm. 

Female genitalia (figs. 73, 73a, 73b). Ventral margin of ostium sclerotized; 
signum a band narrow dorsally, ribs irregularly spined, some large strongly 
sclerotized spines, some minute spines ; a tuft of long hair-like scales on a lateral 
depressed area of segment 8 ; scales on posterior margin of segment 7 long and 
hair-like. 

Type.- — 2, Fall Creek Falls State Park, Van Buren County, Tennessee, May 
1, 1939 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Food plant and early stages unknown. 

Differing from all other species of this section by the creamy white 
fore wing, in contrast to the pure white wing of the related species. 

(11) Bucculatrix viguierae new species (Figs. 4, 74, 74a, 75.) 

Head white, tuft with a few ocherous hairs ; eye-cap faintly ocherous tinged 
posteriorly, stalk whitish at base, shading outwardly to fuscous. Thorax white, 
shaded with pale ocherous anteriorly. Fore wing (fig. 4) lustrous white, with 
ocherous, mostly longitudinal markings, and a few groups of black-tipped scales ; 
from base of costa to one-third wing length and adjacent to costa, a fine line of 
ocherous scales ; from one-third of wing length and below costa, an ocherous 
streak to end of cell ; from just below costa, at two-thirds, an oblique streak, 
marked on its costal end by a few dark-tipped scales, runs across the wing to a 
patch of black-tipped scales on termen ; beyond this streak, a patch of a few 
dark-tipped scales on costa ; from base of wing, an ocherous stripe, broadening 
outwardly, extends along the fold to beyond one-third ; arising within the dorsal 
margin, basad of the costal streak and marked on the fold by a group of black- 
tipped scales, is an oblique dorsal streak, which meets the end of the longitudinal 
ocherous stripe lying below costa at the middle of the oblique costal streak; at 
apex from one to several black-tipped scales; from apex, a broken line of mi- 
nutely dark-tipped scales extends through the terminal cilia. Hind wings pale 
whitish or grayish ocherous, cilia ocherous tinged. Fore and middle legs dark 
fuscous, hind legs ocherous, tarsal segments fuscous-tipped. Abdomen straw- 
colored, with fuscous shading posteriorly. 

Alar expanse 11 mm. 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 51 

Male genitalia (fig. 75). Haines broadly rounded, nearly parallel-sided; 
socii short, setae moderate in length ; tegumen incurved, forming two elongate 
lobes simulating arms of gnathos; aedeagus parallel-sided, curving slightly, pro- 
duced proximally beyond the elongate aperture. Scale sac present, scales slen- 
der, tapering to a point. 

Female genitalia (figs. 74, 74a). The usual unspecialized type, with ventral 
margin only of ostium sclerotized, ductus gradually widening to ostium, signum 
characteristic, spining of ribs various, ribs bearing some long, sharp-pointed, 
heavy spines, or more regularly spined with short and abruptly tapering spines 
(fig. 74a). 

Type. — $ , Sierra Co., New Mexico, em. 27. IV. 50 from gall on Viguiera annua 
(Jones) Blake (annual goldeneye) [Compositae], (E. J. O'Neal) [U.S.N.M., 
Type No. 65017]. 

Allotype. — ?, Sierra Co., New Mexico, em. 3.V.50 from gall on Viguiera 
annua (E. J. O'Neal) [U.S.N.M.]. 

Para types. — 1 ?, same data as type and allotype, except date of emergence 
15.111.50 [U.S.N.M.]; 2 3,4 5. Madera Canyon, Santa Cruz Mountains, Ari- 
zona, July 11, Aug. 3, Aug. 4 (R. W. Hodges) [Cornell U.] ; 1 $, Pena Blanca 
Canyon, Santa Cruz County, Arizona (R. W. Hodges) [Cornell U.]. 

The markings of the fore wings of this species are somewhat sim- 
ilar to those of well-marked B. simnlans and of B. longula, but without 
the ciliary lines of those species, and the aspect is different. It is abun- 
dantly distinct from either of these on characters of the male genitalia, 
viz. the peculiar incurved lobes of the tegumen and the sparser and 
shorter setae of the socii, the absence of teeth at tip of aedeagus; and 
in the female by the shape of the ostium, and the spining of the ribs 
of the signum. 

(12) Bucculatrix micropunctata new species (Figs. 79, 79a, 79b.) 

Face and tuft white ; eye-caps white, antennal stalk white, with pale grayish 
ocherous annulations. Fore wings elongate, acuminate, apex upturned ; white, 
marked with two longitudinal lines of black dots and groups of very pale ocher- 
ous minutely brown-tipped scales ; before middle of costa an oblique group of 
brown-tipped scales ; a second more open patch beyond middle ; an elongate 
black spot at end of cell and immediately beyond it, a transverse pale ocherous 
spot, in which the scales are almost microscopically brown-tipped; an occasional 
black-tipped scale in the costal cilia, and irregularly placed black-tipped scales 
in the white apical cilia ; the fold faintly yellowish, immediately above the fold 
and parallel to it, a line of almost evenly spaced black dots, and below fold, a 
line of similar black dots, irregularly spaced; beyond middle of dorsum, a large 
patch of pale ocherous scales, some of which are black-tipped. Hind wings pale 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



52 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

grayish white, cilia white. Legs white, fore and middle tibiae shaded with fus- 
cous, tarsal segments narrowly fuscous-tipped. 

Alar expanse 8 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 79, 79a, 79b). Harpes broadly rounded at apex, with 
strong conical setae ; socii very long and slender, connivent, setose, an oval api- 
cal area with heavier setae; anellus a slender tapering cone, lobed at tip; aede- 
agus long, slender, gradually tapering, aperture elongate with paired sclerotized 
teeth basad ; vinculum broad, well sclerotized, two minute latero-posterior pro- 
jections. Scale sac small. 

Type.— S, Needles, California, 16 April, 1918 (J. Ch. Bradley) [Cornell U.. 
Type No. 3641], 

Food plant and early stages unknown. 

Known only from the male type, in perfect condition. In the ab- 
sence of any knowledge of larval habits, this species is placed in this 
section on the basis of the long socii, and broad harpe with heavy con- 
ical setae. 

Although the moth somewhat resembles B. eurotiella Wlsm. and 
B. latella Braun, the slender acuminate wings and the very different 
genitalia at once separate it from those species. 

(13) Bucculatrix inusitata new species (Figs. 76, 76a, 76b, 76c, 77, 77a.) 

Head white, tuft with a few brownish hairs ; antennal eye-cap white, stalk 
pale grayish ocherous, darker toward tip, antennal notch deep. Thorax white. 
Fore wings lustrous white, markings ocherous, the scales usually more or less 
broadly dark-tipped; from just beyond base to one-third, a pale longitudinal 
streak, often faint or absent, its inner margin lying along the fold ; from basal 
third of costa, an oblique streak curving outward below costa, and usually meet- 
ing a second oblique costal streak attenuated below costa and extending as a 
narrow line across the wing to a small group of black-tipped raised scales on 
termen near tornus ; at two-thirds of costa, an irregular spot of variable size, 
its dark-tipped scales often encroaching on a triangular more or less conspicu- 
ous white area immediately before apex and partially in the cilia ; this triangular 
area extends across the wing to the group of dark-tipped raised scales near 
tornus, and along its outer margin the smooth lustrous white scales of the gen- 
eral ground color form a narrow, almost irridescent bar lying alongside of the 
black-tipped scales which margin the termen; a second line of scales in the cilia, 
their dark tips at about basal third of cilia and curving inward near apex to- 
ward the terminal line of black-tipped scales ; from middle of dorsum a more or 
less distinct oblique streak, marked on the fold by one to several black-tipped 
scales (sometimes absent), curves to the middle of the wing; from tornus, a 
faint nearly erect line of scales, often absent, crosses the wing to the oblique 
transverse line of dark-tipped scales ; cilia white before apex, fuscous tinged 



ANNETTE V. BRAUN 53 

opposite apex shading to white at tornus. Hiiul wings and cilia grayish ocher- 
ous. Legs dull ocherous, shaded with fuscous. Abdomen in female ocherous, 
in male fuscous, except anal tuft. 

Alar expanse 9.5 to 10 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 76, 76a, 76h, 76c). Harpes bilobed on inner side at 
apex, the lobes with heavy setae, sinus between them unarmed; socii long, 
slightly enlarging' at apex and here with sparse slender setae, proximad of apex, 
setae short and curved ; subscaphium strongly sclerotized, long ciliate ; free arms 
of g-nathos long, slender, short setose on their basal half; anellus an elongate 
cone ; aedeagus tapering to the slender tip. Scale sac present. 

Female genitalia (figs. 77, 77a). Ovipositor lobes sparsely long setose; 
ostium unspecialized ; ductus bursae forked in segment 7, the forks entering 
bursa dorsally near its posterior end ; signum a ring broad ventrally, narrow 
dorsally. spines long and slender. 

Type.— S, Hull, Quebec, 13.VI.1955 ( G. G. Lewis) [C.N. Coll., Type No. 
7175]. 

Allotype— 9. Wakefield, Quebec, 25.VI.1946 (G. S. Walley) [C.N.Coll., 
Type No. 7175]. 

Paratypes.—l 8, Bobcaygeon, Ont., 26.VI.1932 (J. McDunnough ) , 2 8, 
Hull, Que., 13.VI.195S (G. G. Lewis), 1 $, 1 9, Ottawa, Ont., 23.VI.1955 
(G. G. Lewis) [C.N.Coll.]; 1 8, Bar Harbor, Maine, July 16, 1938 (A. E. 
Brower), 1 8, Bar Harbor, Maine, emgd. June 22, '50, "bred ex Juniperus 
communis" (A. E. Brower), 1 8, Mt. Desert Is., Me., July 2, '34 (A. E. 
Brower), 2 8,2 9, Augusta, Maine, June 27 to Aug. 3 (A. E. Brower) [A. E. 
Brower Coll.]; 17 8 , 3 ?, Barnstable, Mass., June 25 to July 13 ( C. P. Kim- 
ball) [C. P. Kimball Coll.] ; 2 8, Monroe Co., N. Y., June 23 and July 4 (C. P. 
Kimball) [C. P. Kimball Coll.] ; 1 8,1 9, New Lisbon, N. J„ June 11 and June 
18 (E. P. Darlington) [A.N.S.P.] ; 1 9, Essex Co. Pk., N. J., June 20 (W. D. 
Kearfottj [U.S.N.M.] ; 1 8,1 9, Edge Hill, Pa., June 23 ( F. Haimbach), 1 8, 
Fairm't, Phila., Pa., June 9 (F. Haimbach), 1 8, Roxborough, Pa., June 26, 
(F. Haimbach) [A.N.S.P.]. 

Only those specimens in which the distinctive characters of the 
wing markings are recognizable are included in the type series. In 
addition, 14 others, mostly from Maine and Massachusetts, represent- 
ing both sexes have been examined. These can of course be recognized 
by the characteristic genitalia, especially of the male. 

No data are available on the early stages of this species. One of 
the paratypes cited above from Bar Harbor, Maine, bears the notation 
" Bred ex Juniperus communis." Dr. Brower has assured me that 
such a label indicates that the specimen was actually reared from larva. 
Any conifer, particularly an evergreen species, would seem to be an 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



54 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

unusual food plant for a species of Bucculatrix placed in this section on 
wing markings and genitalia. It may not be correctly placed in this 
section. 

The series of specimens from Ontario and Quebec, from which the 
type and allotype were selected are in exceptionally perfect condition. 
The best distinguishing wing characters of the species are the pure 
white triangular costal area before apex, and especially, the narrow 
lustrous white bar along termen, which stands out sharply when light 
strikes it at an angle. The remarkable development and specialization 
of subscaphium and gnathos is unique in this section and exceptional 
in the genus. 

(14) Bucculatrix seneciensis new species (Figs. 80, 80a, 80b, 81, 81a, 81b.) 

Head white, antennal stalk whitish, annulate with pale fuscous. Thorax 
white. Fore wings white; basal fifth of fold shaded with pale yellowish, a few 
of the scales sometimes narrowly dark-tipped ; at two-fifths the wing length, 
sometimes a faint yellowish tinge, with a few of the scales below costa minutely 
dark-tipped; at three-fifths, a more conspicuous pale yellowish group of scales, 
minutely dark-tipped; a transverse band of dark-tipped scales from costa to 
tornus, leaving the extreme apex of wing white ; at end of cell, a more or less 
conspicuous spot, the scales dark-tipped ; on middle of dorsum, and extending 
across the fold, an irregular pale yellowish spot, at least some of its scales 
broadly dark-tipped ; cilia pure white with a line of dark-tipped scales from 
tornus, sometimes encircling the apex, sometimes broken on costa. Hind wings 
white in female, very pale ocherous in male, cilia white. Legs ocherous, fore 
and middle tibiae outwardly fuscous, hind tarsal segments fuscous-tipped. Ab- 
domen white, more or less shaded with pale fuscous. 

Alar expanse 10 to 10.5 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 80, 80a, 80b). Harpe proximad parallel-sided, expand- 
ing at apex to a convex dorsal surface clothed with a dense mass of black setae, 
a concave ventral surface clothed with fine long setae ; socii very long, slender, 
setose for most of their length, meeting at an acute angle in the median line, 
tegumen extending far beyond their bases and terminating in a rounded point; 
a sclerotized strip on each side of the tube containing the alimentary canal ; 
anellus broad conical ; vinculum triangular ; aedeagus with entrance of penis 
elongate, mouth elongate, slightly spiral. Scales of scale sac hair-like. 

Female genitalia (figs. 81, 81a, 81b). Ostium at anterior margin of segment 
8, its ventral margin only sclerotized; on segment 8 ventro-lateral groups of 
narrow specialized scales curving toward the mid-ventral line ; bursa copulatrix 
elongate, extending anteriorly into segment 2 ; signum constricting the bursa, 
broken dorsally, ribs long ventrally and crowded together, short toward dorsum. 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 55 

Type — £, Mint Canyon, Los Angeles Co., California, larva on Senecio sp., 
emdg-. April 30, 1939 (J. A. Comstock) [Los Angeles County Museum]. 

Allotype. — 2, same data as the type, except date of emergence May 2, 1939 
[Los Angeles County Museum]. 

Paratypcs. — 1 $, 3 2. same data as type and allotype, except dates of emer- 
gence April 26 to May 1 (J. A. Comstock) [L. A. Co. Museum]; 6 $, 1 2. 
Lovejoy Buttes, Los Angeles Co., California (Lloyd M. Martin) [L. A. Co. 
Museum]; 1 2, Olancha, Inyo Co., California, June 16, 1917 (G. R. Pilate) 
[A.F.B.Coll.] ; 7 S, 1 2, Olancha, Inyo Co., California, June 8-15, June 16-23 
[U.S.N.M.] ; 1 2. La Puerta Valley, South. California, June 1-7 [U.S.N.M.] ; 
1 $, Havilah. California. June 1-7 [U.S.N.M.]. 

This species is probably a stem borer in the larval state. The white 
cocoon is slightly rugose, but lacks the typical ridges. The harpes of 
the male genitalia at once separate seiiecicusis from all other species. 

B. seneciensis new species and B. curotiella Wlsm. were reared at 
the same time from Scnccio sp. ; in the series reared by Lloyd M. 
Martin, cocoons of the latter are associated with some of the specimens 
of B. seneciensis. 

(15) Bucculatrix bicristata new species (Fig- 78.) 

Head white, tuft faintly ocherous, eye-caps distally broad, antennal stalk 
shading to pale grayish ocherous outwardly. Thorax white, faintly ocherous 
anteriorly. Fore wing elongate, white with ocherous-fuscous marks ; from base 
a pale fuscous streak, broadening outwardly, its inner margin lying along the 
fold to one-third the wing length, here diverging and curving to the middle of 
the disc, thence extending as a narrow line of scales to termen near tornus, 
where it meets a patch of large, black-tipped raised scales ; from near middle of 
costa, a very oblique streak, broadest on costa and soon attenuated to a narrow 
line of scales, runs across the wing to the above patch of raised scales ; beyond 
this on costa, a triangular patch of scales, its broad base on costa, and near its 
inner margin bearing a group of raised scales; from near middle of dorsum, a 
short, curved, oblique streak ; from the patch of raised scales on termen, a line 
of dark scales extends along termen to apex and to the tips of the apical cilia; 
from this line dark-tipped scales extend into the cilia of termen. Hind wings 
pale brownish ocherous, cilia whitish toward tips. Legs whitish, tarsal seg- 
ments black-tipped. Abdomen whitish beneath, grayish ocherous above. 

Alar expanse 14 mm. 

Male genitalia (fig. 78). Harpe cylindrical, terminating in a nearly circular 
flat area, which is evenly and closely clothed with heavy short setae the outer 
row of which margins the flat area; socii with short setae; subscaphium defined, 
microscopically setose and terminating posteriorly in a strongly sclerotized 
point ; aedeagus tapering to a point. Scale sac transversely oval, scales slender. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



56 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Type.— S, St. Petersburg, Florida, May [U.S.N.M., Type No. 65018]. 
Paratypes.—l $, same data as the type [U.S.N. M. ] ; 1 S, Billy's Island, 
Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia, June, 1912 [Cornell U.]. 

Food plant and early stages unknown. 

The configuration of the long median basal streak is similar to that 
of B. magnella Chambers ; in magnella however there is an additional 
slender longitudinal streak lying close to and parallel to the conspicuous 
longitudinal streak. The conspicuous patch of raised scales on termen 
and the raised scales on costa (both of which are easily lost) and the 
remarkable and unique harpe separate this species from all others of 
the section. The male paratype from Okefenokee Swamp lacks the 
terminal segments of the abdomen. 

(16) Bucculatrix cuneigera Meyrick (Figs. 28, 29, 44, 44a, 44b, 82, 82a, 83.) 

1919. Bucculatrix cuneigera Meyrick, Exot. Microlep. II (Pt. 9) : 288. Type, 

Muskoka, Ontario [B.M.]. 

1920. Bucculatrix errans Braun, Ent. News XXXI : 77, 78. Type S , Cincin- 

nati, Ohio [A.F.B.Coll.]. 
1927. Bucculatrix cuneigera Braun, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. LIII : 195. 

Head white, tuft either entirely white or more or less mixed with dark brown 
centrally ; antennal eye-cap white, stalk pale ocherous to fuscous. Thorax, in- 
cluding tegulae, usually pure white, tegulae dark brown in those specimens in 
which the base of the wing below the fold is dark brown. Fore wings dark 
brown or almost black with white marks; from base of wing and just within the 
costal margin, an outwardly broadening white streak, its costal edge close to 
costa, its outer margin oblique, extends in the disc nearly to middle of wing ; 
base of wing below fold usually white, the white area sometimes expanding, 
spreading outwardly and costad, or base of wing below fold sometimes wholly 
dark brown ; at middle of costa, an oblique, triangular or outwardly curving 
white spot; basad of it, on dorsum, a larger half-crescent shaped mark; a nar- 
row oblique costal streak at two-thirds, and opposite it at tornus, a pair of white 
spots narrowly separated by ground color, the outer of which is directed in- 
wardly; a triangular white spot near apex and mostly in the costal cilia, bor- 
dered outwardly by an oblique dark line running to the tip of the apical cilia; 
a few black scales at apex form an irregular apical dot ; cilia opposite apex 
ocherous, shading to fuscous at tornus ; a line of dark-tipped scales through the 
middle of the cilia from apex to tornus. Hind wings dark brownish or blackish 
gray, cilia concolorous. Legs, except tarsal segments, dark brown outwardly. 
Abdomen dark fuscous, anal tuft pale. 

Alar expanse 9 to 10.5 mm. 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 57 

Male genitalia ( fi.qs. N2, 82a). Harpes with heavy conical setae at apex; 
socii with some short, some longer setae; subscaphium strongly sclerotized ; 
aedeagus slender, entrance of penis elongate; vinculum narrow, emarginate. 
Scales of scale sac elongate (fig. 82a). 

Female genitalia (fig-. 83). Ostium unspecialized, ductus bursae forked in 
segment 7 at inception of ductus seminalis, the forks uniting again just before 
entering bursa copulatrix ; signum ring wide ventrally, narrow dorsally. 

Specimens examined. — 31 6 . 2\ 2. 

Ontario: Muskoka, 1 2, July, 1918 (ex type series of citneigera) [A.F.B. 
Coll.] ; Ottawa, 2 6,2 2. July 3 to July 10 (C. H. Young) [C.N.Coll.] ; Bob- 
caygeon, 1 2, 29.VI.31 (J. McDunnough) [C.N.Coll.]. 

Ohio: Cincinnati, 1 6 (type of errans Braun), 10 6,7 2 (paratypes of 
errans Braun), May 12 to May 28, rearing record B.977; 2 6,2 2, June 5, 
1918 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B. Coll.] ; 2 6 (paratypes of errans Braun), May 26, 
May 27, rearing record B.977 (A. F. Braun) [U.S.N.M.] ; 2 2 (paratypes of 
errans), May 28. rearing record B.977 (A. F. Braun) [A.N.S.P.]. 

North Carolina: Balsam, 1 6 (worn), July 23, 1911 [A.F.B. Coll.] ; High- 
lands, Macon County, 3865 feet, 6 6 ,5 2, June 24 to July 11, 1959, collected as 
part of a project sponsored by the American Philosophical Society (R. W. 
Hodges) [Cornell U.]. 

New York: E. Aurora, 1 2, July 3 (W. Wild) [Cornell U.]. 

Massachusetts: Barnstable, 1 6, July 11, 3 2, June 26 to July 2 [C. P. 
Kimball Coll.]. 

Maine: Augusta, 1 2 (only head, thorax and one fore wing), July 24, 1947 
[A. E. Brower Coll.]. 

New Brunswick: St. Andrews, 1 6, 4.VII.1936 ( T. N. Freeman) [C.N. 
Coll.]. 

Nova Scotia: Parrsborough, 1 6, 4.VII.1914; Smith's Cove, 3 6 , 1 2, 
19.VII.1945; White Pt. Bch.. Queens Co., 1 6, 20VII.1934; Petite Riviere, 
1 6, 1 2, ll.VII and 16.VII.1935; Baddeck, 1 6, 24.VI.1936 (J. McDunnough) 
[C.N.Coll.]; Annapolis, 1 S, 21. VI. 1946 (McD. and Ferguson) [C.N.Coll.]. 

Prince Edward Island : Prackley Beach Can. Nat. Park, 1 2 , 24VII.1940 
(G. S. Walley) [C.N.Coll.]. 

Quebec: Knowlton, 1 6, ll.VII. 1929 (J. McDunnough), 1 $, 1 2, 30.VI, 
1 VII. 1936 (G. S. Walley) [C.N.Coll.]; D. Golf Club, 1 $, 15VII.1925 (F. P. 
Ide) [C.N.Coll.] ; Newago, Lake St. Francis, 1 6 (H. S. Parish) [Cornell U.]. 

The type series of errans was reared from larvae feeding on Aster 
shortii Lindl. Although no specimens except this type series have been 
reared, other species of Aster replace Aster shortii as a food plant in 
the more northern localities. On Aster shortii, the larva makes a long 
contorted and sometimes spiral mine, which becomes noticeable on the 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



58 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

leaf in autumn (fig. 44). In early November, in a slight enlargement 
at the end of the mine, the larva spins a flat circular yellow wintering 
cocoon (fig. 44a), similar in appearance to the moulting cocoon of 
other species, but of dense texture, within which it lies curled during 
the winter. In March of the following year, it leaves this cocoon by a 
circular opening, and bores into a growing shoot just below the tip, 
hollowing out the stem, and killing the top of the shoot. It feeds down- 
ward, usually eating out the contents of the stem for about an inch ; 
when full-grown it escapes by a circular hole near the lowest part of 
the burrow. The cocoon (fig. 44b), which is white or pale yellowish, 
with seven or eight low ridges, is spun on dead stems and twigs lying 
near the food plant, but apparently never on the food plant. Of the in- 
numerable mines which may be present on a plant, often a half dozen 
to a single leaf, only some four or five can survive on the few shoots of 
the plant in the spring. 

In cuneigera, the dark markings corresponding to the ocherous or 
dark-dusted markings of other species of the section have so greatly 
expanded as to become the apparent ground color, here so considered ; 
the white marks correspond to the white ground of the other species, 
here greatly reduced in extent. 

The ground color of the specimens from Highlands, North Carolina 
is dark blackish brown, almost sooty black ; these specimens agree more 
closely in coloration with the specimen from the type series of cuneigera 
(cited above). 

Section II 
Species 17 to 64 

Nearly one-half of the North American species are assigned to this 
section. Members of the plant family Compositae are hosts to all spe- 
cies whose food plants are known with the exception of Bucculatrix 
pallidula new species and B. taeniola new species, both of which are re- 
ported on members of the Labiatae. Within this section the greatest 
variety and specialization of genitalia are seen ( Plates XIV to XXXII). 
In the male, shape and armature of the harpes and socii, and shape of 
the aedeagus vary. The cucuilus of the harpe is often defined by spe- 
cialized setae, sometimes modified into short blunt cones (figs. 99, 100, 
105, 108, 116, 168). The presence of such conical setae may be taken 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 59 

as a diagnostic character indicating assignment to this section and the 
probability of a Composite food plant. Such setae are however com- 
monly present in members of Section I, also Composite feeders. The 
harpe may show a slight indication of lohing (figs. 127, 130, 134) or 
finally may he almost divided (fig. 108). The female genitalia show 
development from a comparatively simple unspecialized type to a highly 
specialized type culminating in the modification of the inner margins of 
the ovipositor lobes into rasping rods, and the transfer of the function 
of the ovipositor to the vagina with its specialized vaginal setae (Braun, 
1958). Other specializations of the female genitalia include tufts or 
patches of specialized scales on segment 8 and on the intersegmental 
membrane (Plates XXI, XXIII, XXIV, XXVIII, XXIX, XXXII) 
or sclerotized outgrowths on segment 8 (Plates XXI, XXVI, XXVII, 
XXVIII). 

On the basis of the structure of the ninth abdominal segment of the 
female, the section is divided into two subsections. 

Subsection A. — Species 17 to 46. Segment 9 of the abdomen of 
the female not modified; ovipositor typical, consisting of two soft hairy 
lobes (Plates XIV to XXIV). 

Subsection B. — Species 47 to 64. Segment 9 of the abdomen of 
the female modified ; inner margins of the ovipositor lobes developed 
into rasping rods or cutting points, remaining areas of the ovipositor 
lobes flattened and fused with the membranous portion of the ninth 
segment ; the exserted vagina, with its specialized vaginal setae, func- 
tions as an ovipositor (Plates XXV to XXXII). 

Subsection A 
(17) Bucculatrix albaciliella Braun (Figs. 86, 87, 87a.) 

1910. Bucculatrix albaciliella Braun, Ent. News XXI : 175. Type $, Mills Col- 
lege, Alameda County, California [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Face and tuft white, the tuft with a few ocherous hairs centrally; eye-caps 
white, stalk gray, antennal notch slight. Thorax and fore wings snowy white. 
Fore wings marked with pale ocherous, often faint, spots and streaks ; a short 
streak in fold near base; a small spot just within the costa before middle of 
wing, a similarly placed, but larger and slightly oblique spot just beyond middle 
of wing which is in line with an oblique transverse spot running into the termen 
and is sometimes faintly connected with it; opposite the space between the two 
costal marks, a short streak in fold ; a few ocherous scales on costa before apex ; 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



60 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

cilia white. Hind wings, especially in male, faintly tinged with gray, cilia 
white. Legs whitish, tibiae and tarsi shaded with gray. Abdomen very pale 
grayish ocherous. 

Alar expanse 8 to 9 mm. 

Male genitalia (fig. 86). Setae of harpe short and heavy toward apex; socii 
widely separated, short, setose; anellus conical, abruptly contracting above mid- 
dle ; aedeagus slender toward tip, entrance of penis elongate. Scale sac small. 

Female genitalia (figs. 87, 87a). Ovipositor two soft lobes; ostium in a 
broad cup-shaped depression ; sclerotized basal half of segment 8 clothed laterally 
with short slender scales, an oval hyaline spot near anterior lateral angle ; ductus 
bursae slender and membranous throughout, signum a very obliquely placed ring, 
ribs long-spined. 

Specimens examined. — 6 $ , 4 2 . 

California: Mills College, Alameda County, $ type, May 11, 1908, 4 $, 
3 2 paratypes, May 11 and May 20 (G. R. Pilate) [A.F.B.Coll.], 15,12 para- 
types, May 11 and May 20 (G. R. Pilate) [U.S.N.M.]. 

Food plant and early stages unknown. 

The markings suggest a close relationship to B. ochristrigella 
Braun, which is confirmed by the similarity of genitalia in both sexes. 
Superficially albaciliella is easily distinguished from ochristrigella by 
its snowy white color and minor details of wing markings. 

(18) Bucculatrix ochristrigella Braun (Figs. 27, 84, 85, 85a.) 

1910. Bucculatrix ochristrigella Braun, Ent. News XXI : 175. Type $ , Mills 
College, Alameda County, California [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Face and head creamy white, a few grayish brown hairs in the tuft; eye-caps 
small, with a median ocherous stripe, antennal stalk gray, faintly narrowly paler 
annulate. Thorax creamy white, anterior margin of thorax and tegulae pale 
ocherous. Fore wings creamy white marked with pale ocherous spots and 
streaks ; a narrow streak along basal third of costa ; along fold a basal streak 
broadening outwardly and reaching nearly to one-third ; before middle within 
the costal margin, an elongate patch ; beyond middle, an oblique streak from 
costa to the middle of termen, opposite its end the cilia of termen are brown- 
tipped; a small triangular costal spot beyond this; from middle of dorsum an 
oblique curved streak which crosses the fold; along termen below apex the 
ocherous color forms a streak extending into the cilia at apex, where they are 
brown-tipped. Hind wings and cilia pale ocherous in female, sometimes grayish 
in male. Legs pale grayish ocherous. Abdomen whitish, shaded with gray in 
male. 

Alar expanse 11 to 12 mm. 



ANNETTE F. BRA IX 61 

-Male genitalia (figs. 85, 85a). Similar to genitalia of albaciliella, differing 
in the longer socii. slender almost cylindrical anellns, and shape of aedeagus. 
Scale sac more or less spherical. 

Female genitalia (fig. 84). Sclerotized part of segment 8 clothed with long 
slender scales, a denser tuft of short and long hair-scales laterally, adjacent to 
a circular depressed hyaline spot; ostium in a broad cup-shaped depression, each 
lateral margin produced into a sharp free point ; signum a narrow ring, spines 
short and abruptly sharp. 

Specimens examined. — 18 6.7 9, 47 6. 9. 

California: Mills College, Alameda County, 6 type, 9 6,39 paratypes, 
19 paratypes, sex not determined, May 11, May 20 (G. R. Pilate) [A.F.B.Coll.] ; 
5 6.2 9 paratypes, May 3 to May 11 (G. R. Pilate) [U.S.N.M.] ; Colfax, 
Placer County, 2 6.19. May 1, 1910 (A. H. Vachell) [U.S.N.M.] ; Los 
Angeles County. 28 6, 9. April [U.S.N.M.] ; San Diego, 1 6. 4-14-07 (W. S. 
Wright). 1 9 [U.S.N.M.]. 

Food plant and early stages unknown. 

In B. ochristrigclla, the minute labial palpi, slender, downward 
projecting points, are easily discernible. 

B. ochristrigclla is separated from its nearest ally, B. albaciliella, by 
the creamy white color of the fore wings, and the ocherous streak ex- 
tending along termen into the apical cilia. Genitalia of both sexes in- 
dicate the close relationship of the two species. 

(19) Bucculatrix eurotiella Walsingham 

(Figs. 88, 88a, 88b, 88c, 89, 89a, 90.) 

1907. Bucculatrix eurotiella Walsingham, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XXXIII: 221. 

Type 2, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, California [U.S.N.M., Type 

No. 10352]. 
1925. Bucculatrix chrysothamni Braun, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. LI : 219. Type 

6, Logan, Cache County, Utah [A.F.B.Coll.]. New synonymy. 

Head and tuft white, antennal stalk white with gray or blackish annulations, 
nearly white near base. Thorax white, or sometimes faintly ocherous anteri- 
orly. Fore wings white, marked with patches of ocherous and brown-tipped 
ocherous scales; a small such patch at basal third of costa (sometimes repre- 
sented by a few scales only) ; a large patch of such scales beyond middle of 
costa sometimes extends as a pale ocherous shade across the wing there joining 
a similar patch of scales on dorsum nearer base, thus forming an inwardly 
oblique transverse band; the costal portion of this band may be connected by a 
line of scales with a patch of ocherous and brown-tipped scales of variable size 
and extent along the termen, which may project basad as an acute triangle; this 
patch continues to apex as a marginal row of dark-tipped scales and projects 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



62 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

into the cilia at apex; the inner edge of the dorsal patch bears, just below fold, 
a more or less conspicuous group of broadly brown or blackish-tipped scales ; 
either the costal or dorsal patch of scales may be indistinct or lacking; a small 
patch of dark-tipped scales (sometimes absent) on costa near apex, a line of 
dark-tipped scales through middle of cilia along termen ; cilia on costa near apex 
white, grayish toward tornus. Hind wings pale brownish gray, palest in fe- 
males. Legs whitish, middle tibiae gray-striped, all tarsal segments gray-tipped. 
Abdomen pale grayish ocherous. 

Alar expanse 8 to 10 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 88, 88a, 88b, 88c). Harpe slender, almost cylindrical, 
but broadening basally, dense black setae on outer fourth ; socii widely sepa- 
rated, about twice as long as broad, setae long; anellus sclerotized ventrally; 
aedeagus appearing as if jointed, apical portion slender, bent, arising from a 
depression in the broader basal portion; vinculum narrow. Scale sac (fig. 88c) 
tapering to small base. 

Female genitalia (figs. 89, 89a, 90). Ovipositor lobes elongate; ostium open- 
ing into a deep furrow, its sclerotized sides curving outward ; inception of ductus 
seminalis almost at ostium ; beneath the produced lateral lobes of segment 7, a 
fan of specialized scales attached to the intersegmental membrane, the lobes of 7 
margined with slender scales (fig. 90) ; lateral margins of segment 8 produced 
anteriorly into slender prongs (anterior apophyses) ; ductus bursae slender 
throughout ; bursa copulatrix large, occupying segments 2 to 5 ; signum almost 
longitudinally placed, two broad lateral bands of spined ribs, joined anteriorly 
(ventrally) and posteriorly (dorsally) by a series of short ribs. 

Specimens examined. — 27 8, 17 9. 

California : Lancaster, Los Angeles County, 9 type, " Larva from leaves of 
Eurotia canata [? = lanata (Pursh) Moq.]. Pupa in a white ribbed cocoon, 
issued May, 1880 (A. Koebele, collector) " [U.S.N. M.] ; Mint Canyon, Los 
Angeles County, 1 8, "larva on Senecio sp., emdg. April 26, 1939" (J. A. 
Comstock) [U.S.N.M.] ; Love Joy Buttes, Los Angeles County, 12 8, 7 9, 
•' emdg. April 18, 1940" (Lloyd M. Martin) [Los Angeles County Museum]. 

Utah: Cache County (near Logan), 8 type of chrysothamni, 10 8 , 9 9, 
paratypes of chrysothamni, June 25, 1924 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.] ; 1 8, 
June 25, 1924 (A. F. Braun) [A.N.S.P.]. 

British Columbia: Shingle Creek, Penticton, 1 8, June 25, 1935 (A. N. 
Gartrell) [C.N. Coll.] ; Seton Lake, Lillooet, 1 8, June 13, 1926 (J. McDun- 
nough) [C.N. Coll.]. 

The identification of the food plant of the type as Eurotia canata 
[ ? lanata], belonging to the Chenopodiaceae, is most certainly an error. 
Genitalia slides of females of the Chrysothammis-ieedmg and Senecio- 
feeding specimens agree in all respects with a slide of the female (not 
male, as stated by Walsingham) type, by J. F. G. Clarke. Such a di- 



ANNETTE F. BRA UN 63 

versity of food plants (members of unrelated plant families) is un- 
known in the genus. 

No details of larval habits are available. The white cocoon of this 
species is distinguished from the smooth cocoon of B. seneciensis, when 
the two species are reared together on the same food plant ( Senecio 
sp. ), by the eight distinct ridges. 

Misled by the recorded food plant as Eurotia, specimens collected 
resting at the tips of the linear leaves of Chrysothamnus graveolens 
(Nutt. ) Greene were described as chrysothamni. 

The California series of specimens are more conspicuously and 
more clearly marked than the Utah specimens and agree more closely 
with the type. 

The distinctive wing markings separate this species from all other 
described American species. Genitalia, especially of the female, indi- 
cate affinity with the following species, B. tenebricosa Braun. The 
aspect of the latter is however very different, and it will not be con- 
fused with B. eurotiella by superficial examination. 

(20) Bucculatrix tenebricosa Braun (Figs. 91, 92.) 

1925. Bucculatrix tenebricosa Braun, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. LI : 220. Type 
3, near Logan, Cache County, Utah [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Head and tuft white ; antennal stalk white with broad dark gray annulations. 
Thorax white. Fore wings white, with scattered pale brownish-tipped scales 
and clusters of dark brown-tipped scales, which form ill-defined markings ; a 
cluster of a few of these scales before middle of costa, a larger such cluster 
beyond middle of costa, and a small patch of raised dark scales below fold ; dark- 
tipped scales extend along the base of the costal cilia and around apex to tornus, 
forming at the apex a scattered patch ; a line of black-tipped scales crosses the 
cilia opposite apex and continues as an irregular line to tornus. Hind wings 
silvery gray with white cilia. Legs white, tibiae and tarsi of the fore and mid- 
dle legs broadly banded with gray, hind tarsal segments only banded with gray. 
Abdomen pale gray. 

Alar expanse 7 mm. 

Male genitalia (fig. 92). Harpes slender, tapering rapidly to the very nar- 
row cylindrical apical third, heavy setae at apex ; socii widely separated, elon- 
gate, three times as long as broad, very thin membranous, fine setose ; anellus a 
tapering cone; aedeagus broad at base, tapering, appearing as if jointed, the 
outer portion slender and curved, arising from a depression in the broader basal 
portion ; vinculum a broad band. Scale sac elongate pear-shaped. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



64 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Female genitalia (fig. 91). Ovipositor lobes short; ostium opening into a 
deep furrow, its sclerotized sides curving outward ; produced lateral lobes of seg- 
ment 7 with curved specialized scales ; a cluster of scale sockets at anterior 
lateral margin of segment 8 indicates the probable presence of a tuft of special- 
ized scales (lost on the slide) ; ductus bursae slender throughout; signum a 
transversely placed ring, signum ribs with long slender spines. 

Specimens examined. — 2 5,1$. 

Utah : near Logan, Cache County, S type, 15,1? paratype, June 25, 
1924, flying amongst rabbit brush, Chryspthamnus graveolens (Nutt. ) Greene, 
(A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Known only from the three specimens of the type series. Food 
plant and early stages unknown. 

By genitalia, B. tenebricosa is closely allied to eurotiella Wlsm. In 
the male, it differs from eurotiella by the very broad base of aedeagus, 
and the longer, slender socii ; in the female, by the broad short oviposi- 
tor lobes, and especially by the very different signum, a transverse ring 
in tenebricosa, an elongate, longitudinally placed ellipse in eurotiella. 
The moths are distinct in general appearance, although the ill-defined 
wing markings of tenebricosa are situated as in eurotiella. 

(21) Bucculatrix ericameriae new species (Figs. 93, 93a, 93b.) 

Face and tuft white, eye-caps white, a few basal segments of antennal stalk 
entirely white, remainder of stalk conspicuously blackish-annulate. Fore wings 
white, with markings formed by brown-tipped ocherous scales ; a line of such 
scales along costa from base diverges from costa just before middle forming a 
short slender oblique streak not attaining the middle of the wing; from two- 
thirds of costa, a broader oblique streak crosses the wing to tornus, the scales 
of its outer margin more broadly blackish-tipped ; before apex, an irregular 
costal spot, its inner margin touching the outer margin of the oblique streak in 
the middle of the wing; on middle of dorsum, a large irregular spot, inwardly 
margined by a row of blackish scales, and bearing on fold a few raised scales ; 
a short line of blackish-tipped scales opposite apex in the cilia, and a second line 
of such scales through the white cilia from apex to tornus. Hind wings and 
cilia fuscous. Legs whitish, tarsal segments conspicuously dark-tipped. Abdo- 
men shaded with fuscous above, whitish beneath. 

Alar expanse 8 mm. 

Female genitalia (figs. 93, 93a, 93b). Ovipositor lobes setose, with minute 
setae amongst the larger setae ; near posterior margin of segment 8, a pair of 
membranous lobes, clothed with remarkable flattened specialized setae lying 
nearly in a dorso-ventral plane ; each seta consists of a thin plate broad at the 
tip, the margin of one side thickened (fig. 93a) so that when viewed from the 
ventral side they appear as slender curved hairs (fig. 93) ; ostium small, round, 



ANNETTE V. BRAUN 65 

opening into a broad elongate sinus, with widely flaring margins; groups of 
specialized scales on posterior margin of segment 7 (position indicated on the 
figure by scale sockets) ; signum ribs with long slender spines, and an occasional 
heavier spine (fig. 93b). 

Type. — 2, Placerville, California, 5-1-16, on Ericameria arborescens (Gray) 
Greene, F. B. Herbert. Coll. [U.S.N.M., Type No. 65019]. 
Paratype. — 2 , same data as the type. 

Only the female is known. 

Although this species displays a general type of markings common 
to many western species of the genus, the unusual female genitalia will 
serve to separate it from all other species of our fauna. 

(22) Bucculatrix variabilis Braun (Figs. 94, 94a, 95, 95a.) 

1910. Bucculatrix variabilis Braun, Ent. News XXI: 176. Type 8, Mills Col- 
lege, Alameda County, California [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Face grayish white, tuft with intermingled whitish, brown and fuscous hairs, 
eye-caps whitish, minutely fuscous-speckled, stalk narrowly dark-annulate. Tho- 
rax grayish, scales fuscous-tipped. Fore wings clothed with fuscous-tipped 
scales, their bases whitish, thus giving the wing an irrorated aspect; just before 
middle of wing a pair of oblique curved white streaks, meeting or nearly meet- 
ing above the fold ; except for the dark inner margin of the costal streak, the 
ground color is paler basad of these streaks ; at apical third of costa a nearly 
perpendicular white costal streak which meets in the middle of the wing the 
apices of a pair of streaks, the first from beyond middle of dorsum outwardly 
oblique and parallel to the first dorsal streak, the second from beyond tornus in- 
wardly oblique ; the median area of the wing between the white streaks much 
darkened, especially in its dorsal half, which bears on its inner margin a black- 
ish patch of slightly raised scales; before apex a curved white costal streak, 
sometimes indistinct, which partially encloses the apex ; an irregular black apical 
dot from which a line of dark-tipped scales extends along termen to the white 
streak ; a curved line of dark-tipped scales in cilia around apex. Hind wings 
pale gray. Legs pale gray, tarsal segments dark-tipped. Abdomen silvery gray. 

Alar expanse 7 to 8 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 94, 94a). Harpe with heavy setae apically, setae pro- 
gressively more slender proximad ; socii widely separated at base, slender, elon- 
gate, curved, their apices directed toward each other; uncus present, a small 
sharp hook ; anellus with two broad thickened lobes dorsally, otherwise thin 
membranous ; aedeagus appearing as if segmented, the slender apical section 
arising in a depression of the broader basal section ; vinculum a band. Scale sac 
present. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



66 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Female genitalia (figs. 95, 95a). Ostium in a deep cup-shaped chamber, 
nearly as deep as the length of the anterior half of segment 7, which overlays it ; 
lateral posterior ventral margins of segment 7 produced as fiat plates, densely 
clothed with minute scales and margined outwardly by regularly placed short 
comb-like scales (fig. 95a) ; signum a broad ring near posterior end of bursa 
copulatrix, signum ribs with evenly placed long spines. 

Specimens examined. — 8 $,99. 

California : Mills College, Alameda County, S type, rearing record B.226, 
on Baccharis pilularis DC, imago May 12, 1908 (G. R. Pilate) [A.F.B.Coll.], 
2 2 paratypes, rearing record B.226, imagoes April 25, 1908 [A.F.B.Coll.], 
1 8 paratype, March 25 (G. R. Pilate) [U.S.N.M., genitalia slide], 2 2 para- 
types March 25 (G. R. Pilate) [A.F.B.Coll.]; 1 2, reared, imago April 23, 
accompanied by cocoons (W. D. Kearfott) [U.S.N.M., 2 genitalia slide] ; San 
Francisco, 1 2, reared on Baccharis pilularis (H. H. Keifer) [A.F.B.Coll.]; 
Berkeley, 1 2 , on Baccharis, imago March 18, 1926 (W. W. Jones) [A.F.B. 
Coll.]; Stanford, Santa Clara County, 1 2, March 10 [U.S.N.M.], 5 $, 2 2, 
reared on Baccharis, imagoes from February 5 to April 15 (J. W. Tilden) 
[A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Food plant, Baccharis pilularis DC. In the original description of 
the species the food plant was incorrectly identified. Cocoon whitish, 
with six low ridges and a partial seventh ridge. 

The name z'ariabilis is hereby restricted to those specimens of the 
original series agreeing with the above description. The statement in 
the original description " sometimes the white color predominates " 
applies to the following closely related species, feeding on the same 
food plant at the same time. 

Forbes in the Lepidoptera of New York and Neighboring States 
(1923) sunk z'ariabilis as a synonym of ainsliella Murtf. The two 
species are in no way related, belonging" to different sections of the 
genus, and there is no basis for the synonymy. McDunnough in the 
Checklist of Lepidoptera of Canada and the United States of America, 
Part II (1939) correctly lists the two species. 

(23) Bucculatrix separabilis new species (Figs. 96, 96a, 97, 97a.) 

1910. Bucculatrix variabilis Braun (in part), Ent. News XXI: 176. 

Face and tuft white, the latter with brown hairs centrally ; antennal stalk 
white with conspicuous black annulations. Thorax white, speckled with black- 
tipped ocherous scales. Fore wings white, marked with scattered black-tipped 
ocherous scales, and with groups of ocherous and black-tipped ocherous scales, 
which form rather well-defined markings ; except for a line of black-tipped scales 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 67 

alone: costa, the basal third of the wing above the fold is immaculate ; scattered 
dark-tipped scales extend along- the fold and above it toward middle of wing and 
clot the wing below fold in its basal half; an oblique streak of dark-tipped scales 
from basal third of costa, and a similar but broader streak from middle of costa, 
separated from one another by a narrow white streak ; an ill-defined white streak 
beyond the second dark streak ; on middle of dorsum a large patch of dark-tipped 
scales, with a few black raised scales on its inner edge ; ocherous scales, often 
not dark-tipped, form a patch which may start as a longitudinal streak along the 
middle of the wing, curving downward and widening as it reaches dorsum be- 
fore tornus, and bordered on termen by raised black-tipped scales ; ocherous 
scales predominate in the apical area of the wing; a few black scales form an 
irregular apical spot; a line of black-tipped white scales through the cilia from 
apex along termen. Hind wings pale yellowish gray. Legs pale yellowish gray, 
tarsal segments black-tipped. Abdomen pale yellow gray, fuscous posteriorly, 
except anal segments whitish. 

Alar expanse 8 to 8.2 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 96, 96a). Similar to male genitalia of B. variabilis, but 
best distinguished by the short and broader erect socii ; anellus without the thick- 
ened dorsal lobes. Scale sac present. 

Female genitalia (figs. 97, 97a). Ostium in a cup-shaped chamber, similar to 
that of B. variabilis, but narrower and less than half its depth ; lateral lobes of 
segment 7 rounded, clothed with short slender scales ; signum as in variabilis. 

Type. — 2 , Stanford, Santa Clara County, California, reared on Baccharis, 
imago April 28, 1946 (J. W. Tilden) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Allotype. — S, same data as the type, except date of emergence, April 27 
[A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Paratypes. — 1 8,1 2 , Stanford, California, reared on Baccharis, imagoes 
April 27 and 28, 1946; 2 S , Stanford University, reared on Baccharis, imagoes 
March 17 and 27 (J. W. Tilden) [A.F.B.Coll.]; 1 $, Stanford University, 
April 1, 1947 (J. W. Tilden) [U.S.N.M.] ; 2 <? , Half Moon Bay, California, on 
Baccharis pilularis, April 26, 1937 (W. H. Lange) [A.F.B.Coll.]; 1 5, Mills 
College, California, rearing record B.226, on Baccharis pilularis DC, imago 
May 12, 1908 (G. R. Pilate) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Bucculatrix separabilis and B. variabilis feed together on the same 
food plant (Baccharis pilularis DC), and specimens of both species 
may be obtained in the same rearing. At the time of describing vari- 
abilis they were erroneously regarded as a single variable species. The 
two species are separated by wing markings which show little intra- 
specific variation, and no intergrading. The close genetic relationship 
of the two species is indicated by the genitalia, especially by the unique 
character of the female genitalia; they differ by qualitative characters 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



68 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

of both sexes. These two sympatric species, one of a number of paired 
(sibling) species occurring in this genus, are an outstanding example 
of speciation without isolation. 

(24) Bucculatrix brunnescens new species (Figs. 99, 99a, 99b.) 

Face whitish, tuft mingled white and brownish ocherous, eye-caps white, an- 
tennal stalk whitish ocherous, with somewhat darker ocherous annulations. Fore 
wings whitish (with slight ocherous tinge) , dusted with scattered brownish ocher- 
ous scales ; markings formed by groups of closely placed brown-tipped ocherous 
scales ; at middle of wing a narrow oblique costal streak ; beyond middle a more 
conspicuous streak, broad on costa and continued as a narrow line of scales to 
termen ; apical area occupied by brown-tipped scales, with a few darker scales 
at extreme apex; at middle of dorsum, an irregular patch of brown-tipped scales, 
produced distally along fold ; cilia pale fuscous. Hind wings pale grayish, faintly 
ocherous tinged, cilia concolorous. Legs whitish, segments dark-tipped. 

Alar expanse 6.5 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 99, 99a, 99b). Harpes broadly rounded at apex, with 
short conical setae; socii broadly triangular, setose; anal region minutely spinu- 
lose ; anellus swollen before tip ; vinculum asymmetric, the left lobe broader ; 
aedeagus sinuate before apex, cornutus present, a slender decumbent curved 
tooth. Scale sac small, scries few. 

Type— 2, Elk Point, South Dakota, 1914 (C. N. Ainslie) [U.S.N. M., Type 
No. 65020]. 

Although nothing is known of the early stages of this species, the 
conical setae of harpe suggest a Composite feeder. 

The characteristic genitalia and the brownish markings on a whit- 
ish ground color distinguish this species. 

(25) Bucculatrix evanescens new species (Figs. 98, 98a, 103, 103a, 104.) 

Face and head creamy white, tuft tinged with straw color centrally ; eye-caps 
cream)' white, antennal stalk annulate with pale gray. Thorax and fore wings 
creamy white. The fore wings may be almost immaculate, except for a faint 
yellowish shade along basal half of costa, a small black dot at end of cell and a 
few minute black specks in the cilia, or with faint longitudinal pale yellowish 
shading, sometimes a single black scale below basal fourth of fold, a few black 
scales at two-thirds of fold, a few scattered dark scales in the yellowish streak- 
ing, especially at outer third of costa, and two faint lines of scales in the cilia 
(all these markings present and most distinct in the type $ , faint or absent in 
the allotype ?, distinguishable in some of the paratypes). Hind wings and cilia 
creamy white, concolorous with the fore wings. Legs creamy white, sometimes 
outwardly shaded with pale gray, tarsal segments dark-tipped. Abdomen pale 
grayish straw-colored, with some darker shading. 



AXXETTE F. BRAUN 69 

Alar expanse 5.8 to 7 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 98, 98a). Harpes club-shaped, apex with heavy widely 
spaced setae; tegumen long, socii very small, widely separated, only the small 
rounded apex setose ; anellus a truncated cone ; aedeagus cylindric, forked at 
apex, with opposing teeth; vinculum quadrate. Scale sac bilobed. 

Female genitalia (tigs. 103, 103a, 104). Ovipositor setose, membrane micro- 
scopically spinulose ; sternite of segment 8 clothed with pigmented specialized 
scales, of which two groups of such specialized scales are most prominent, one 
of these attached to the intersegmental membrane at its posterior margin and 
lying lateral to ostium, the other attached along a longitudinal band near the 
lateral margin ; other specialized scales, some long, some short and more or less 
trapezoidal are present along the lateral margins of the eighth sternite (fig. 104) ; 
ostium at anterior margin of 8, the furrow beyond with sclerotized branched 
margins, ending anteriorly in curved free points; inception of ductus seminalis 
on dorsal side of ostium ; ductus bursae narrow in segment 7, at first abruptly 
and then gradually widening to bursa; signum open ventrally between its long- 
est ribs, narrow and weak dorsally; signum ribs strongly sclerotized, spines few. 

Typc.— S, Olancha, Inyo County, California, June 16-23 [U.S.N.M., Type 
No. 65021]. 

Allotype.— 9, same data as the type [U.S.N.M.]. 

Paratypes. — 1 $ , Olancha, Inyo County, California, June 16-23 [U.S.N.M.] ; 
1 $, Havilah, Kern County, California, June 1-7 [U.S.N.M.]; 3 5, Boyce 
Thompson Arboretum, Superior, Arizona, July 11, 12, 13, 1939 (A. F. Braun) 
[A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Food plant and early stages unknown. 

The creamy white fore wings may aid in recognition of this species, 
but the unique genitalia, especially the remarkable scaling of segment 8 
of the female will identify this species with certainty. The wing ex- 
panse of the three xArizona specimens measures a scant 5.8 mm. 

(26) Bucculatrix benenotata new species (Fig. 102.) 

Face white, with gray shading; forward projecting section of the tuft gray, 
the gray color continuing as a streak along the middle of the eye-cap; the up- 
right and backward projecting section of mingled gray and white hairs; anten- 
nal stalk whitish, with broad gray annulations. Thorax white, gray dusted; 
tegulae anteriorly dark gray. Basic color of the fore wing white, the white 
color somewhat obscured by gray-tipped scales; along costa from base a con- 
spicuous brownish gray streak, becoming obsolete at the middle of the wing 
length ; dorsad of this a wedge-shaped white area immaculate except for a sprin- 
kling of conspicuous black scales ; between the white wedge and the dorsum ex- 
cept for a white spot at the inner edge of a group of black scales on the fold, 
the wing is clothed with very small pale gray scales which are minutely dark 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



70 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

gray-tipped (a few black scales may dot this area) ; the outer half of the wing 
is more coarsely and unevenly dusted; a more or less denned group of dark- 
tipped scales near middle of dorsum includes the black scales on fold ; this group 
of scales may be extended obliquely outward to costa ; a small elongate black 
dot at end of cell ; marginal scales at apex and along termen distinctly dark- 
tipped; a short row of dark-tipped scales around apex in the cilia. Hind wings 
and cilia pale silvery gray. Fore and middle tibiae dark gray, posterior tibiae 
silvery gray, all tarsal segments dark gray-tipped. Abdomen dark leaden gray. 

Alar expanse 8 mm. 

Female genitalia (fig. 102). Ovipositor lobes setose, membrane microscopi- 
cally spinulose; segment 8 clothed with groups of pigmented specialized scales; 
a pair of arcs of very dark-pigmented small scales curves outward and posteri- 
orly from near the mid-anterior ventral margin of segment 8, forming the most 
conspicuous structure of the segment; groups of elongate scales within and at- 
tached posterior to the arcs ; near posterior lateral margins of sternite, spreading 
clusters of scales directed toward mid-line ; near anterior margin of tergite of 8, 
a patch of minute specialized scales partially visible between the groups of scales 
on sternite; ostium at the anterior margin of 8, the furrow beyond it with 
sclerotized branched margins, ending anteriorly in curved free points ; inception 
of ductus seminalis on dorsal side of ostium ; signum narrow, open dorsally for 
a wide space, spines few. 

Type. — 2, Pena Blanca Canyon, Santa Cruz County, Arizona, 26 August, 
1959 (R. W. Hodges) [Cornell U., Type No. 3642]. 

Allotype. — S , same data as the type, except date August 11, (R. W. Hodges) 
[Cornell U., Type No. 3642]. (Received too late to include description and 
figure of male genitalia.) 

Paratypes. — 1 2 , same data as the type, 2 2 , same data as the allotype 
(R. W. Hodges) [Cornell U.]. 

Food plant and early stages unknown. 

The female genitalia indicate the close relationship of B. benenotata 
new species and B. evanescens new species. The dark-pigmented arcs 
on segment 8 of the female characterize B. benenotata. The contrast 
in coloration of the wings of the two species would not immediately 
suggest this relationship ; however they agree in the presence of a stripe 
along costa from base, and a black dot at end of cell. 

(27) Bucculatrix floccosa Braun (Figs. 100, 100a, 100b, 101, 101a, 101b.) 

1923. Bucculatrix floccosa Braun, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. XLIX : 124. Type 
2, Olancha, Inyo County, California [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Face white, tuft white, some brownish hairs centrally ; eye-caps white, a few 
basal segments of the antennal stalk white with very faint and narrow ocherous 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 71 

annulationSj remaining segments white at base, each segment shading through 
ocherous to dark brown, tips of antennae darker. Fore wings white, marked 
with patches of pale yellow brown-tipped scales; a few such scales just within 
the costa near base, sometimes forming a line reaching to one-third the wing 
length and there meeting an oblique streak or patch extending about one-third 
across the wing; beyond middle of costa a second and larger oblique streak end- 
ing in the middle of the wing in a group of black-tipped scales ; before apex on 
costa, a more or less triangular patch of brown-tipped scales ; in the middle of 
the wing at about basal fourth, a patch of brown-tipped scales, irregular and 
sometimes diffuse and indistinct; on middle of dorsum, a large patch of brown- 
tipped scales, attaining the middle of the wing, a few of the scales on its inner 
margin black-tipped and raised ; brown-tipped scales at apex, a few of these 
sometimes black-tipped, and along termen forming at tornus a somewhat notice- 
able patch ; scales, black-tipped opposite apex, sometimes continue through the 
white cilia to tornus as a faint line. Hind wings yellow white. Legs white, 
tarsal segments black-tipped. Abdomen whitish. 

Alar expanse 8 to 8.8 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 100, 100a, 100b). Harpe with small apical lobe (cucul- 
lus) clothed with heavy conical setae; tegumen long with basal strong sclero- 
tization, its lateral prongs free at tips; socii setose, small, short, rounded; uncus 
present, a sharp curved hook ; anellus broad at base tapering to oblique aper- 
ture ; aedeagus large, more than half the length of the body, basal half wide, 
thence abruptly and irregularly narrowing to the slender curved apex ; vinculum 
narrow, with strongly sclerotized median band. Scale sac present, small. 

Female genitalia (figs. 101, 101a, 101b). Surface of ovipositor lobes micro- 
scopically tuberculate between setae ; on each side of ostium on segment 8, a 
large patch (nearly half the width of the sternite) of minute specialized scales 
with strongly sclerotized margin toward mid-ventral line and at its anterior end 
(fig. 101a) ; ostium rounded, ductus bursae contracted immediately before ostium, 
but almost at once expanding nearly to the diameter of the bursa, contracting 
slightly before entering bursa copulatrix ; signum a narrow ring, open mid-ven- 
trally, indistinct dorsally, signum ribs (fig. 101b) short, with a few long spines, 
some of dorsal ribs with a single spine. 

Specimens examined. — 6 $, 4 2. 

California: Olancha, Inyo County, 2 type, May 11, 1917 (G. R. Pilate) 
[A.F.B.Coll.], 3 2 paratypes, May 19, 22, June 16, 1917, 1 $ paratype, May 22, 
1917 [A.F.B.Coll.]; 1 <5 , Monache Meadows, 8000', Tulare County, July 17, 
1917; 1 2, Palm Springs, March 28, 1917; 1 $, Loma Linda, June 5, 1912 
(G. R. Pilate) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Nevada: Pyramid Lake, 2 S [U.S.N.M.]. 

In the Palm Springs specimen (determined as this species by gen- 
italia slide) most of the scales of the markings are blackish tipped, and 
less scattered, producing a general grayish aspect. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



71 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

The characteristic genitalia of both sexes serve to identify this spe- 
cies; in the male, the long irregular aedeagus, small socii and apical 
lobe of harpe ; in the female, the scale patches on segment 8, of a char- 
acter present in no other species. 

(28) Bucculatrix flourensiae new species (Figs. 105, 105a, 105b, 106, 107.) 

Face and head, including eye-caps and tuft silvery white, the latter with a 
central line of brown hairs ; antennal stalk gray, with paler annulations. Thorax 
white, sometimes with minute grayish ocherous speckling. Head and thorax 
conspicuously contrasting with the dark wings. Basic ground color of the fore 
wings grayish wdiite, with faint ocherous tinge, but with most of the scales shad- 
ing through ocherous to blackish brown at their tips, so that the prevailing color 
is a speckled rather dark grayish brown, with merely a few streaks and spots 
of the basic ground color visible ; such spots and streaks are delimited by scales 
darker-tipped than those making up the prevailing color ; before middle of costa 
a pale oblique streak curving to middle of wing, and followed by a streak of dark 
scales of equal width ; beyond this a second similar pale streak, its inner edge 
parallel to the first, diffuses toward apex as a triangular area, but except in its 
proximal narrow oblique portion, is marked transversely by narrow blackish 
lines ; at middle of dorsum a short narrow nearly perpendicular pale patch, and 
before tornus, a similar but oblique pale patch enclose between them a more or 
less defined patch of the dark scales ; apex whitish, with transverse short lines 
of dark-tipped scales on either side and at extreme tip ; two lines of closely 
parallel dark scales curving around apex and extending through the grayish 
cilia toward tornus. Hind wings pale fuscous, cilia ocherous tinged at bases. 
Basal segments of legs whitish, middle tibiae barred with fuscous, hairs of hind 
tibiae whitish, tarsal segments pale gray, black-tipped. Abdomen grayish white, 
posterior margins of segments darker. 

Alar expanse 6.5 to 7 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 105, 105a, 105b). Harpes broad, parallel-sided, apical 
third setose, the setae around the curved apex conical ; socii diverging, large and 
broadening toward tip, setose on the outer half of apical area only ; uncus well- 
developed, elongate tongue-shaped, densely setose ; anellus conical, sclerotized 
laterally at base ; aedeagus a slender cylinder, aperture elongate, vinculum 
broadly triangular. Scale sac present, scales minute. 

Female genitalia (figs. 106, 107). Basal area of segment 8 highly special- 
ized both ventrally and dorsally ; ventrally a broad sclerotized band with lateral 
lobes margined with long specialized scales ; dorsally, a sclerotized band, its ends 
somewhat enlarged and margined with long slender specialized scales ( fig. 107) ; 
ductus bursae sclerotized in segment 7, ostium near anterior margin of segment 
8, with the sclerotized band projecting slightly over it; signum elongate, longi- 
tudinally placed, ribs strongly sclerotized, the ventral with a single row of strong 
spines (v) , the dorsal short and bilaterally spined (d). 



ANNETTE I". BRAUN 73 

Type. — 2. Pearce, Arizona, September 5, 1957. with cocoon and fragment of 
leaf of Flourensia cernua DC. (W. W. Jones) [U.S.N.M., Type No. 65022]. 

Allotype. — $ , same data as the type [U.S.N.M.]. 

Paratypes. — 1 S, 14 9, same data as the type, some with cocoon and frag- 
ment of leaf of Flourensia cernua DC, and bearing the additional notation 
'" larvae defol. sq. mis. of Flourensia cernua " [Paratypes in U.S.N.M. and Unix-. 
of Ariz.]. 

Fragments of leaves accompanying some of the specimens indicate 
that the entire leaf, except the upper epidermis and the network of veins 
is consumed. The pale green cocoon is spun on the underside of the 
leaf; it is marked with eight to ten prominent ridges. 

The white head and thorax, contrasting with the dark fore wings 
should enable easy recognition of this species ; the green color of the 
cocoon is unique. The specialized characters of segment 8 of the fe- 
male separate this species from all others of our fauna. 

(29) Bucculatrix franseriae new species (Figs. 108, 109.) 

Face grayish white, tuft composed of intermingled white and gray hairs ; 
eye-caps whitish, minutely speckled with very pale gray, antennal stalk pale 
gray, with dark gray annulations. Ground color of the fore wings whitish, the 
scales minutely tipped with very pale gray, the markings formed by scales, some 
of which are very narrowly black-tipped, others broadly black-tipped ; a narrow 
stripe of indistinctly dark-tipped scales along costa from base diverges from 
costa at one-third, forming a short oblique streak; just beyond middle of costa, 
a broader patch of narrowly black-tipped scales narrows abruptly below costa, 
and curves into the disc almost at tornus, thence curves upward to apex, thus 
forming a shallow arc along which the scales are conspicuously black-tipped ; 
this arc encloses toward costa a whitish area, marked on costa by a patch of 
minutely dark gray-tipped scales ; a few black-tipped scales in fold ; on middle 
of dorsum, a large patch of minutely black-tipped scales, with a few more con- 
spicuously black-tipped scales on its inner edge; cilia gray, with a line of black- 
tipped scales through the center. Hind wings and cilia pale grayish white. 
Legs grayish white, shaded with gray, tarsal segments, except those of the meta- 
thoracic legs, dark gray-tipped. 

Alar expanse 8 mm. 

Male genitalia (fig. 108). Harpe divided for about half its length, a broad 
thin concave outer lobe, and a slender strongly sclerotized inner lobe (a devel- 
opment of costa and cucullus), with heavy setae apically; socii, widely diverging 
arms with strong setae ; anellus broad, strongly sclerotized, with a minute ven- 
tral apical process ; aedeagus long, sinuate, curved toward apex, aperture pro- 
longed basad as a narrow slit with a broad overlapping triangular flap at its 
base ; vinculum prolonged anteriorly into long lateral prongs. Scale sac very 
large, scales club-shaped. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC., 18. 



74 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Female genitalia (fig. 109). Ovipositor lobes with two kinds of setae, short 
minute setae posteriorly, longer and more scattered setae anteriorly; segment 8 
highly specialized, its lateral margins produced as elongate wings finely reticu- 
late posteriori)', each bearing near its anterior end, a cluster of specialized 
scales ; anterior margin of segment 8, lateral to ostium, strongly sclerotized and 
highly specialized (see figure) ; the strongly sclerotized posterior section of 
ductus bursae bending to the right, from the anterior end of this strongly sclero- 
tized section the ductus curves posteriorly, then anteriorly to the bursa copula- 
trix; signum composed of clusters of closely placed parallel spined ribs, spines 
slender. 

Type. — $, Tempe, Arizona, 13 Feb. '55, reared from Franseria deltoidea 
Torr., (F. F. Bibby) [U.S.N.M., Type No. 65023]. 

Allotype. — 2, same data as the type. Genitalia figured from allotype 
[U.S.N.M.]. 

Paratopes. — 2 $ , \ 2 , same data as the type. Male genitalia figured from 
a paratype [U.S.N.M.]. 

The recorded food plant is Franseria deltoidea Torr. Cocoon gray, 
somewhat mottled, with seven or eight fine ridges. 

None of the specimens is in perfect condition; most would be un- 
recognizable except by genitalia, but the extraordinary genitalia of 
both sexes warrant the description of the species. The male type is 
in the best condition, with abdomen and appendages present ; the fe- 
male allotype is worn ; the paratypes lack one or more wings, head, or 
abdomen. 

(30) Bucculatrix staintonella Chambers 

(Figs. 110, 110a, 110b, 110c, 111.) 

1878. Bucculatrix staintonella Chambers, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. of 
Terr. IV: 133. Cotype S (one of three cotypes, this one only in good 
condition) here designated Lectotype, and bearing the following labels: 
(1 ) Red and white with " Type " at top on white and " 1310 " on bot- 
tom red portion, (2) White label with " Chambers. Color." (3) White 
label with " Bucculatrix albella, Cham. Coll." (4) $ genitalia 29.X.1957 
JFGC No. 10654. 

Edgerton, Colorado, altitude 6000 feet [M.C.Z., Type No. 1310]. 

1877. Bucculatrix albella Chambers (not Stainton), Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. 
Surv. of Terr. Ill: 141. 

1918. Bucculatrix pertenuis Braun, Ent. News XXIX: 249. Type 2 (one of 
the original type series), Winnfield, Louisiana [A.F.B.Coll.]. (New 
synonymy. ) 



ANNETTE F. BRA UN 7? 

Face and head white, tuft typically white, but usually with ocherous or 
brown hairs centrally; eye-caps white, antennal stalk pale ocherous gray, anten- 
na] notch of male very slight. Thorax white, and except in immaculate speci- 
mens, a pale ocherous median stripe. In markings of fore wings the most vari- 
able of our species ; wings varying from pure white, with merely a few brownish 
or black-tipped scales in apex and in cilia of termen (type of staintonella) , to 
creamy white with more or less well-defined oblique and longitudinal ocherous 
streaks, a more or less distinct line of blackish scales extending from just within 
the margin of termen to apex of wing, and a small, but often conspicuous dot 
of black raised scales beyond middle of fold (as described for pertenuis), and 
finally (in one specimen from Elk Point, South Dakota) wings suffused with 
pale reddish ocherous, longitudinal and oblique markings nearly obliterated, and 
only the dark scales toward apex and a ciliary line of blackish-tipped scales de- 
fined. When distinct, the markings are as follows : extreme costal margin near 
base blackish or dark brown, just within the costal margin a line of pale ocher- 
ous scales which meets before the middle of costa a very oblique narrow ocher- 
ous or dark-dusted streak, which before reaching middle of wing bends and runs 
parallel to costa, its apex meeting a second, less oblique and broader costal 
streak, its scales dark-tipped, which may cross the wing; a small group of black 
raised scales, attached just basad of the marginal row of scales on termen; these 
continue as a black line to apex of wing; on costa beyond the second oblique 
streak, a more or less defined triangular patch of ocherous or fuscous-tipped 
scales ; an ocherous streak along the fold ; a rather broad ocherous streak or spot 
beyond middle of dorsum, on its inner edge on fold a few black raised scales, 
usually forming a small black dot (absent in immaculate specimens) ; the ocher- 
ous scales may be lacking and then the black dot only is present; at tornus, an 
elongate group of dark-tipped scales ; dark-tipped scales, sometimes scattered, 
form a line in the cilia of termen. Hind wings and cilia usually pale grayish, 
rarely ferruginous ocherous. Legs whitish, tarsal segments tipped with dark 
brown, minutely so in nearly immaculate specimens. Abdomen beneath whitish, 
above with more or less fuscous shading. 

Alar expanse 6.5 to 9 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 110, 110a, 110b, 110c). Harpe with a triangular flat 
apical area densely clothed with heavy black setae, the distal rows hooked, the 
setae progressively longer and more slender proximad, finally hair-like (fig. 
110a); socii elongate, setose; anellus a cone, sclerotized ventrally; vinculum 
quadrate, produced anteriorly into a long slender rod; aedeagus slender except 
at base, sinuous. Scale sac bilobed (fig. 110c). 

Female genitalia (fig. 111). Near anterior margin of segment 8 and lateral 
to ostium a pair of internal curved sclerotized processes ; ostium with minute 
sclerotized points ; extending laterally from either side of ostium a transverse 
sclerotized band : laterally near posterior margin of segment 7, a cluster of short, 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



/6 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

specialized but striated scales ; ductus bursae slender, widening near bursa, sig- 
num a narrow collar of spined ribs at the posterior end of bursa, spines long and 
slender. 

Specimens examined. — 21 $, 12 2. 

Colorado: Edgerton, $ type (V. T. Chambers) [M.C.Z.]. 

New Mexico: Pecos, 1 $ , at light, June 25 (Ckll.) [U.S.N.M.] ; Las Vegas, 
1 9.7-8 (H. S. Barber, Collector) [U.S.N.M.] ; State College, Dona Ana Co., 
1 2. July 8, 1945 (J. R. Ever) [J. R. Eyer Coll.]. 

Louisiana: Winnfield, 1 S (type of pertenuis Braun), June 30, 1915 (G. R. 
Pilate) [A.F.B.Coll.] ; 6 S , 3 2 (paratypes of pertenuis Braun). June 27 to 
July 9 (G. R. Pilate) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Florida: Siesta Key, Sarasota County, 4 $, March 2 to April 17 (C. P. 
Kimball) [C. P. Kimball Coll.]. 

Missouri: Branson, Taney County, 1 2, July 9, 1938 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B. 
Coll.]. 

Iowa: Sioux City, 8 3,4 2, July (C. N. Ainslie ) [U.S.N. M.]. 

South Dakota: Elk Point, 2 2 (C. N. Ainslie) [U.S.N.M.]. 

Food plant and early stages unknown. 

The Pecos, New Mexico specimen was compared with the type at 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology by Dr. J. F. Gates Clarke, who 
writes " Your specimen has more of the black atoms apically than are 
present on the type and more of the faint, pale yellow streaks of the 
fore wing." Male genitalia of this specimen agree exactly with the type 
(slide of type by J. F. Gates Clarke), as do also the male genitalia of 
the Iowa and Louisiana specimens ; the male genitalia of the Florida 
specimens, although agreeing structurally with the unique and charac- 
teristic typical genitalia, differ in the relatively short tegumen and very 
small socii. 

The wings of the Iowa series show a gradation from well-defined 
and distinct markings as described to nearly immaculate. The great 
variation in wing markings thus renders identification except by geni- 
talia uncertain. The characteristic and unique genitalia of both sexes 
separate staintonella from all other described species. 

(31) Bucculatrix immaculatella Chambers 

1875. Bucculatrix immaculatella Chambers, Canad. Ent. VII : 54. Type local- 
ity, Texas ( ? Bosque County). 

1877. Bucculatrix immaculatella Chambers, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. 
of Terr. Ill: 141. 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 77 

The type of B. immaculatella could be found neither in the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology nor in the United States National Museum. Chambers thus 
briefly characterized the species: '"No tongue? Silvery white, immaculate. Al. 
ex. ik inch. Season, May." Again in describing B. albclla Chambers (not 
Stainton), he writes: "Also resembles B. immaculatella, Cham, from Texas, 
but is smaller, and immaculatella has no dusting on the wings." 

It is possible that B. immaculatella is an immaculate form of B. staintonella. 
and if so. the name immaculatella would have priority; however for the present, 
it had best be regarded as an unrecognized species. 

(32) Bucculatrix agnella Clemens 

(Figs. 112, 112a, 112b, 113, 113a, 113b, 113c, 113d.) 

1860. Bucculatrix agnella Clemens, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. : 211. Type 2, 
Easton, Pennsylvania [A.N.S.P., Type No. 7499]. 

1872. Bucculatrix agnella Stainton, Tin. No. Am., p. 147. 
1903. Bucculatrix agnella Busck, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. V: 205. 

1923. Bucculatrix agnella Forbes, Mem. 68, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta., p. 
157. 

1873. Bucculatrix capitealbclla Chambers, Canad. Ent. V: 150. Type, Ken- 

tucky [M.C.Z.] ; two "Types" both without abdomen [U.S.N.M.]. 
(New synonymy. ) 

1878. Bucculatrix capitialbella Chambers, Bull. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. of Terr. 
IV: 133. ( Spelling correction.) 

1923. Bucculatrix capitealbella Forbes, Mem. 68, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta., 
p. 157. 

1875. Bucculatrix albicapitella Chambers, Canad. Ent. VII: 125. (New syn- 
onymy.) 

1923. Bucculatrix albicapitella Forbes, Mem. 68, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta., 
p. 157. 

1923. " B. species C " Forbes, Mem. 68, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta., p. 157. 

Face white, somewhat shaded with pale brown ; tuft white, in darker speci- 
mens with a considerable mixture of dark fuscous hairs ; eye-caps white, anten- 
nal stalk dark fuscous, with narrow pale annulations. Thorax white, tegulae 
narrowly fuscous anteriorly. Fore wings white, with a variable degree of dust- 
ing with pale luteous scales, especially along the fold and toward dorsum, and 
in the apical area of wing ; markings formed by oblique streaks of blackish- or 
fuscous-tipped scales, these streaks variable in extent and in depth of coloration ; 
one such streak, often short, from basal third of costa is produced basad along 
costa to base; a second streak, just beyond middle of costa is darkest near costa 
and usually prolonged as a narrow luteous streak to middle of termen, there 
meeting a few black-tipped scales ; these streaks are narrowly separated by the 
white ground color and the second is followed by a narrow white streak reach- 
ing across the wing nearly to termen ; before apex a triangular patch of luteous 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



78 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

scales, broad on costa where the scales are usually fuscous-tipped ; black scales 
form a more or less clearly denned apical spot, from which a few dark-tipped 
scales may project into the base of the cilia; a line of dark-tipped scales extends 
through the middle of the whitish cilia, fading out toward tornus ; on the middle 
of the fold an irregular patch of a few black or fuscous-tipped scales is to a 
greater or less degree preceded and followed by the luteous scales ; in the darker 
specimens, there are a few dark-tipped scales on dorsal margin near base. Hind 
wings and cilia whitish, the latter with a faint coppery tinge. Legs pale grayish 
luteous, tarsal segments conspicuously blackish fuscous-tipped. Abdomen pale 
gray, more or less shaded above with fuscous. 

Alar expanse 7 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 113, 113a, 113b, 113c, 113d). Harpe (113a) short and 
broad, nearly parallel-sided, weakly emarginate at apex, costal apical area 
clothed with strong setae; socii (113, 113b) exceeding the harpes, rounded, 
setose ; subscaphium finely setose ; anellus broad at base soon contracting and 
becoming parallel-sided; vinculum somewhat produced anteriorly; aedeagus 
(113c) tapering, aperture armed with sclerotized teeth. Scale sac (113d) bi- 
lobed, scales slender. 

Female genitalia (figs. 112, 112a, 112b). Vaginal setae apparent, ostium at 
anterior margin of segment 8, ductus bursae strongly sclerotized in segment 7, 
inception of ductus seminalis at anterior margin of the sclerotized section ; duc- 
tus bursae forked in segment 6, the forks entering bursa separately in segment 
5 ; signum a ring ventrally broad, narrowing dorsad, and finally scarcely more 
than a series of dots; signum ribs (112a) with short branched spines. 

Specimens examined. — 38 $ , 23 ? , 14 sex not determined. 

Pennsylvania: Easton, $ type [A.N.S.P.] ; Philadelphia, 1 8, May 13 
(F. Haimbach) [A.N.S.P.] ; Floradale, Adams Co., 1 8, July, 1917 [J. R. Eyer 
Coll.]. 

New Jersey : New Lisbon, 4 8 , 1 2 , July 13, July 27, August 4, August 12, 
Sept. 21 (Darlington Coll.) [A.N.S.P.] ; Montclair, 3 8, 5 2, Sept. 1. 5, 15; 
Essex County Park, 2 8,2 2, May 15, 18, August 13, 23 (W. D. Kearfott) 
[U.S.N.M.]; 1 8, July 10 (W. D. Kearfott) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

New York: Monroe County, 1 8, Aug. 1, 1949 (C. P. Kimball) [A. E. 
Brower Coll.] ; 1 2, August 28, 1949 (C. P. Kimball) [C. P. Kimball Coll.]. 

Massachusetts: Barnstable, 1 $, July 6, 1950 (C. P. Kimball) [C. P. Kim- 
ball Coll.]. 

District of Columbia : Washington, 6 S , 2 2 , April 27, May 20, June, 
August (August Busck) [U.S.N.M.]. 

Tennessee: Nashville, 10, 8, 2, Sept., Oct. (G. G. Ainslie) [U.S.N.M.]; 
Monteagle, el. 2000, 1 8, Aug. 30 (A. G. Richards) [Cornell U.]. 

Kentucky: Type (capitealbella Chambers) [M.C.Z.] ; 2 "types" (capite- 
albella Chambers) [U.S.N.M.]; 1 2 (labeled capitialbella in Chambers' hand- 
writing) [U.S.N.M.]; 1 8, 2 2, (August Busck) [U.S.N.M.]. 



ANNETTE F. BRA UN 79 

Ohio: Cincinnati. 4 6,4 2, April 24, May 26, Aug. 15-16, Sept. 4-12; 
Brown Count)', 1 6,2 2, rearing' record B.2212, larvae August 31. on leaves of 
Ambrosia artcinisiifolia L., imagoes April 12, April 16; Mineral Springs, Adams 
County, 4 $, 1 ?, Aug. 12-24; Pike County, 1 2, July 27 (A. F. Braun) 
[A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Michigan: Wayne Count}'. 4 6 . August 16, September 12 (Ralph Beebe) 
[Ralph Beebe and A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Texas : 1 specimen without head, sex undetermined, labeled capitealbella in 
Chambers' handwriting' [U.S.N.M.] ; may be kimballi and not agnella. 

Missouri: " C, Mo. 8/12, 90, on apple" [U.S.N. M. ] ; 1 6 (Kirkwood), 
" Bucculatrix on Ambrosia, 1. 10/29 and 12/14 " with typical pink cocoon [Cor- 
nell U.]. 

South Dakota: Elk Point, 1 S (C. N. Ainslie) [U.S.N. M.]. 

The food plant of this widely distributed species is Ambrosia arte- 
misiifolia L. and probably other species of the genus. The egg is de- 
posited on the upper side of the leaf against a vein ; except in the 
earliest part of its course, the long, very fine mine follows the extreme 
margin of the leaf for several of its divisions, sometimes towards its 
end turning inward onto the leaf blade. The mine is inconspicuous, the 
deserted mines scarcely visible when the epidermis shrivels at the leaf 
margin. The first white moulting cocoon is spun immediately on leav- 
ing the mine, the second is of denser texture than the first. The ex- 
posed larva at first skeletonizes the leaf, later consumes the entire leaf 
substance in irregular patches. Last instar larva dark reddish brown, 
with only the minute tubercles on which the setae are inserted, green. 
Cocoon slender, with six or seven ridges, of a dirty pinkish color, in 
contrast to the white cocoon of B. ambrosiaefoliella Chambers feeding 
on the same plant. 

The specimens referred to by Forbes (Mem. 68, Cornell Univ. 
Agric. Exp. Sta., p. 157) as " B. species C," " Larva on Ambrosia " 
are dark-marked specimens of B. agnella. The name " albicapitella " 
is an apparent transposition of syllables ; it is not listed in Chambers' 
" Index." 

B. agnella is closely allied to the following species from Florida and 
Texas, and is scarcely distinguishable from it except by characters of 
the female genitalia. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



80 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

(33) Bucculatrix kimballi new species (Figs. 114, 114a, 114b, 115, 115a.) 

Face white, tuft white ; eye-caps and a few basal segments of stalk white, 
especially in female, stalk outwardly pale brownish gray, with faint paler annu- 
lations. Fore wings white, markings formed by fuscous or blackish-tipped 
scales ; sometimes a faint longitudinal streak of luteous, sometimes minutely fus- 
cous-tipped scales from base above fold to one-third the wing length, this streak 
sometimes wholly absent; a short oblique dark streak from one-third of costa is 
produced basad along costa to base; a second oblique streak, broad on costa, 
narrows below costa and extends as a narrow line to below middle of wing 
thence curving upward toward apex; toward costa this curved dark streak en- 
closes a similarly curved white streak (sometimes obscured in the middle of the 
wing), which in turn encloses on costa a more or less triangular patch of luteous 
scales ; on middle of dorsum a semicircular patch of dark scales, bordered with 
black raised scales ; a minute black apical spot, and a row of black-tipped scales 
curving around apex in the cilia. Hind wings and cilia whitish ocherous, faintly 
fuscous-tinged in male. Legs whitish, tarsal segments dark-tipped, cilia of hind 
tibiae whitish. Abdomen white, shaded with fuscous above. 

Alar expanse 7 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 114, 114a, 114b). Harpe short, broad, apical margin 
indistinctly concave, costal apical area clothed with strong setae ; socii small, 
apex truncate, setose; subscaphium finely setose; anellus a tapering cone, aper- 
ture dorsally with a minute sclerotized beak ; vinculum produced anteriorly into 
a rounded V; aedeagus elongate, scarcely tapering, but widening slightly toward 
apex (in paratype, Levers, Texas, a few minute curved teeth visible near aper- 
ture). Scale sac very large, equalling the width of segment 2, bilobed (as in 
agnclla). 

Female genitalia (figs. 115, 115a). Posterior portion of ductus bursae in 
segment 7 greatly enlarged and strongly sclerotized ; from the anterior end of 
this sclerotized section the ductus makes a nearly circular curve in segment 7, 
curving dorsad of the wide sclerotized section thence passing anteriorly to the 
bursa copulatrix which it enters in segment 5, this section of the ductus minutely 
dentate; signum, faint lines of slender spines (fig. 115a). 

Type. — S, Oneco, Manatee County, Florida, May, 1954 (Paula Dillman) 
[A.N.S.P., Type No. 7814]. 

Allotype. — 2, Siesta Key, Sarasota County, Florida, April 8, 1953 (C. P. 
Kimball) [A.N.S.P., Type No. 7814]. 

Paratypes. — 2 S , Oneco, Manatee County, Florida, May 5, 1953 (Paula Dill- 
man), 2 2, Oneco, Manatee County, Florida, May 5, 8, 1953 (Paula Dillman) ; 
1 9, Gulf Coast Exp. Sta., Bradenton, Florida, September 30, 1955 (E. G. 
Keisheimer) [C. P. Kimball Coll.]; 1 S, Levers, Texas, June 21, 1917 [Cor- 
nell U.]. 



AXXETTE F. BRA UN 81 

Food plant and early stages unknown ; however, the species is prob- 
ably a Composite feeder, and larvae should be sought in late spring and 
again in summer and late fall, as the dates of capture indicate at least 
two generations a year. 

B. kimballi is closely allied to B. agnella Clemens, from which it is 
with difficulty distinguished by wing markings; the only apparent dif- 
ference is the shape of the second dark costal streak, recurving toward 
apex. The very similar male genitalia further substantiate the close 
relationship to B. agnella; by female genitalia it is however clearly 
distinct from that species. The paratype from Levers, Texas is much 
worn ; male genitalia substantiate the identity. 

Bucculatrix kimballi is named in honor of Mr. Charles P. Kimball, 
from whom I received the Florida specimens of the type series. 

(34) Bucculatrix ivella Busck (Figs. 116, 117, 117a.) 

1900. Bucculatrix ivella Busck, Proc. U.S.N.M. XXIII: 243. Type $, Palm 
Beach, Florida [U.S.N.M., Type No. 4953]. 

Face white, in darker specimens the scales minutely brown-tipped ; tuft white, 
brown centrally; eye-caps white, speckled with pale brown, antennal stalk pale 
luteous with narrow silvery annulations. Thorax whitish, scales, especially of 
the tegulae, brown-tipped. Fore wings overlaid with reddish brown, fuscous- 
tipped and fuscous scales, so densely in the darker specimens as to obscure the 
whitish ground color ; from before middle of costa, a narrow very oblique 
brownish fuscous streak, sometimes faint or obsolete in pale specimens, is nar- 
rowly separated from a second more conspicuous very oblique costal streak, 
which in the middle of the wing becomes longitudinal, its apex directed toward 
a group of black raised scales on middle of termen, which continue to apex as 
a line of black scales ; this costal streak is separated from a broadly triangular 
costal area by a narrow whitish streak which curves above the raised scales on 
termen; from base of wing, parallel to and above fold a narrow straight white 
streak, distinct in darker specimens, extends for more than half the wing length ; 
along fold from base a broader stripe of fuscous-tipped scales ; on dorsal margin 
near base a few blackish scales ; beyond middle of dorsum, an oblique curved 
brown or fuscous spot, bearing on its inner edge a patch of black raised scales, 
is indistinctly and irregularly margined with the whitish scales of the ground 
color ; a curved line of black-tipped scales through the cilia from costa to tornus. 
Hind wings and cilia pale gray, the cilia with a faint reddish tinge. Legs pale 
straw-colored, tarsal segments white, narrowly tipped with black. Abdomen 
whitish below, shaded with fuscous above. 

Alar expanse 6.5 to 7.5 mm. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



QZ BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Male genitalia (fig. 116). Cucullus of harpe with heavy short modified 
setae ; socii rounded, widely separated, setose ; on margin of tegumen below each 
socius, a sharp curved hook; anellus conical; aedeagus broad at base, tapering 
to the slender tip; vinculum rounded anteriorly, a quadrate projection posteri- 
orly. Scale sac small. 

Female genitalia (figs. 117, 117a). A circular hyaline depression near 
lateral margin of segment 8; near posterior lateral margin a low rounded lobe 
bearing a tuft of slender scales; margin of ostium with diverging sclerotized 
points ; ductus bursae sclerotized in posterior half of segment 7, thence very 
narrow and entering bursa near posterior margin of 6 ; signum elongate, nearly 
longitudinally placed, its halves appearing as two parallel bands on the elongate 
bursa ; signum ribs irregularly spined, at intervals a rib with very large and 
strongly sclerotized teeth (fig. 117a). 

Specimens examined. — 78, S , 2 . 

Florida : Palm Beach, $ type, 4 $ , 4 9 cotypes, reared on Iva frutescens L., 
imagoes February 23 to March 7, 1900 (H. G. Dyar) [U.S.N.M.] ; Siesta Key, 
Sarasota County, 1 S, 2 9, April 5, March 31, 1952, April 11, 1953 (C. P. 
Kimball) [C. P. Kimball Coll.]. 

Maryland : " N. Riv. Hwy 50," 45, $ , 9 , larvae and cocoons on Baccharis 
halimifolia L., July 26, imagoes August 1-11, 1941; cocoons and mined leaves 
accompanying the series (J. F. G. Clarke) [U.S.N.M.]. 

New Jersey : New Lisbon, 9 $ , 8 9 , emerging from cocoons collected on 
leaves of Baccharis halimifolia L., and on surrounding salt meadow grass, July 
20-24 (E. P. Darlington) [A.N.S.P.] ; 2 $, 1 9, same data [A. E. Brower 
Coll.]; 5 M. Beach, 1 S, June 19 (F. Haimbach) [A.N.S.P.]. 

The food plant of the type series is Iva frutescens L. I quote the 
following from Busck's description: "The larva at first mines the 
leaves; afterwards it feeds unprotected on the underside of the leaves. 
In the latter period it is dirty white with black hairs, head yellow with 
black eye marks and brown mandibles, tubercles polished white." On 
leaves of Baccharis, the mine is a short linear track, most conspicuous 
by the line of black frass within it. Exposed larvae feed on either the 
upper or lower side of the leaf forming irregular small patches, with 
either epidermis left intact. Moulting cocoon a thin sheet of lustrous 
papery white silk. When full-fed, the larvae commonly spin the slen- 
der, 6 or 7-ridged white cocoons over the midrib on the upper surface 
of the leaf; cocoons are also spun on nearby vegetation (cf. the New 
Jersey specimens). 

B. ivella probably may be found in the salt marshes along the At- 
lantic Coast wherever its food plants occur. 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 83 

The brief original description is inadequate for the identification 
of the species. Most of the specimens examined are darker than the 
type, in which many of the distinctive markings are obsolescent. In 
wing marking's, this species is similar to B. ambrosiaefoliella Chambers 
and may be mistaken for it; in ivella the dark streaks are more oblique, 
and the white line above the fold is longer and more clear-cut. The 
most distinctive character of the male genitalia is the pair of hooks on 
the margin of tegumen; of the female genitalia, the pointed processes at 
margin of ostium, and especially the elongate signum with heavy teeth 
on some ribs, a character discernible under low power. 

(35) Bucculatrix ambrosiaefoliella Chambers (Figs. 118, 119, 119a.) 

1875. Bucculatrix ambrosiaefoliella Chambers, Cin. Quart. Journ. Sci. II: 119. 

Type, Kentucky ( ? Covington) [M.C.Z., Type No. 1307]. 

1878. Bucculatrix ambrosiaefoliella Chambers, Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. 
Surv. of Terr. IV: 115, 116. 

1882. Bucculatrix ambrosiaefoliella Chambers, " Notes on the larva of Buccula- 
trix ambrosiaefoliella," Canad. Ent. XIV : 153—160. 

1923. Bucculatrix ambrosiaefoliella Forbes, Mem. 68, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. 
Sta., 158. 

1876. Bucculatrix rilcyi Frey and Boll, Stett. Ent. Zeit. XXXVII : 219. Type 

S, Dallas, Texas [B.M. ?]. (New synonymy.) 

Face whitish, tuft whitish, median hairs brown, or grayish brown; eye-caps 
white, antennal stalk, except at base, with alternate equal annulations of white 
and dark brown. Thorax ocherous, dusted with dark brown. Fore wings usu- 
ally so densely overlaid with ocherous, ocherous brown-tipped and dark brown 
scales as completely to obscure the basic whitish ground color ; costa from base 
to one-third brown, the brown color diverging at one-third to form a short tri- 
angular oblique streak, bordered outwardly by paler scales; at about the middle 
of costa an oblique dark brown streak crosses the wing blending with the dark 
brown area of termen and tornus; black scales at apex and on termen below 
apex ; following the oblique brown streak, an oblique but slightly curved white 
streak, usually immaculate, and often the most conspicuous pale mark on the 
wing, passes to the middle of the wing, there ending in a few pure white scales, 
which give it the suggestion of a hook (this mark is often less clearly defined) ; 
costal apical area and cilia whitish, marked with several oblique lines of brown- 
tipped scales ; from base just within the costal margin, a short pale ocherous or 
whitish streak; a streak of brown scales follows the fold for one-third the wing 
length, and bears on its dorsal side scattered raised scales ; on dorsum near base, 
a few dark brown raised scales; just beyond middle of dorsum, a dark brown 
and ocherous semi-oval or broad half-crescent-shaped spot, its margin toward 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



84 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

base bearing black raised scales, is preceded by a curved ocherous or whitish 
streak which may be narrowly continued around the brown spot and enclose it; 
a slightly sinuous line (concave below apex) of brown and minutely black- 
tipped scales extends from the whitish costal cilia toward tornus. Hind wings 
and cilia reddish gray-brown. Anterior legs fuscous shaded, tarsal segments 
broadly dark-tipped ; posterior legs pale, tarsal segments narrowly dark-tipped. 
Abdomen pale lustrous beneath, fuscous above. 

Alar expanse 7.5 to 8 mm. 

Male genitalia (fig. 118). Unique and characteristic; sacculus of harpe a 
blunt rounded lobe indenting anellus, cucullus attenuated, its tip with short heavy 
modified setae, costal prong weakly articulating with transtilla, transtilla broken 
in middle, the ends fimbriate; socii, pendulose lobes directed ventrally, prolonged 
posteriorly along tegumen as narrow transversely furrowed rods ; anellus a 
broad tube ; aedeagus stout, long, bent and tapering, vesica with a multitude of 
minute cornuti ; vinculum asymmetric, left half narrow, right half produced an- 
teriorly, twice the breadth of left half. Scale sac large, somewhat irregular in 
outline ; scales elongate. 

Female genitalia (figs. 119, 119a). Posterior and lateral to ostium on seg- 
ment 8, circular areas of which the inner half circle ( i.e. toward median line) 
is a free, dark-pigmented flap; toward lateral margin of tergite of 8 on each side 
a tuft of long scales ; short specialized scales on intersegmental membrane be- 
neath lobes of 7 on each side of the wide ostium; bursa copulatrix nearly filling 
the body from middle of segment 2 to middle of 5 ; signum a ring slightly con- 
stricting the bursa, spines of signum ribs, see Figure 119a; ductus bursae mem- 
branous from bursa copulatrix to anterior margin of 6, sclerotized in 6 and 7, 
and gradually widening to middle of 7, then abruptly enlarging to ostium. 

Specimens examined. — 65 or 70, representing both sexes. 

Kentucky: Covington (?), type, reared on Ambrosia. [M.C.Z.] ; Powell 
County, 1 2, "probably on Solidago," imago Oct. 24, 1941 (A. F. Braun) 
[A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Ohio: Cincinnati, 1 6,2 2 , on Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., rearing record 
B.1222, imagoes Sept. 9 to Sept. 19; 3 S , on Helianthus maximiliani Schrad., 
rearing record B.1221, imagoes Sept. 9; 7 $ , 8 ?, August 24 to November 15 
(A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]; 1 $, Oct. 8, 3 2, Aug. 28, Sept. 17, Sept. 29 
(A. F. Braun) [A.N.S.P.] ; Brown County, 2 2 , on Ambrosia artemisiifolia, 
rearing record B.2213, imagoes Sept. 12, Sept. 26 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Pennsylvania: Oak Station, Allegheny County, New Brighton, and Pitts- 
burgh, 11, 8, 2, September [U.S.N.M.] ; Oak Station, 1 $, June 12 (Fred 
Marloff) [Cornell U.] ; Girard, 1 2, Oct. 10 (J. R. Ever) [J.R.E.Coll.]. 

Missouri : Cross Keys, 2 $ , " Helianthus tuberosa," " Artichoke," imagoes 
Aug. 23, Oct. 31 ; Blackjack, 2 2," Helianthus tuberosa," imagoes Oct. 10, Oct. 
18; 1 2, "reared from Artichoke," November 7 (all Webster Groves, and de- 
termined by Satterthwait as this species) [U.S.N.M.] ; Webster Groves, 1 (sex 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 85 

not determined), on sunflower, 8/15/30 (Satterthwait) [U.S.N.M.] ; 2, "on 
sunflower," 8/10/96 (Riley Coll.) [U.S.N. M.] ; several of the Riley Collection 
without data [U.S.N.M.]. 

Iowa : Sioux City, 23,3?, July and September (C. N. Ainslie) [U.S.N.M.] ; 
19," Taken from sunflower." August 4, 1916, with white cocoon (C. N. Ains- 
lie) [U.S.N.M.]. 

Texas: 1 specimen, lacking head, right fore wing, and abdomen, "827, 8.X, 
From Boll, Texas, B. rileyella" [U.S.N.M.]; Brownsville, 1 2, "Bred from 
Ambrosia, Jan. 23, 09" (McMillan and Marsh Coll.) [U.S.N.M.]. 

California : Loma Linda, San Bernardino County, 1 $ , March 8-15 
[U.S.N.M.]. (Identification verified by slide of genitalia.) 

No Locality: several, "on ambrosia, 3/29/95 in warm room"; 2 (sex not 
determined), " Bucculatrix on Ambrosia," slender white cocoon, 3/19/93; sev- 
eral without data ( Fernald Coll.) [U.S.N.M.]. 

The recorded food plants of B. ambrosiaefoliclla include Ambrosia 
artemisiifolia L., A. trifida L., and several species of Helianthus. 
Chambers (1882, loc. cit. ) describes the life history of this species in 
considerable detail; "the larva .... makes at first a short, tortuous, 
linear mine, which ends in a small blotch, with the frass in compact 
lines." Chambers assumes only one instar wholly in the mine, the 
larva moulting but once in the mine, and feeding in the mine for about 
a day after this moult, then leaving the mine and feeding externally for 
about two days. [It is probable that earlier moults within the mine 
were not observed.] Following these two days of external feeding " it 
spins beside a rib a thin sheet of white silk, beneath which it spins a 
cocoonet, in which it again assumes the horse-shoe shape, and passes in 
about a day to second moult. Emerging from its cocoonet, it continues 
to feed externally for three days, when either on the plant or near to it, 
it spins its ribbed cocoon, in which it passes the pupa state." If Cham- 
bers' observations are correct, and only one moulting cocoon is spun 
after leaving the mine, it would appear that the larva spends part of the 
penultimate instar in the mine. Chambers describes the larva after the 
last moult in the mine as "striped longitudinally; there is a dorsal 
green stripe, margined on each side by a white line, beneath which is 
another green stripe on each side, containing on each segment two 
white spots placed obliquely, the lower spot being the largest .... the 
larva frequently has a faint pink tinge, and the longitudinal stripes, 
which are very faint at first, become darker with age." Notes under 
rearing record B.2213 describe the last instar larva as reddish; a broad 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



OO BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

mid-dorsal reddish stripe with a greenish narrower stripe each side of 
it, its lower edge wavy, and setal areas and spiracles greenish. These 
markings will distinguish the larva of B. ambrosiaejoliella from that of 
B. agnella when both are feeding together on the same plant. 

The slender cocoon is white, with six or seven fine ridges. 

The moths appear from late summer into October, and probably 
hibernate ; however, moths are seldom collected in spring. 

The left fore wing of the specimen in the United States National 
Museum, labeled " B. rileyella, From Boll, Texas," which lacks head, 
right fore wing and abdomen, agrees exactly with Frey's description of 
rileyi, and with specimens reared on Ambrosia and Helianthiis, and 
thus substantiates the synonymy. 

In wing markings, Bucculatrix ambrosiaejoliella resembles B. ivella 
Busck; the slightly sinuate ciliary line separates it from that species. 
The unusual male genitalia resemble no other species, and diverge in 
several respects from the usual pattern of the genus, notably in the 
asymmetric vinculum ( a character checked by examination of several 
slides), the unusual socii, and the well-defined transtilla. Some char- 
acters of the female genitalia appear to ally it to the group of species 
with modification of the ovipositor for rasping or piercing and transfer 
of its function to the terminal portion of the vagina. 

B. ambrosiaejoliella has been confused with pomijolicla Clemens, 
which appears early in the season. The fore wing of pomijoliella is 
somewhat broader, and in pomijoliclla the outer margin of the dark 
streak from costa to termen is straight, and is not followed by a whitish 
hook-like mark. 

(36) Bucculatrix pallidula new species (Figs. 56, 56a, 120, 120a.) 

Face creamy white, tuft with mingled creamy white and reddish ocherous 
hairs ; antennae creamy white, stalk with pale gray annulations. Thorax and 
fore wings creamy white, dusted with pale ocherous scales, some of which are 
minutely brown-tipped ; no defined marks ; the brown-tipped scales are more 
numerous in the outer half of the costal area, and form a short ill-defined longi- 
tudinal streak before apex; cilia whitish, with a few dark-tipped scales irregu- 
larly placed along termen. Hind wings whitish ocherous, slightly irrorate. 
Legs whitish ocherous, posterior tarsal segments minutely dark-tipped. Abdo- 
men pale whitish ocherous. 



ANNETTE l\ BRAUN 87 

Alar expanse 5.5 mm. 

Female genitalia (figs. 120. 120a). With few specializations; apophyses 
long; near posterior lateral margin of 8 a cluster of long- slender hair-like 
scales; ostium circular, its ventral margin sclerotized and slightly produced 
laterally; bursa copulatrix very small, signum a ring, narrow dorsally, signum 
ribs very narrow, with widely spaced sharp spines, membrane between the ribs 
lightly sclerotized and rugose. 

Type. — 9, Zion Canyon, Utah, rearing record B.1205, on a "labiate shrub," 
imago August 9, 1924 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

The mined leaf was collected July 24 in Zion Canyon with the nota- 
tion " labiate shrub " but without definite determination. The larva is 
a miner throughout larval life. The mine (fig. 56), a translucent 
blotch arising in the angle between two main veins at the base of the 
leaf, gradually enlarges wedge-shaped with the frass concentrated to- 
ward the narrow end. Spinning takes place immediately on leaving the 
mine; the cocoon (fig. 56a) is brownish ocherous, stout, about 4 mm. 
long, with six low ridges, the two lateral scarcely discernible. 

The pale color and lack of any defined wing markings characterize 
this species. 

(37) Bucculatrix taeniola new species (Figs. 11, 121, 121a, 122, 122a, 122b.) 

Face white, dotted with fuscous ; tuft fuscous, darker in the center, with a 
faint rufous tinge ; eye-caps white, sometimes fuscous-dotted ; stalk pale gray 
with fuscous annulations. Thorax irrorated fuscous. Fore wings (fig. 11 ) 
irrorated fuscous, with white transverse bands and a white costal triangle at 
apex ; at one-third, a transverse, nearly perpendicular, slightly convex white 
band, usually broadest near costa, and margined outwardly near dorsum by black 
scales ; beyond middle, a somewhat more irregular transverse white band, 
marked with a few lines of fuscous scales; just before apex, a white triangle, 
which, on its inner side, may be encroached upon by the fuscous scales of the 
ground color ; median area of wing between the two transverse bands usually 
darker than the rest of the wing; scales at extreme apex of wing and along ter- 
men broadly black-tipped ; cilia, except costal cilia, gray. Hind wings and cilia 
gray, somewhat irrorated. Legs gray shaded with dark fuscous ; tarsal seg- 
ments black-tipped. Abdomen silvery fuscous. 

Alar expanse 7 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 122, 122a, 122b). Harpes slender, nearly parallel-sided 
with short heavy setae at apex, long setae below apex; socii columnar, short 
setae at apex, long decumbent setae below apex ; anellus conical, aperture oblique ; 
aedeagus slender, elongate, curving to tip ; vinculum emarginate anteriorly. 
Scales of scale sac (fig. 122b) broad club-shaped. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



88 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Female genitalia (figs. 121, 121a). Segment 7 partially overlying segment 
8; in lateral depressed pockets of the intersegmental membrane adjacent to the 
anterior margin of sternite of 8, dense patches of dark-pigmented specialized 
scales ; lateral to ostium, a cluster of strong setae ; near posterior margin of 8, 
a lateral group of specialized scales (removed on the left side) ; ostium circular, 
its ventral margin strongly sclerotized and produced laterally into two strong 
flanges truncate at the ends ; signum, separated groups of closely placed spined 
ribs (fig. 121a). 

Type. — $ , Salinas, California, " reared on white sage, Feb. 26, 1938." Geni- 
talia slide by Busck " AB, Apr. 25, 1938 " [U.S.N.M., Type No. 65024]. 

Allotype.— 2, Mt. Wilson, California, March 5. 1925 (E. L. Braun) [A.F.B. 
Coll.]. 

Paratype.— l 2, S. Luis Obispo, California, March (A. H. Vachell) 
[U.S.N.M.]. 

"White sage" is the common name of Salvia apiana Jepson 
(Audibertia polystachya Benth. ) in California; Eurotia lanata (Pursh) 
Moq. (Chenopodiaceae) is also sometimes called white sage. Thus the 
correct name of the food plant of B. taeniola is in doubt. Genitalia 
would seem to ally it to the Composite feeders. 

The characteristic pattern of the markings of the fore wings sepa- 
rates this species from all others of our fauna. 

(38) Bucculatrix carolinae new species (Figs. 123, 123a, 123b.) 

Face grayish brown, scales darker-tipped; tuft dark brown, a few paler hairs 
laterally ; eye-caps small, pale grayish ocherous, antennal stalk dark fuscous, 
with faint paler annulations. Thorax and fore wings brownish ocherous. Fore 
wing darkened along costa from base to three-fifths in a gradually widening 
area, which at three-fifths passes obliquely across the wing as a line of dark 
scales to termen above tornus, there meeting a line of black scales bordering 
termen toward apex ; on costa this darkened area forms the inner margin of a 
triangular whitish spot ; scales along dorsum minutely dark brown-tipped ; be- 
yond middle of fold, a short longitudinal black spot, the scales basad of it 
slightly paler than the general ground color, those bordering it below faintly 
orange-tinged ; a faint paler spot at tornus preceding the terminal line of black 
scales; an elongate black apical spot bordered on its inner (costal) side by 
whitish scales; cilia brownish ocherous around apex, shading to gray on dor- 
sum ; a line of dark-tipped scales encircles the apex, and continues as a broken 
line toward tornus. Hind wings and cilia dark gray. Legs pale gray, tarsal 
segments whitish, conspicuously dark tipped. 

Alar expanse 8.4 mm. 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 89 

Female genitalia (figs. 123, 123a. 123b). Segment 7 overlying the base of 
segment 8. the margins of its sclerotized anterior half clothed with very long- 
slender scales, its membranous posterior half with two thin curved lobes; sclero- 
tized lateral margins of ostium produced as narrow branching plates ; tergite of 
8 specialized, two sclerotized bands joining mid-dorsally, and a median longi- 
tudinal furrow ; sclerotized section of ductus bursae near ostium followed by a 
membranous section in which the ductus seminalis enters; signum the typical 
spined ring, ribs closely placed. 

Type— 9, Cherry Hill Recreation Area, Rte. 107, 2000°, Oconee County, 
South Carolina. Sept. 5, 1958, collected as part of a project sponsored by the 
American Philosophical Society (R. W. Hodges) [Cornell U., Type No. 3643]. 

Food plant and early stages unknown. 

The brownish ocherous fore wings, immaculate in the basal three- 
fifths, characterize this easily recognized species and separate it at once 
from all other described North American species. The lobes of the 
membrane of segment 7 and the specialized tergite of segment 8 are 
distinctive characters. 

(39) Bucculatrix angustata Frey and Boll 

(Figs. 45, 45a, 125, 126, 126a, 126b.) 

1876. Bucculatrix angustata Frey and Boll, Stett. Ent. Zeit. XXXVII : 218. 

Type, Dallas, Texas [Location of type unknown], 
1916. Bucculatrix cresccntella Braun, Canad. Ent. XLVIII : 140. Type $, 

Cincinnati, Ohio, from larva on Aster sp., rearing record B.803, imago 

June 11, 1914 (one of the series on which the original description was 

based) [A.F.B.Coll.]. New synonymy. 
1920. Bucculatrix cresccntella Barnes and Busck, Contrib. Nat. Hist. Lepid., IV, 

Plate XXXIX, fig. 7 ( S genitalia). 
1923. Bucculatrix cresccntella Forbes, Mem. 68, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta., 

159. 
1925. Bucculatrix crescentella Braun, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. LI : 222. 

Face white, tuft whitish, median line brown; eye-caps whitish, antennal stalk 
pale brownish white, with dark brown annulations toward apex. Thorax pale 
to dark brown, median area usually darker. Fore wing pale whitish brown to 
dark brown (especially in female) ; from base just above fold a narrow white 
longitudinal streak attaining half the wing length and indistinctly prolonged to 
three-fifths the wing length, margined below, especially in its outer half, with 
dark brown scales contrasting with the paler area dorsad of fold ; from before 
middle of costa a very oblique white streak curves to middle of wing; beyond 
it a less oblique white streak, at its tip a black dot or a short longitudinal streak 
of a few black scales, often continuous with the inner dark margin of the white 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



90 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

streak, but at an obtuse angle with it ; before apex a triangular white streak 
which may encircle the irregular blackish apical spot ; on middle of dorsum a 
pair of curved white streaks delimiting or enclosing a usually crescent-shaped 
mark, typically conspicuously darker than the general ground color, but some- 
times concolorous with it; rarely both the dark crescent and the whitish scales 
may be scarcely differentiated from the pale ground color; whitish hairs in cilia 
of termen form an ill-defined whitish streak; a line of dark-tipped scales curves 
around apex through the pale cilia. Hind wings and cilia pale brownish gray, 
apical cilia paler and sometimes whitish. Legs pale brownish gray, tarsal seg- 
ments black-tipped. Abdomen above whitish to dark brown. 

Alar expanse 7 to 9 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 126, 126a, 126b). Harpe slender, setose before the 
sharp-pointed apex, costa concave below apex ; socii elongate, widely separated, 
setose; anellus conical, notched at apex; aedeagus tapering to slender point from 
elongate entrance of penis ; vinculum rounded. Scale sac with many small and 
broadly oval scales. 

Female genitalia (fig. 125). Ostium in the intersegmental membrane, its 
margin sclerotized and flaring; specialized scale tufts on intersegmental mem- 
brane lateral to ostium and on segment 8 dorsad of lateral line ; ductus bursae 
weakly sclerotized in posterior two-thirds ; signum of radiating spined ribs, pro- 
ducing a flattened, somewhat leaf-shaped aspect. 

Bucculatrix angustata Frey and Boll is a common and widespread 
species ; its range extends from Nova Scotia westward to Manitoba and 
the State of Washington and southward to the Gulf States and Texas 
(type locality of angustata). Approximately 200 specimens, repre- 
senting both sexes have been examined in the United States National 
Museum, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Canadian Na- 
tional Collection, A. F. Braun Collection, Cornell University Collec- 
tion, A. E. Brower Collection, C. P. Kimball Collection and others. 
The provinces and states represented include Nova Scotia, Quebec, 
Ontario, Manitoba, Maine, Massachusetts, New York, Rhode Island, 
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Ohio, Michigan, Kentucky, Tennessee, 
North Carolina, Mississippi, Iowa, Utah and Washington. 

The recorded food plants include various Composites, principally 
several species of Aster, occasionally Solidago, and rarely Erigeron sp. 
The larvae are miners throughout larval life, never feeding exposed. 
Figure 45 illustrates the work of a single larva on a leaf of Aster novae- 
angliae L. The earliest mine is a long, linear, gradually widening 
track, which may become considerably broader than the example fig- 
ured before the larva leaves it to form a second mine ; small blotch-like 



ANNETTE F. BRA UN 91 

mines are occasionally made on leaving the linear mine ; later mines 
are more or less trumpet-shaped. Cocoon (fig. 45a) white, slender, 
with six or seven fine ridges. 

The dates of emergence of Cincinnati specimens from the latter 
part of April to late September indicate several generations, perhaps 
not sharply separated : one from overwintering pupae, a second with 
imagoes in June, a third appearing in late July, and a fourth in early 
autumn. 

Frey, in his description of angustata, makes no mention of the dor- 
sal dark crescent, nor of its whitish margining ; his reference to a streak 
from the hind angle which meets a costal streak in apex may refer to 
the oblique whitish outer margin of this crescent, which sometimes dif- 
fuses toward apex. 

The black dot or short longitudinal line of a few scales in the disc 
at the tip of the second costal streak is a good diagnostic character, and 
is especially noticeable in paler specimens and is often discernible in 
much worn and nearly denuded specimens ; it is mentioned in Frey's 
description and supports the synonymy of crescentella with angustata. 

(40) Bucculatrix adelpha new species ( Figs. 124, 124a, 127, 127a, 127b.) 

Face white, with faint ocherous tinge, tuft laterally whitish, shading through 
pale yellowish brown to dark brown centrally ; eye-caps white, with faint ocher- 
ous tinge, antennal stalk dark brown, with paler annulations. Thorax brown, 
tegulae with a fine white lateral line continuing as the basal streak of the wing. 
Fore wing broader than in angustata, brown, somewhat darkened toward costa 
between the white costal streaks ; from base of costa, a whitish longitudinal 
streak to one-fourth the wing length sometimes continues as a barely perceptible 
pale shade to one-third the wing length ; before middle of costa an oblique white 
streak, and at two-thirds of costa a less oblique white streak, its inner dark 
margin prolonged along the disc as a black, usually irregular line; before apex 
a curved white streak extending into the white cilia above apex and usually 
enclosing an irregular black apical spot ; before middle of dorsum a curved white 
streak, margined outwardly within the dorsal margin by black slightly raised 
scales, which may continue along the fold to the apex of a second white or whit- 
ish less oblique dorsal streak ; rarely a white streak above tornus mostly in the 
cilia points toward the apex of the second costal streak and may nearly meet it; 
from apical spot a broken line of black-tipped scales along termen ; a conspicu- 
ous line of black-tipped scales through cilia from the white costal cilia to tornus. 
Hind wings and cilia dark gray. Legs dark gray, tarsal segments pale at base 
and inwardly, tibial hairs pale gray. Abdomen dark fuscous above, paler beneath. 

Alar expanse 8 to 9.4 mm. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



92 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Male genitalia (figs. 127, 127a, 127b). Harpe bilobed and broad at apex, 
the opposing surfaces with short heavy setae; socii elongate, widely separated, 
setose ; anellus with a minute bilobed flap at apex ; aedeagus broad at base, 
rapidly tapering to the two-valved apex; vinculum rounded anteriorly, a quad- 
rate projection posteriorly. Scale sac present. 

Female genitalia (figs. 124, 124a). Ostium in a basally broad sclerotized 
depression, with narrower posterior margin thickened ; sclerotized basal half of 
segment 8 beset with minute spinules; short specialized scales at margin of inter- 
segmental membrane beneath 7 ; ductus bursae weakly sclerotized near ostium ; 
signum of long radiating spined ribs, becoming very short dorsally, producing 
a flattened somewhat leaf-shaped aspect. 

Type. — $, East Ottawa, Ontario, June 10, 1945, "Bred from Aster cordi- 
folius" (J. H. McDunnough) [C.N.Coll., Type No. 7176]. 

Allotype.— 5, Ottawa, Ontario, July 10 (C. H. Young) [C.N.Coll., Type 
No. 7176]. 

Paratypes. — 4 S , Merivale, Ontario, June 25, 1956, reared on Aster, cocoons 
accompanying (G. G. Lewis); 1 $ , Bobcaygeon, Ontario, June 29, 1931 (J. 
McDunnough); 1 $, Hull, Quebec, June 20, 1955 (T. N. Freeman); 2 S, 
Smith's Cove, N. S., July 19, July 20, 1945 (J. McDunnough) [all C.N.Coll.]. 

No details of larval habits are available ; the white cocoons, which 
accompany reared specimens, are similar to those of angustata Frey 
and Boll. 

B. adelpha is the nearest ally of angustata, closely resembling it in 
wing markings and agreeing with it in the unique signum, but differ- 
ing from it in the broader fore wings, and short basal longitudinal 
streak which never attains the mid-length of the wing. In genitalia, 
the very differently shaped harpe, and the sharply defined sclerotized 
area into which the ostium opens at once differentiate it from that 
species. 

(41) Bucculatrix plucheae new species (Figs. 128, 128a, 129, 129a.) 

Face whitish, tuft whitish ocherous, brown centrally ; eye-caps whitish, an- 
tennal stalk whitish at base, shading outwardly to dark brown. Thorax and 
fore wings brown. From base of wing, a narrow straight white streak, bor- 
dered on each side by a single line of blackish brown scales, extends parallel to 
the fold for nearly half the wing length ; from basal third of costa, an oblique 
white streak, and just beyond middle of costa, a broader, triangular white streak 
attains the middle of the wing; before apex, a third white streak, sometimes en- 
circling the apex, extends into the whitish costal cilia; at middle of dorsum, a 
slightly curved white spot, and just before tornus, a white spot, variable in size 
and somewhat diffuse, the cilia opposite it white ; a few black scales at apex and 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 93 

a line of black-tipped scales through the middle of the cilia, terminating at the 
whitish cilia at tormis. llind wings and cilia dark grayish brown. Legs fus- 
cous, except hind tibiae, which are white except at base and apex. Abdomen 
fuscous above, paler beneath. 

Alar expanse 5 mm. 

Male genitalia (tigs. 128, 128a). Harpe tapering to acute apex, margin of 
costa concave below apex, heavy short setae at apex; socii two long arms aris- 
ing low down, the tegumen between them merely a narrow sclerotized band con- 
necting their bases; anellus constricted near base, with a sclerotized acutely 
angled process dorsally ; aedeagus broad at base rapidly tapering to the slender 
tip: vinculum quadrate. Scale sac with round scales. 

Female genitalia (figs. 129, 129a). Ostium in a broad saucer-shaped micro- 
scopically spinulose depression at the anterior margin of segment 8 ; bursa 
copulatrix elongate, extending from the anterior margin of segment 5 into seg- 
ment 2 ; signum a ring at the posterior end of bursa, spines of signum ribs short, 
abruptly pointed, an occasional minute spine between the ribs (fig. 129a). 

Type. — c5 , Key West, Florida, "ex Pluchea odorata, 26 April, 1945, Lot 
45-10176, ss24349" [U.S.N. M., Type No. 65025]. 

Allotype. — 9 (lacking right wings), same data as the type [U.S.N.M.]. 

Paratypes. — 1 2, Oneco, Manatee County, Florida, May 5, 1953 (Paula 
Dillman, Coll. C. P. Kimball) [A.N.S.P.] ; 1 ? (lacking hind wings and abdo- 
men), Siesta Key, Sarasota County, Florida, November 6, 1952 (C. P. Kimball) 
[A.N.S.P.]. 

Although none of the specimens is in perfect condition, all are recog- 
nizable. The fore wings of the female paratype from Siesta Key show 
all the markings described. The wings of the male type are unspread 
and the white tornal spot is obscured on both wings. 

Cocoons (accompanying the reared specimens) are grayish or whit- 
ish ocherous, with well-defined ridges. 

The food plant, Pluchea odorata Cass., is widespread in Tropical 
America; its range given by Small, "Manual of the Southeastern 
Flora," is " S. Pen. Fla. and the Keys," . . . . " W. I., Mex., 
C. A., S. A." 

B. plucheae is closely allied to B. angustata Frey and Boll (syn. 
crescentella Braun), in general agreeing with it in wing markings; the 
shape of harpe and the long socii further indicate the relationship ; in 
female genitalia the broad depression into which the ostium opens and 
especially the very different signum amply differentiate this species 
from angustata. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



94 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

(42) Bucculatrix eupatoriella Braun (Figs. 25, 26, 130, 131, 131a.) 

1918. Bucculatrix eupatoriella Braun, Ent. News XXIX: 247. Type 2, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Face yellow, tuft ocherous in front, shading to reddish brown posteriorly; 
eye-caps small, yellowish, antennal notch in male slight, stalk brown, indistinctly 
annulate. Thorax and fore wings bright brownish ocherous, occasionally ap- 
proaching a uniform brown; markings brilliant silvery. An oblique silvery 
streak at basal third and a second at two-thirds of costa, between which the 
ground color may be somewhat darker especially at the inner margin of the 
second streak ; on dorsal margin, a little basad of the first costal streak, a curved 
silvery spot, followed by a large patch of dark brown raised scales ; opposite the 
second costal streak, a pair of nearly confluent silvery dorsal streaks, the first 
margined inwardly, the second outwardly with black-tipped scales ; in cilia above 
apex, a broadly triangular creamy white spot ; at apex, a small silvery transverse 
spot, followed by a minute black spot at extreme apex ; cilia gray, with a row of 
dark brown-tipped scales extending through them from the white costal spot to 
dorsum. Legs gray-brown, base and apical fourth of posterior tibiae and spurs 
blackish, mid-portion and hairs whitish, tarsal segments dark-tipped. Abdomen 
fuscous above, lustrous yellowish white beneath. 

Alar expanse 5 to 6.8 mm. 

Male genitalia (fig. 130). Harpe slender, broadly expanding at apex, cucul- 
lus bilobed, each lobe armed with strong setae; socii setose, diverging, tapering 
to pointed apices; uncus present, hood-like; anellus elongate, contracting and 
weakly sclerotized toward apex; aedeagus tapering, curving to the two-valved 
aperture ; vinculum broadly rounded. Scale sac present. 

Female genitalia (figs. 131, 131a). Ventral anterior margin of ostium 
strongly sclerotized, posteriorly the lateral margins terminating in free curved 
pointed projections directed obliquely ventrally; segment 8 lateral to ostium 
densely scaled ; signum the typical ring of spined ribs, much wider ventrally. 

Specimens examined. — 33, representing both sexes. 

Ohio: Cincinnati, 2 type, 23 paratypes, rearing record B.955, from larvae 
and cocoons on Eupatorium perfoliatum L., collected August 13, producing ima- 
goes from August 16 to August 24, 1917 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll. and 
A.N.S.P.]; 2 2 paratypes, August 3, 1917, and September 1, 1905 (A. F. 
Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]; Adams County, 1 $ , 3 2, rearing record B.955, from 
larvae on Eupatorium perfoliatum L., imagoes August 21 to September 12, 1928; 
Grant Lake, Brown County, 2 2 , rearing record B.2275, from larvae on Eupa- 
torium perfoliatum L., collected August 28, imagoes September 18 and Septem- 
ber 22, 1957 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

North Carolina: Balsam, Jackson County, 1 2, July 22, 1911 (A. F. 
Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 



ANNETTE l r . BRAUN 95 

A single leaf of the food plant may contain twenty or more of the 
long, linear and much-contorted mines. The larvae on leaving" the 
mines form scattered small eaten patches with the upper epidermis in- 
tact ; later the leaf may be riddled with holes when a number of larvae 
feed on a single leaf. The short white cocoons, with four well-defined 
ridges and an inconspicuous ridge on either side, and well-differenti- 
ated anterior section in which only the two central ridges are well- 
defined, are commonly spun on the underside of the leaf, usually against 
the midrib. 

Besides the late summer generation of which the larvae are ex- 
tremely plentiful, as described above, there is probably a later genera- 
tion, passing the winter in the pupal state with imagoes emerging in the 
spring. A third generation, from eggs laid on the food plant in spring, 
consists of few individuals, the moths appearing in early July. 

B. cupatoriella is easily distinguished both by wing pattern and gen- 
italia from all described Xorth American species. Its nearest ally is B. 
polymniae new species. 

(43) Bucculatrix polymniae new species 

(Figs. 9, 36, 47, 132, 132a, 133, 133a.) 

Face creamy white, hairs of tuft creamy white, fulvous and dark brown ; 
eye-caps creamy white, antennal notch of male absent, replaced by a scarcely 
perceptible excavation, and thus this segment more slender than the succeeding 
segments and more slender than the corresponding segment of the female, stalk 
dark brown with narrow pale annulations. Thorax and fore wings brown, the 
wings darkest brown between the silvery streaks. From base of wing (fig. 9), 
a straight ocherous streak, parallel to fold, for two-thirds the wing length ; from 
costa near base a very oblique ocherous streak joins the longitudinal streak at 
about one-fourth the wing length, thus enclosing a small patch of ground color ; 
before middle of costa, an oblique silvery streak, a similar, but less oblique sil- 
very streak at two-thirds ; before middle of dorsum, a curved ocherous streak, 
more or less overlaid with silvery scales, is followed by a patch of blackish 
raised scales ; before tornus, a very oblique silvery spot, and at tornus, an in- 
wardly oblique narrow streak, its apex opposite the apex of the second silvery 
costal streak; a few silvery scales at apex; in cilia above apex, a creamy white 
triangular patch ; a line of black overlapping scales extending obliquely from 
apex to tip of cilia; cilia gray, with a line of dark-tipped scales extending 
through them from tornus and curving in at apex to the base of the line of black 
scales from apex. Hind wings and cilia gray. Legs dark brown, hind tibiae, 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



96 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

except spurs and apical hairs, whitish ocherous and clothed with whitish ocher- 
ous hairs. Abdomen dark brown above, somewhat paler beneath, especially in 
male. 

Alar expanse 6 to 7 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 132, 132a). Harpe broad apically, indistinctly bilobed 
at apex, lobes with strong heavy short setae ; socii large, with heavy curved 
setae ; uncus present, narrow pointed, microscopically setose ; anellus an elongate 
tube, aedeagus long, gradually narrowing and curving to apex ; vinculum pro- 
duced anteriorly to a rounded point. Scale sac large. 

Female genitalia (figs. 133, 133a). Ostium circular, ductus bursae forked in 
segment 7, the forks entering bursa separately ; lateral to ostium, oval patches 
of specialized scales on intersegmental membrane ; posterior ventral margin of 7 
with lateral pointed projections and a quadrate projection mid-ventrally ; signum 
a ring of spined ribs, the ribs irregularly spined, an occasional spine conspicu- 
ously larger (fig. 133a). 

Type. — <$, Clack Mountain, Rowan County, Kentucky, from larva on leaves 
of Polymnia uvedalia L., collected August 26, 1946, rearing record B.2101, 
imago September 8, 1946 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Paratypes. — 5 3,52, same data as the type, except dates of emergence Sep- 
tember 3 to September 9 ; 1 $ , 1 2 , larvae collected October 4, rearing record 
B.2101, imagoes March 29, 1946; 5 $, 13 2, Fort Hill, Highland County, Ohio, 
from larvae collected August 24 on leaves of Polymnia uvedalia L., rearing rec- 
ord B.2221, imagoes September 1 to September 6, 1955; 1 $ , 3 2, Fort Hill, 
Highland County, Ohio, rearing record B.2221b, imagoes March 29 to April 11, 
1957 ; 1 2 , Fort Hill, Highland County, Ohio, larva collected June 28, rearing 
record B.2221a, imago July 5, 1956; 1 2, Pike Lake, Pike County, Ohio, larva 
on Polymnia uvedalia, collected October 2, rearing record B.2204, imago March 
30, 1954 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Bucculatrix polymniae is confined to Polymnia uvedalia L. as a 
food plant, and the larvae, especially of the late summer and fall genera- 
tions, may be present in great numbers. Three generations a year : 
larvae mining in June only in the lowest pair of leaves and producing 
imagoes in early July; a second generation of larvae in the latter part 
of August producing imagoes in early September; a third generation 
feeding in October, passing the winter in the pupal state with imagoes 
in early spring. 

The egg (fig. 36) deposited on the upper surface of the leaf, is 
ovate, tapering slightly toward the micropylar end, its surface marked 
with brilliantly iridescent wavy bars and knobs, the knobs arranged in 
concentric arcs toward the micropylar end. 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 97 

On the very thin leaves of the food plant the irregularly winding- 
mines may be as much as 5 or 6 cm. long, with a fine central line of 
frass. The white papery moulting cocoons are spun on the underside 
of the leaf. The leaves are skeletonized in irregular patches; in the last 
instar the larva may consume an area of 2 square centimeters. The 
larvae are pale green with a faint reddish tinge anteriorly, nearly con- 
colorous with the under surface of the leaf. 

The white cocoons, often spun against the midrib or near the base 
of the petiole, are short, rounded at either end, with two prominent 
ridges twisted diagonally, and sometimes a partial third ridge (fig. 47). 

The apical pencil of overlapping scales (easily lost) and the ciliary 
line incurving to apex of the wing are unique and distinctive characters. 

B. polymniae is closely allied to B. eupatoriella in larval habits, in 
wing markings, and in genitalia of both sexes, but with the female gen- 
italia somewhat more specialized. 

(44) Bucculatrix speciosa new species (Figs. 46, 46a, 46b, 46c, 136, 136a.) 

Face creamy white, tuft with a few creamy white hairs toward face, and 
shading from reddish brown to dark brown posteriorly and centrally ; eye-caps 
creamy white, very small, on basal half fringed with long hairs, antennal stalk 
dark brown, narrowly paler-annulate. Thorax and fore wings dull brown, ex- 
cept the basal dorsal area below the fold to first dorsal pale spot dull grayish 
ocherous. From base of costa to fold a small pale ocherous spot; an oblique 
white costal spot at three-eighths, a second similar white spot at five-eighths ; 
a larger curved white spot before middle of dorsum, its apex directed toward the 
first costal spot, is followed by a blackish patch of slightly raised scales ; a tri- 
angular white spot before tornus ; at apex a white spot connected with a patch 
of creamy white cilia on costa, is followed by a small black spot; cilia, except 
the costal, reddish brown, marginal scales projecting irregularly into them along 
termen. Hind wings fuscous, cilia reddish. Legs dark brown, tips of tarsal seg- 
ments pale, tibial hairs brown and pale ocherous. Abdomen dark fuscous above, 
whitish beneath, dusted with gray. 

Alar expanse 8 to 8.5 mm. 

Female genitalia (figs. 136, 136a). Segment 7 deeply indented mid-ventrally, 
less deeply indented laterally by oval depressions of the intersegmental mem- 
brane filled with dark specialized scales ; the membranous ductus bursae expands 
before ostium which opens into a large nearly circular depression on segment 8; 
flat fan-shaped tufts of long slender scales laterally at margin of sclerotized por- 
tion of segment 8 ; lateral to the circular depression lines of strong short setae 
and clusters of minute setae ; ribs of signum with abruptly acicular spines and 
an occasional broad large spine (fig. 136a). 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



98 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Type. — 2 , Cranberry Glades, Pocahontas County, West Virginia, from larva 
on leaves of Solidago sp., September 24, 1938, rearing record B.1687, imago 
April 15, 1939 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Paratype. — 2, same data as the type, except date of emergence March 31. 

Larvae and several cocoons were collected at Cranberry Glades on 
a species of Solidago just within the woodland border of the bog. The 
linear mine is 4.5 cm. or more in length; on leaving the mine, the larva 
feeds on the underside of the leaf, the eaten patches gradually increas- 
ing in extent with the growth of the larva ; moulting cocoons of pure 
white thin papery silk (figs. 46a, 46b). The very slender elongate 
white ribbed cocoon (fig. 46c) may be spun on a stem of the food plant 
near the inflorescence, on the underside of a leaf, or on debris on the 
ground. 

Both wing markings and female genitalia suggest close relationship 
to B. sexnotata Braun. 

(45) Bucculatrix subnitens Walsingham (Figs. 137, 137a.) 

1914. Bucculatrix subnitens Walsingham, Biologia-Centrali-Americana, IV, 
Lepidoptera-Heterocera, p. 345, Fig. 2, PI. X. Type 8, Teapa, Ta- 
basco, Mexico [B.M.]. 

Face whitish, tuft brown centrally, whitish laterally ; eye-caps whitish, an- 
tennal stalk gray, with narrow darker annulations. Thorax and basal half of 
fore wing uniformly ocherous, except for a dark brown stripe along costa, 
broadening at basal fourth to form an oblique streak, concave outwardly; in the 
middle of the disc, the ocherous color is produced as a narrow streak to two- 
thirds the wing length, thus deeply indenting the reddish or dark brown and 
blackish outer half of the wing; just before middle of costa, a curved lustrous 
silvery streak; at two-thirds of costa a triangular erect, or sometimes narrow 
and oblique silvery spot; at middle of dorsum, a large curved dark brown and 
black streak bearing black raised scales, its tip reaching just beyond the acute 
tip of the narrow ocherous streak through the middle of the wing; this dark 
brown streak is bordered on each side by a patch of lustrous silvery scales ex- 
tending to the fold ; a whitish spot at tornus a little distad of the second silvery 
costal spot; scales encircling the apex grayish ocherous, and black-tipped; just 
before apex on costa, a white spot mostly in the cilia, a similar less denned pale 
spot just below apex is connected to the costal white spot by two or three silvery 
white scales; some dark brown scales project into the cilia; cilia gray toward 
tornus. Hind wings and cilia fuscous, somewhat irrorated. Legs dark brown, 
tibial hairs of the hind legs pure white. Large latero-dorsal blackish spots on 
metathorax. Abdomen dark fuscous, anal scales whitish ocherous. 



ANNETTE F. BRA UN 99 

Alar expanse 5 to 7 mm. 

Female genitalia (figs. 137. 137a). Ovipositor lobes minutely spinulose be- 
tween the setae; anterior halt of segment 8 strongly sclerotized, near the pos- 
terior lateral margin of this sclerotized eighth sternite, a cluster of setae; a 
lateral pair of elongate pockets on the intersegmental membrane indenting seg- 
ment 8, and bearing dark-pigmented specialized scales; ductus bursae opening 
into broad heart-shaped depression, sclerotized to the middle of segment 7, in- 
ception of ductus seminalis at the junction of this sclerotized section with the 
long membranous anterior section ; the small bursa copulatrix at the anterior end 
of the abdomen and strongly constricted by the signum, ribs of signum so closely 
placed that the spines of one rib overlap the adjacent one; spines acute, an occa- 
sional broader and larger spine (fig. 137a). 

Specimen examined. — 1 9. 

Arizona : Madera Canyon, 4880 feet, Santa Rita Mountains, 1 9 , 30 June, 
1959 (R. W. Hodges) [Cornell U.]. 

Food plant and early stages unknown, but without doubt the larva 
should be sought for on some Composite. 

Walsingham does not mention the silvery spot on the basad side of 
the dorsal dark streak ; the incidence of light affects the distinctness of 
both of these spots. On the single Arizona specimen, I do not find a 
silvery white spot on the thorax, but the tips of the tegulae are some- 
what paler than the remainder of the thorax. The wing expanse of the 
male type ( 5 mm. ) is considerably less than that of the Arizona female 
specimen ( 7 mm. ) . 

This very distinct species can be recognized by wing color and 
markings. 

Both by genitalia and wing marks, B. subnitens is allied to B. sex- 
notata Braun and B. speciosa new species ; the wing marks are placed 
as in these species ; it further agrees with sexnotata in the silvery luster 
of the pale marks. 

Although the type locality of B, subnitens is 1500 or more miles 
from Arizona, there seems to be no doubt of the identification. 

(46) Bucculatrix sexnotata Braun (Figs. 43, 43a, 134, 135, 135a.) 

1927. Bucculatrix sexnotata Braun, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. LIII : 195. Type 
$, Natural Bridge, Powell County, Kentucky [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Face shining yellowish white, tuft orange-red in front, shading to dark brown 
behind; eye-caps small, silvery white, antennal notch of male very shallow, an- 
tennal stalk fuscous in basal half, faintly paler annulate, in outer half paler 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



100 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

shading to white or whitish at tip, especially in female. Thorax and fore wings 
dark, almost black, faintly shining; the wings with six silvery white spots; a 
short oblique spot from base of costa to fold; oblique triangular costal spots 
before middle and at three-fourths ; triangular dorsal spots at one-third and 
before tornus, each a little anterior to the corresponding costal spot; the sixth 
spot at apex and followed by a patch of blackish scales projecting into the cilia, 
from this a faint line of dark scales through the cilia along termen. Hind wings 
and cilia brown, slightly paler in female ; frenulum of female with two bristles 
not closely associated. Legs dark brown, posterior tibiae with long dull ocher- 
ous hairs. Abdomen dark brown above, much paler beneath in female, tip pale 
ocherous. 

Alar expanse 7 to 7.5 mm. 

Male genitalia (fig. 134). Harpe with an outer curved setose lobe, apex 
with short heavy setae ; socii very large, finely setose ; anellus slender, conical, 
sclerotized ; aedeagus curving from broad base to slender apex ; vinculum mod- 
erately broad, rounded anteriorly. Scale sac present. 

Female genitalia (figs. 135, 135a). Ostium small, circular, opening into a 
shallow sinus, margined by a strongly sclerotized horseshoe-shaped structure, its 
arms gradually broadening and attaining the posterior margin of the sclerotized 
basal half of segment 8; a patch of dark specialized scales each side of ostium 
on intersegmental membrane projects slightly beyond the posterior margin of 7; 
on dorsal posterior margin of 7 a dense line of scales, shorter than the lateral 
scales (not shown on figure) ; signum the usual ring of spined ribs, spines long, 
with an occasional larger spine (fig. 135a). 

Specimens examined. — 23 $,25 2. 

Kentucky : Natural Bridge, Powell County, 8 type, 2 paratype, rearing 
record B.1223, from larvae on Aster divaricatus L., September 12, 1924, imagoes 
April 18 and April 27, 1925 [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

North Carolina : Thomas Ridge, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, 
2 2 , rearing record B.2198, larvae collected on Aster divaricatus L., August 2, 
1953, imagoes April 26, 1954 [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Ohio: Ash Cave, Hocking County, 3 $, 6 2, rearing record B.2091, larvae 
on Aster prenanthoidcs Muhl., September 29, 1943, imagoes April 12 to April 
19, 1944 [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Pennsylvania: New Brighton, 1 2, July 10, '07 (Merrick Museum) 
[U.S.N.M.]. 

Ontario: 1 S, 3-VII, 1905 (C. H. Young) [C.N.Coll.]. 

New Brunswick: Waweig, 1 2, 5-VII, 1933 (T. N. Freeman) [C.N.Coll.]. 

Nova Scotia: Petite Riviere, 14 $, July 16, 19, 1935, 7 2, July 19, 1935; 
White Pt. Bch., Queen Co., 3 $, July 13, 16, 20, 1934; Smith's Cove, 3 2, July 
19-20, August 6, 1945 (J. McDunnough) [C.N.Coll.]; Halifax Co., 4 2,1 $, 
reared on Aster novi-belgii L., imagoes April 13 to 19, 1952 (J. McDunnough) 
[Nova Scotia Museum of Science]. 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 101 

The larvae make very long thread-like mines in leaves of several 
species of Aster, the early portion of the mine sometimes difficult to dis- 
cern ; three instars are passed in the mine ; during the fourth and fifth 
instars (as indicated by the spinning of two moulting cocoons) the lar- 
vae feed exposed on the underside of the leaf, the upper epidermis re- 
maining intact in the irregular eaten patches (fig. 43). Along the high 
ridges of the Great Smoky Mountains (on the Appalachian Trail at 
elevations between 5000 and 6000 feet), where B. sexnotata mines only 
the leaves of Aster divaricatus, the mines are sometimes so plentiful 
as to shrivel the leaves and disfigure the plants. However the high 
percentage of parasitism here (in 1953) resulted in emergence of 
scarcely 10% of the individuals. Cocoon (fig. 43a) slender, with six 
well-defined ridges ; anterior section little differentiated, except that the 
ridges may be less distinct, or sometimes obsolete ; pale grayish brown, 
occasionally whitish. 

Buccidatrix sexnotata resembles in general character of wing mark- 
ings the Corylus-feeder, B. callistricha new species, with which it has 
no relationship, as shown by genitalic structure. The characteristic 
genitalia of both sexes at once separate B. sexnotata from all other de- 
scribed American species. 

Subsection B 
(47) Bucculatrix divisa Braun (Figs. 48, 48a, 48b, 48c, 138, 139, 139a.) 

1925. Bucculatrix divisa Braun, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. LI: 221. Type $, 
near Logan, Utah [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Face grayish white, tuft with intermingled white and grayish brown hairs, 
the white hairs predominating in pale specimens, the dark hairs in dark speci- 
mens ; eye-caps whitish, with a longitudinal dark streak ; antennal stalk pale 
gray, with dark brown annulations. Basic color of the fore wings whitish, 
shaded however with a varying amount of pale ashy gray, brownish ocherous 
or brown, and finally so completely suffused with dark brown as to obscure all 
the white markings except a narrow white line extending from two-thirds of 
costa across the wing to termen and a line of black-tipped white scales encircling 
apex. In specimens in which the white marks are defined (as in the type and 
paratypes) the wing is more or less suffused with brownish ocherous, the basal 
half sometimes contrastingly paler than the outer half; a whitish streak from 
base below costa to about one-third ; before middle of wing, the brownish color 
forms the inner margin of a short white streak ; from two-thirds of costa an 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



102 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

oblique white streak, sometimes broad on costa, crosses the wing to termen ; 
this streak may be divided in the middle of the wing by a short brown or black 
dash ; at middle of dorsum, a dark brown, sometimes basally blackish-edged 
broad half crescent or oval mark is margined before and behind by white; costa 
before apex usually whitish ; a line of black-tipped white scales encircling the 
apex ; a dark brown spot at apex. In very pale specimens, the white markings 
expand and contrast but little with the pale ashy or silvery gray ground ; in such 
specimens the dorsal oval forms a conspicuous dark mark. Hind wings varying 
in color from pale silvery gray to blackish fuscous. Legs varying from whitish 
to dark gray, tarsal segments black-tipped. Abdomen pale gray to dark fuscous. 

Alar expanse 8 to 9 mm. 

Male genitalia (fig. 138). Harpe strongly sclerotized, inflated, abruptly 
tapering beyond middle to apex, strong setae at apex ; tegumen bulging before 
socii, here incurved and lying in a dorso-ventral plane, contracting to the small 
widely separated setose socii ; subscaphium a thin dorso-ventral plate near pos- 
terior median margin of tegumen ; anellus a slender cone ; aedeagus long, ex- 
tending forward into segment 5, slender, sinuate ; vinculum with a broad anterior 
sinus. Scale sac present. 

Female genitalia (figs. 139, 139a). Segment 9 modified, long setae indicat- 
ing areas homologous with ovipositor lobes ; rasping rods developed, vaginal 
setae slender, rounded at tip ; ostium in a funnel-shaped depression, its lateral 
flaring margins intricately and more or less hexagonally sculptured ; inception 
of ductus seminalis at ostium, ductus bursae curving to the right, sclerotized 
nearly to the anterior margin of segment 6, entering bursa dorsally near its pos- 
terior end ; signum with ribs closely placed, forming a dense collar near posterior 
end of bursa; spines long, evenly spaced (fig. 139a). 

Specimens examined. — 9 6,49. 

Utah : Cache County, near Logan, S type, 2 $ paratypes, rearing record 
B.1145, imagoes June 26, June 29 [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Washington: Along Tieton River, west of Yakima, 3 8,3 2, rearing rec- 
ord B.2291, imagoes July 13 to July 24 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.] ; Clarkston, 
3 S, 1 2, l-III, '31 (J. F. Clarke) [U.S.N.M.]. 

Food plant: Balsamorrhisa sagittate (Pursh) Nutt. 

The early mine, formed on hatching from the egg, is at first indis- 
tinct, later translucent, and finally enlarges into a small irregular 
blotch; frass deposited in the mine (fig. 48a). On leaving this mine 
the larva feeds on the lower surface of the leaf, mining into the leaf, 
but with only head and thorax in the mine, Each larva makes several 
of these small squarish mines, never exceeding two millimeters across, 
the circular entrance hole placed at one side of the mine (fig. 48b) ; 
except for the position of the hole, the mines resemble small Coleophora 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 103 

mines. The cocoons, which are spun on the underside of the leaf, com- 
monly next to the midrih, vary in color from whitish to pinkish, rarely 
with a slight brownish shade; twelve to fourteen very fine ridges (fig. 
48c) ; a slightly wooly texture sometimes tends to obscure the ridges. 
The species is two-brooded ; moths of the first brood emerging from 
larvae feeding in June and early July ; a second brood overwinters in 
the pupal state. 

Three of the March specimens (from Clarkston, Washington) dif- 
fer from the type series and the other specimens of a summer brood in 
the almost white ground color, the white marks defined only by absence 
of any dark dusting. 

Apart from characters of the genitalia, the dark longitudinal streak 
on the eye-caps is perhaps the best distinguishing character ; it is pres- 
ent and conspicuous in all specimens examined and may serve to con- 
firm identification of flown specimens of this very variable species. 

(48) Bucculatrix illecebrosa new species (Figs. 10, 140, 140a, 141.) 

Face gray, tuft with dark brown and bright ocherous-brown hairs ; eye-caps 
white, finely speckled with dark brown, antennal stalk pale grayish, annulate 
with blackish brown, the annulations narrow and closely placed toward base. 
Thorax bright brown. Fore wing (fig. 10) predominately bright brown, the 
scales below the fold black-tipped ; at one-third of costa, black-tipped scales form 
the inner margin of an oblique white streak, broad on costa, but dusted with 
black specks in the outer part on costa ; beyond middle of wing, a second oblique 
costal streak, also margined inwardly by black-tipped scales, attains the middle 
of the disc and is here acutely angled (this angle not always distinctly defined) ; 
apical area of wing white, speckled with black-tipped scales, a black apical spot 
usually distinct; a line of black-tipped scales around apex continues less dis- 
tinctly toward tornus ; the black-tipped scales form a dark shade below fold, and 
margin an oblique white streak which is divided by a line of black-tipped scales ; 
beyond this white streak, black scales are massed to form a rather conspicuous 
black patch below fold, and inwardly border a second oblique white streak ; cilia 
pale gray. Hind wings and cilia gray. Legs fuscous, tarsal segments black- 
tipped. Abdomen dark gray above, silvery gray beneath. 

Alar expanse 7.5 to 8 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 140, 140a). Harpe typical of the group, abruptly taper- 
ing near apex, setal arrangement as in divisa; socii broadly triangular, setose; 
subscaphium an elongate dorso-ventral plate; anellus conical; aedeagus long, 
sinuate, slender throughout its length ; vinculum with a broad anterior sinus. 
Scale sac present. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC., 18. 



104 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Female genitalia (fig. 141). Segment 9 modified, rasping rods feebly devel- 
oped ; vaginal setae very minute, notched at tips ; on segment 8, a large tuft of 
specialized scales each side of ostium, and near lateral line a small triangular 
sclerotized plate; ostium in a depression at anterior margin of segment 8, two 
diverging posterior sculptured bands ; posterior dorsal margin of segment 8 
bilobed ; ductus bursae sclerotized into segment 6 and bent to the right ; signum 
ribs with very long slender spines. 

Type. — $ , Colfax, Placer County, California, ''wild sunflower," iss. VII. 5 
(A. H. Vachell) [U.S.N.M., Type No. 65026]. 

Allotype. — 2, same data as the type. 

Paratypes. — 4 $ , 5 2 , same data as the type ; 1 $ , Shasta Retreat, Siskiyou 
County, California, June 16-23 [U.S.N.M.]. 

Food plant as given on the locality labels is " wild sunflower." 
The larvae are leaf-skeletonizers, as shown by fragments of leaves ac- 
companying the specimens. Cocoon white or pale yellow, with ten or 
eleven sharp ridges. 

There is unusual constancy of wing markings ; the configuration of 
markings however suggests relationship to B. divisa, from which it is 
amply differentiated by characters of the genitalia, especially of the 
female, by the different larval feeding habits, and by the fewer ridges 
of the cocoon. 

(49) Bucculatrix insolita Braun (Figs. 143, 143a, 144, 144a.) 

1918. Bucculatrix insolita Braun, Ent. News XXIX: 248. Type $ , allotype 2, 
San Bernardino Mountains, California [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Face gray, tuft of whitish and dark gray or brown scales intermingled ; eye- 
caps whitish, antennal stalk black. Thorax and basal third of fore wings white 
to a line extending obliquely outward from costa to dorsum ; a stripe of black 
scales along costa from base nearly to one-third ; some blackish scales near base 
of dorsum ; sometimes a large patch of grayish ocherous dark-tipped scales lying 
over the fold ; middle third of wing occupied by a broad truncated blackish tri- 
angle, its broad base on costa, with a few whitish scales on costa near its inner 
side ; white oblique curved streaks border the black area outwardly and meet at 
an angle in the middle of the wing, the white prolonged from the angle toward 
termen and almost connected with an irregular patch of white scales on costa 
before apex ; space between this white patch and the curved white costal streak 
dusted with grayish or ocherous black-tipped scales ; a black spot at apex, and 
a line of black-tipped white scales around apex in the dark gray cilia. Hind 
wings and cilia irrorated fuscous. Legs black, bases of tarsal segments white. 
Abdomen blackish, with silvery gray anal tuft. 

Alar expanse 7 to 7.5 mm. 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 105 

Male genitalia (figs. 143, 143a). Harpe typical of the group, slender in its 
apical half, with a few very heavy setae at apex, and several scattered such 
setae before apex ; tegumen bulging before the rounded setose socii ; subscaphium 
a thin dorso-ventral plate ; anellus a broad cone ; aedeagus long, sinuate, near tip 
an elongate internal thickening lobed at base (fig. 143a) ; vinculum with broad 
anterior sinus. Scale sac small, its diameter less than half the length of seg- 
ment 2. 

Female genitalia (figs. 144, 144a). Segment 9 modified, rasping rods well 
developed, vaginal setae notched at tip; on segment 8, a large tuft of specialized 
scales each side of ostium, and near lateral line a small clear circular spot; 
ostium in a depression at anterior margin of 8, two diverging posterior furrows, 
sculptured and microscopically spinulose at their margins ; ductus bursae strongly 
sclerotized in segment 7 and bent to the right; signum ribs closely placed, spines 
long posteriorly, short and irregular anteriorly (fig. 144a). 

Specimens examined. — 1 $,2 2. 

California : San Bernardino Mountains, $ type, Camp Baldy, July 7, 1914, 
with note " beaten from fir "; Fredalba, 2 allotype, August 29, 1912, 2 paratype, 
August 30, 1912 (G. R. Pilate) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Food plant and early stages unknown. 

The sharp contrast between the almost white basal third of the fore 
wing and the dark middle section makes this one of our most easily 
recognized species. 

(50) Bucculatrix transversata Braun (Figs. 142, 142a.) 

1910. Bucculatrix transversata Braun, Ent. News XXI: 177. Type $, Rivera, 
Los Angeles County, California [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Face white, gray- and brown-speckled ; tuft brown, darkest in the center, a 
few white hairs in front and at the sides ; eye-caps very small, white ; antennal 
stalk gray with dark brown annulations. Thorax dark brown in center, shading 
to bright brown laterally. Fore wings bright brown, except along the wing 
margins where the scales are white with black tips from middle of costa, around 
apex, along termen and nearly to middle of dorsum ; near middle of costa, a faint 
paler spot; just before apex on costa, the white border enlarges into a triangular 
undusted spot ; on middle of dorsum a narrow half-crescent of black raised 
scales, bordered inwardly by a pale shade, and followed by a few scattered black 
scales ; a straight transverse line of conspicuous black-tipped scales crosses the 
gray apical cilia. Hind wings and cilia gray. Legs gray, tarsal segments nar- 
rowly black-tipped. Abdomen shining gray, paler beneath. 

Alar expanse 7 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 142, 142a). Harpe typical of the group, abruptly nar- 
rowing near apex, setae strong, closely placed on the apical area; socii setose, 

MEM. AMEE. ENT. SOC, 18. 



106 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

their tips curved ventrad ; subscaphium an elongate narrow strip ; anellus coni- 
cal ; aedeagus sinuate, abruptly contracting beyond middle, slightly flared at tip ; 
vesica with two ill-defined teeth near tip; vinculum narrow, with a shallow 
scarcely perceptible anterior sinus. Scales of scale sac elongate. 

Specimen examined. — 1 $ . 

California : Rivera, Los Angeles County, $ type, rearing record B.588, larva 
on leaves of Ambrosia psylostachya DC, imago December 5, 1909 [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Only the male type is known. 

The larva feeds in October on the upper side of the leaf, consuming- 
irregular patches of leaf tissue ; pupation takes place in the latter part 
of that month. 

The rather uniform brown color of the fore wings, with white 
black-dusted margins, and the transverse black apical line characterize 
this species. 

(51) Bucculatrix koebelella Busck (Figs. 145, 146.) 

1909. Bucculatrix kocbdclla Busck, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. XI: 184. Types, 
$ , $ , on same mount, Los Angeles County, California [U.S.N.M., 
Type No. 12692]. 

Face white, with some minute fuscous dusting; tuft of mingled white and 
ocherous-fuscous hairs; eye-caps whitish with fuscous dusting; each segment of 
antennal stalk shading from grayish white through ocherous-fuscous to black. 
Thorax white, densely dusted with fuscous. The white or sometimes pale gray- 
ish ocherous ground color of the fore wings largely obscured by ocherous-fus- 
cous scales ; markings blackish ; the only white or nearly white area of the wing 
is a wedge-shaped streak from base to one-third, lying between the fuscous costa 
and a blackish streak from base along fold ; an oblique fuscous costal streak at 
one-third, a second less distinct costal streak beyond middle ends in a small 
longitudinal black spot at end of cell ; the blackish streak from base in fold is 
followed on the fold by a patch of a few black raised scales ; this is followed by 
a second blackish streak in fold; a greater or less concentration of blackish 
scales in the apex, sometimes produced basad to the black spot at end of cell ; 
cilia pale grayish ocherous, with a line of black-tipped scales from apex toward 
tornus. Hind wings pale silvery fuscous, cilia faintly ocherous tinged. Legs 
pale fuscous, with more or less distinctly black-tipped tarsal segments. Abdo- 
men pale silvery fuscous above, whitish beneath. 

Alar expanse 8 mm. 

Male genitalia (fig. 146). Harpe typical of the group, abruptly narrowing 
near apex, with heavy setae on the apical narrow area; socii pointed, incurved, 
setose ; subscaphium minutely spinulose ; anellus asymmetric, sclerotized, aper- 
ture to the right and below apex ; aedeagus long, broad at base and gradually 
tapering to the semicircular curved apex, aperture before apex, just basad of 
the semicircle ; vinculum narrow, refuse. Scale sac present. 



ANNETTE F. HRAUN 107 

Female genitalia (fig. 145). Segment 9 modified, rasping rods well devel- 
oped, vaginal setae conspicuous within the vagina, apices rounded, notched ; on 
segment 8, on each side of ostium, a depressed nearly circular area, its surface 
closely heset with microscopic hlunt teeth, its inner margin curving and thence 
directed posteriorly, forming the upper edge of an erect sclerotized arc-shaped 
plate; ductus bursae sclerotized in segment 7, with a sac-like production at the 
junction with the membranous section; signum an obliquely placed ellipse, open 
dorsally, ribs with evenly spaced long spines. 

Specimens examined. — 13, representing both sexes. 

California : Los Angeles County, c5 , 9, types (on same mount), "on 
Artemisia californica," March (A. Koebele) [U.S.N.M.], 18 " cotypes," seven 
of these labeled "on Artemisia californica," March (A. Koebele) [U.S.N.M.] ; 
2 9. ex type series [A.F.B.Coll.] ; Fredalba, 11, $, 9, August 29 to Sept. 2 
(G. R. Pilate) ; Camp Baldy. San Bernardino Mountains, 1 $, July 29 ( G. R. 
Pilate); Alameda County. 9, £, 9, April 12 ( G. R. Pilate) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

The dates of collection indicate two generations a year. 

This apparently common species may be recognized by the general 
grayish aspect, and by the white wedge-shaped streak from base lying 
between the fold and the fuscous stripe along costa. The depressed 
circular area and the erect arc-shaped plate arising from it on segment 
8 of the female abdomen separate it from all other species except sal- 
utatoria Braun, which is however amply differentiated from koebelella 
on other characters. 

(52) Bucculatrix salutatoria Braun (Figs. 12, 51, 51a, 149, 150, 150a, 151.) 

1925. Bucculatrix salutatoria Braun, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. LI: 221. Type 6 , 

head of Swan Creek, Rich County, Utah [A.F.B.Coll.]. 
1958. Bucculatrix salutatoria Braun, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. LXXXIV : 106. 

Face white, tuft of mingled white, dull ocherous and gray hairs ; eye-caps 
white, antennal stalk annulate with gray. Thorax white. Fore wing (fig. 12) 
white, finely dusted with pale dull ocherous scales, which are usually darker 
tipped ; basal area between costa and fold usually but little dusted ; scales, more 
deeply dark-tipped, are grouped to form indistinct darker markings, separated 
by white scales ; a narrow oblique streak from basal third of costa, a second 
broader oblique streak ending in a black dot (sometimes almost absent) in the 
middle of the wing; below the middle of the wing both of these streaks blend 
into the general dusted ground color ; a patch of dark-tipped scales, with more 
of the ocherous color, occupies the apical third of the wing, in its costal half 
tending to divide into several more or less distinct transverse lines, white scales 
on costa precede an irregular black spot at apex; a small patch of black raised 
scales in the middle of the wing below fold, sometimes extended to dorsum by 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



108 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

dark scales, forming a half crescent, which may be margined with white scales ; 
a similar patch of raised scales on termen; cilia gray, with a line of minutely 
black-tipped scales from apex toward tornus, sometimes connected with the api- 
cal spot, and a second conspicuous, and in perfect specimens sinuate line of 
black-tipped scales extending through the outer third of the cilia along termen. 
Hind wings and cilia lustrous, grayish white, with a coppery tinge. Prothoracic 
legs black, meso- and metathoracic legs banded with black and white, tarsal seg- 
ments black-tipped. Abdomen fuscous-ocherous, with ocherous anal tuft. 

Alar expanse 8 to 9.5 mm. 

Male genitalia (fig. 149). Harpe typical of the group, broad, abruptly con- 
tracting to the small apical lobe (cucullus) bearing short heavy setae, free 
costal arms larger than in allied species and more strongly sclerotized ; socii 
small, elongate, rounded at tip; subscaphium a thin dorso-ventral plate; anellus 
asymmetric, aperture to left below tip ; aedeagus long, gradually tapering to 
near apex, then abruptly contracting to the slender curled apical section ; vincu- 
lum a narrow ring, slightly retuse. Scale sac minute, scales few. 

Female genitalia (figs. 150, 150a, 151). Segment 9 modified, rasping rods 
well-developed; vaginal setae broad, asymmetric, the larger bilobed (fig. 151) ; 
on each side of ostium, a rounded depressed area, its inner margin curving pos- 
teriorly and rising to form the upper edge of a sclerotized erect plate, its outer 
margin meeting the middle of the base of this erect plate at an acute angle, the 
whole beset with microscopic teeth, those of the erect plate slender and acute ; 
ostium wide, a short sclerotized section of ductus bursae broad funnel-shaped, 
membranous portion of ductus short, slender, curving to the right, then left, 
then extending anteriorly to the very large bursa copulatrix, which extends into 
segment 1 ; signum in segments 5 anl 6, a ring broken dorsally, spines long and 
slender (fig. 150a). 

Specimens examined. — 41, representing both sexes. 

Utah : Swan Creek, Rich County, $ type, 13,12 paratype, June 29, 1924 
(A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Colorado: Grand Lake, 1 S, August 7, 1929 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Wyoming: Grand Teton National Park, 1 S, 3 9, rearing record B.2290, 
on Artemisia tridentata Nutt., imagoes July 11, July 15, 1959 (A. F. Braun) 
[U.S.N.M. and A.F.B.Coll.]. 

British Columbia: Seton Lake, Lillooet, 13, 6, $, May 30, 1926 (J. Mc- 
Dunnough) [C.N. Coll.] ; Hedley, 5800 feet, 19, $, $, July 31, August 1, 1934 
(A. N. Gartrell) [C.N. Coll. ] ; Peachland, 1 5, June 27, 1935 (A. N. Gartrell) 
[C.N.Coll.]. 

The larvae are miners in leaves of sagebrush {Artemisia tridentata 
Nutt). The first very narrow linear mine lies along the margin of the 
leaf, and except for the frass contained therein, soon becomes scarcely 
discernible. On leaving this mine, the larva forms small narrow mines 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 109 

along the margin of the leaf, entering the leaf on the upper side at or 
near the margin (fig. 51); the entrance hole sometimes appears as a 
notch in the leaf margin as the epidermis shrivels ; all frass is voided 
outside these mines. The cocoons are spun on the underside of a leaf; 
they are rather broad and stout, the eight to ten fine sharp white anas- 
tomosing ridges stand out conspicuously against the otherwise pale 
gray color ( fig. 51a). Cocoons collected July 4 on a moraine slope of 
the Taggart Lake trail. Grand Teton National Park, yielded moths 
July 11 and July 15. One of the Lillooet, B. C. specimens bears the 
notation " Host Sagebrush." 

Bucculatrix salutatoria occurs in less xeric and more northern hab- 
itats than the more common B. tridenticola new species, also on sage- 
brush ; it may be sought for in a community transitional between sage- 
brush and forest. The cocoon of B. salutatoria may be distinguished 
from that of tridenticola by its broader form, and the fewer and anas- 
tomosing ridges. The imagoes of the two species, if collected together, 
are easily separated by color and wing markings. 

(S3) Bucculatrix leptalea new species 

(Figs. 14, 147, 147a, 148, 148a, 148b, 148c.) 

Face white, tuft white, centrally with a few pale gray hairs ; eye-caps white, 
very small, antennal stalk gray, faintly annulate. Fore wing ( fig. 14) white 
with pale ocherous marks, in which some of the scales may be darker-tipped, 
and two blackish dots. Sometimes a faint ocherous suffusion along fold from 
base, and sometimes a similar faint suffusion below costa at about one-third ; at 
two-thirds of costa, an oblique pale ocherous streak in which the scales are 
minutely darker-tipped ; near apex on costa a more or less distinct patch of such 
scales, and opposite it, a similar patch of scales, usually less defined; just beyond 
middle of fold, a group of a few black scales (sometimes absent) followed by 
pale ocherous, minutely darker-tipped scales ; on the disc, a black dot, often more 
distinct than the one in the fold, is farther from the black spot in fold than it is 
from a few black-tipped scales at apex ; scattered black-tipped scales in the cilia 
of termen. Hind wings and cilia white, with a faint ocherous tinge toward 
apex. Legs white, tarsal segments pale gray-tipped. Abdomen with ocherous 
and fuscous shading. 

Alar expanse 7.5 to 8 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 148, 148a, 148b, 148c). Harpe typical of the group, 
broad at base tapering to apex, setae short, heavy at apex ; socii broad, widely 
separated, each terminating in a small pointed setose lobe, and bearing on the 
ventral surface a narrow elongate lobe, setose along its free margin (fig. 148a) ; 
subscaphium a narrow spinulose ridge ; anellus conical, asymmetric, aperture to 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



110 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

the right; aedeagus tapering, curled at apex; vinculum with a slight anterior 
sinus; scale sac (fig. 148c) small, scales slender. 

Female genitalia (figs. 147, 147a). Segment 9 not greatly modified, rasping 
rods weak, vaginal setae very minute and slender ; on each side of the wide 
ostium, a minutely spinulose band; near lateral margin of 8, a tuft of specialized 
scales ; on dorsal surface of 8, a pair of circular depressed minutely spinulose 
areas, indistinctly connected by a sclerotized line ; at the anterior margin of the 
intersegmental membrane, a row of slender specialized scales, overlain and hid- 
den by the normal scales of the margin of the sclerotized anterior half of seg- 
ment 7; a sclerotized section of the ductus bursae curves abruptly to the right; 
signum a ring very obliquely (almost longitudinally) placed, signum ribs (fig. 
147a 1 with abruptly tapering strong spines. 

Type. — S, Snake River, opposite Clarkston, Washington, March 6, 1931, 
" reared from Artemisia dracunculus," (J. F. Gates Clarke) [U.S.N.M., Type 
No. 65027]. 

Allotype. — 2, same data as the type. 

Paratypes. — 2 5,6 9, same data as the type, except dates of emergence from 
March 2 to March 19 (J. F. Gates Clarke) [U.S.N.M. and A.F.B.Coll.] ; 1 8, 
Wilma, Whitman County, Washington, March 27. 1934, " reared from Arte- 
misia dracunculoides " (J. F. Gates Clarke) [U.S.N.M.]; 4 8, Aweme (south- 
west of Brandon), Manitoba. May 27, 1921 (N. Criddle) [C.N. Coll. ] ; 1 8, 
Loma Linda, San Bernardino County, California, June 1, 1912 ( G. R. Pilate) 
[A.F.B.Coll.]. 

The food plant, recorded on the specimen labels as Artemisia dra- 
cunculus or Artemisia dracunculoides, is listed under several names in 
the various manuals — in Gleason (1952) as Artemisia dracunculus L., 
with dracunculoides Pursh and glauca Pall, as synonyms ; in Fernald 
(1950) as glauca (including A. dracunculoides and A. Dracuncidus, 
subsp. glauca), and in older Gray's Manual (7th edition) as dracun- 
culoides. 

The narrow ventral lobe of socius, fringed with setae, separates this 
species on genitalic characters from all American species. By genitalia, 
B. leptalea is very closely allied to the European B. artemisiae H.-S. ; 
the female genitalia are quite similar, but the dorsal circular areas of 
segment 8, are, in B. artemisiae, scaled, not merely minutely spinulose 
as in B. leptalea; the figure of the male of B. artemisiae in " The Gen- 
italia of the Tineina " by Pierce and Metcalfe shows a ventral lobe sim- 
ilar to that of B. leptalea, but such a lobe is not present on a slide of the 
male genitalia made from a European specimen from the Hofmann 



ANNETTE F. BRA UN 1 1 1 

Collection in the United States National Museum. By markings the 
two species would not be confused. 

In wing' markings, H. leptalea can scarcely be distinguished from 
B. seorsa new species on Artemisia tridentata from California; the 
slight differences in wing markings are noted under the latter species. 

(54) Bucculatrix arnicella Braun (Figs. 50, 152, 153.) 

1925. Bucculatrix arnicella Braun, Trans. Anier. Ent. Soc. LI: 223. Type 9, 
Logan Canyon, Utah [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Face pale gray, sometimes minutely darker gray speckled ; tuft dark gray 
and white, usually white below, and in paler specimens, the white predominating 
laterally; eye-caps speckled dark gray, except the projecting scales of the an- 
terior edge which are white and separated from the speckled portion by a line 
of black scales ; antennal stalk gray with black annulations. Thorax and fore 
wings so densely speckled with black-tipped and black scales (fading to brown- 
ish with age) as to give the wing an irrorated dark gray aspect with blacker 
areas. Areas with more narrowly dark-tipped scales may appear as pale patches 
and streaks ; such a patch on middle of costa may continue as an oblique streak ; 
a second oblique whitish streak extends toward termen which it sometimes 
reaches; on middle of dorsum, a more or less quadrate patch of black scales, 
margined on its inner and sometimes upper side by black-tipped white scales, 
and outwardly by an oblique streak of such scales which sometimes meets the 
second costal streak at an acute angle ; scales at apex black-tipped or sometimes 
wholly black, thus forming a black apical dot, above which there may be a group 
of pure white scales; a marginal line of black-tipped scales from costa around 
apex is sometimes connected with the black apical dot by two or three black 
scales ; a distinct and rather conspicuous line of black-tipped scales around apex 
in the dark gray cilia. Hind wings and cilia gray, the depth of color varying 
with the amount of black in the fore wings. Legs gray, w r ith black-tipped tarsal 
segments. Abdomen dark gray above, silvery gray beneath. 

Alar expanse 8 mm. 

Male genitalia (fig. 152). Harpe typical of the group, costal margin bulging 
slightly before apex, which bears short heavy setae; socii broad, curving toward 
midline, setose ; subscaphium minutely spinulose ; anellus tapering to a slender 
tip ; aedeagus long, gradually tapering, curved at apex ; vinculum with a deep 
anterior sinus. Scale sac of moderate size, oval. 

Female genitalia (fig. 153). Segment 9 modified, rasping rods well-devel- 
oped, but not strongly sclerotized, vaginal setae minute, indistinctly notched at 
tips ; on segment 8, diverging obliquely from each side of ostium, a sculptured 
depressed band ; on each side of ostium nearer the lateral margin, but attached 
at the posterior margin of the intersegmental membrane, a fan-shaped group of 
long specialized scales, closely appressed and curving toward mid-ventral line; 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



112 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

ostium in a round depression ; a sclerotized section of ductus bursae bending to 
the right and extending into the sixth segment is followed by a short membra- 
nous section ; signum a complete ring lying almost longitudinally, with ribs of 
equal length except a few short irregularly-spined dorsal ribs. 

Specimens examined. — 3 J, 3 ?. 

Utah : Logan Canyon, near Logan, 2 type, $ paratype, rearing record 
B.1169, larvae mining leaves of Arnica cordifolia Hook., imagoes July 3, 1924 
[A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Wyoming : Grand Teton National Park, Taggart Lake trail, 2 $ ,2 9 , rear- 
ing record B.2289, on Arnica cordifolia Hook., imagoes July 21, 24, 26, 1959 
(A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

The name arnicella is hereby restricted to the female type and one 
male paratype reared on Arnica cordifolia, and to specimens reared on 
that food plant. The two specimens emerging from cocoons collected 
on sagebrush, and cited as paratypes in the original description of 
arnicella, do not represent that species and are included among the 
paratypes of the following species. 

The rather long linear mine, very indistinct at first in its somewhat 
winding course on the leaf blade, later follows the leaf margin ; it is 
most conspicuous on the upper side of the leaf. Upon leaving this first 
mine, the larva mines into the leaf from the underside making a num- 
ber of successively larger, but small Coleophora-like mines ; one leaf 
may contain 13 or 14 such mines, varying in diameter from about 1.5 
mm. to 4 mm., the work of a single larva. The feeding larva is green, 
the full-fed (spinning) larva reddish with darker red longitudinal 
stripes. The rather slender cocoons vary in color from whitish, to 
yellowish, to a decided pink ; the ridges are often obsolete, but when 
present number from seven to nine (fig. 50), that is they are much 
fewer in number than in the very similar species on sagebrush. 

Buccidatrix arnicella is a forest species and should be sought on its 
food plant in open lodgepole pine and Douglas fir forest. In addition 
to the localities from which moths were reared, the work of the larvae 
has been observed in similar situations in Glacier National Park, Mon- 
tana, and Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta. 

Superficially, arnicella is scarcely differentiated from the following 
species ; in genitalia it is abundantly distinct. Characters separating 
the two species are enumerated under the following species. 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 113 

(55) Bucculatrix tridenticola new species 

(Figs. 49, 154, 154a, 155, 156, 156a.) 

1925. Bucculatrix arnicella Braun (not Braun), Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. LI: 
223. One male, one female listed as paratypes of arnicella in the de- 
scription of that species, are here excluded from arnicella. 

Face white, finely gray speckled ; tuft white in front, chiefly gray above, some- 
times with a slight admixture of white hairs ; eye-caps white in the anterior half, 
densely black-speckled in the posterior half, antennal stalk annulate with alter- 
nate black and pale gray or white rings, thus more conspicuously annulate than 
in arnicella. Fore wings densely speckled with black-tipped gray scales; more 
or less defined white or lightly dusted areas constitute the costal and dorsal 
streaks ; a gradually widening narrow wedge-shaped black streak from base 
along fold to the white inner margin of a quadrate or half-crescent-shaped black 
mark on the middle of dorsum in which there are a few raised scales ; the wing 
between the black streak in fold and the dorsum is usually somewhat paler than 
the general ground color, and when the wings are folded with dorsal margins 
meeting, this area forms, with the white inner margin of the dorsal black spot, an 
hour-glass-shaped mark, with the constriction near the white margin ; from the 
base of wing, contiguous to the black streak in fold is a very short dash of elon- 
gate white scales which is usually, except in the darkest specimens, easily dis- 
cernible and constitutes a recognition character for the species ; from before 
middle of costa a pale or whitish streak (rarely conspicuous) with a line of 
black scales along its inner margin ; at two-thirds of costa a more conspicuous 
and larger white or little dusted streak, less oblique than the corresponding 
streak in arnicella, which may meet, at an obtuse angle, the outer white streak 
margining the black dorsal spot or be separated from it by a line of black scales ; 
apical area, especially in the costal half, mostly white, with a small black apical 
dot, below which the white scales are narrowly black-tipped; a conspicuous line 
of black-tipped scales extends from the white costal cilia around apex in the 
pale gray cilia. Hind wings and cilia dark gray. Legs gray, tarsal segments 
black-tipped. Abdomen dark gray above, silvery gray beneath. 

Alar expanse 7.5 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 154, 154a, 155). Harpe typical of the group, socii 
rounded, incurved, with heavy setae similar to those on the harpe; tegumen 
below socii swollen, forming two setose lobes ( ? gnathos) ; subscaphium mi- 
nutely spinulose ; anellus conical ; aedeagus nearly as long as the body, sinuate, 
slender in its outer two-thirds ; vinculum narrow. Scale sac very small. 

Female genitalia (figs. 156, 156a). Segment 9 modified, rasping rods strong, 
vaginal setae comparatively large, the larger ones may be three-lobed at tip; 
posterior to ostium on membrane of 8, an area of minute forked spinules ; larger 
areas of similar spinules lateral to ostium ; on each side at the posterior lateral 
margin of the intersegmental membrane, a fan-shaped group of long specialized 
scales curving toward the mid-ventral line ; on the intersegmental membrane 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



114 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

and lying beneath the overlying segment 7, a compact patch of dark-pigmented 
specialized scales in a circular slightly depressed pocket; ostium in a rounded 
depression at the anterior margin of segment 8 ; ductus bursae sclerotized nearly 
to the anterior margin of segment 5 ; a short membranous section abruptly 
curves to the left and enters the bursa copulatrix dorsally ; spines of signum ribs 
graduating from long slender acute to short. 

Type.— $, Spring Creek, Baker County, Oregon, July 18, 1955 (J. F. G. 
Clarke) ; genitalia slide 10505, J. F. G. C. [U.S.N.M., Type No. 65028]. 

Allotype. — ? , same data as the type [U.S.N.M.]. 

Paratypes. — 25, $ , 2 , same data as the type [U.S.N.M.] ; 1 $, 2 2, French 
Glen, Harney County, Oregon, July 14, 1953, " reared from Artemisia triden- 
tata," "on twigs of sagebrush," (F. P. Larson) [U.S.N.M.]; 1 $, Pullman, 
Washington, September 20, 1930 (J. F. G. Clarke) [A.F.B.Coll.] ; 1 2, Top- 
panish, Washington, May 31, 1946 (B. J. Landis) [U.S.N.M.]; 1 $, 2 5, 
Entiat, Washington, June 10, 1914 (E. J. Newcomer) [U.S.N.M.]; 6, S, 2, 
Ephraim, Utah, June 18, 1943, "sagebrush" (G. F. Knowlton) [U.S.N.M.]; 
1 S,\ 2, Logan, Cache County, Utah, rearing record B.1152, from cocoons on 
leaves of Artemisia tridentata, imagoes June 29 and July 1, 1924 (A. F. Braun) 
[A.F.B.Coll.] ; 15, $ , 2 , Reno, Nevada, bearing March and October dates 
(H. G. Dyar) [U.S.N.M.] ; 1 2 , Boulder, Colorado, March 23, 1907 (T. D. A. 
Cockered) [U.S.N.M.]; 1 2, Florissant, Colorado, June 28 (Cockered) 
[U.S.N.M.]; 1 S, Aweme (southwest of Brandon), Manitoba, 23 June, 1912 
(N. Criddle) [C.N. Coll.]. 

Food plant, Artemisia tridentata Nutt. No details of the early 
stages are known ; a small linear mine observed on the leaves at the 
time the cocoons of the Logan, Utah specimens were collected may be- 
long to this species. The small whitish cocoon (fig. 49), marked with 
twelve or thirteen fine ridges, of which ten or eleven are usually dis- 
tinct, is spun on the underside of leaves or on twigs of the food plant. 

B. tridenticola is a common species of the sagebrush association, 
occurring in more xeric habitats than B. sahttatoria, also a sagebrush 
feeder. 

The moths closely resemble B. a micella, and may easily be con- 
fused with that species without data on habitat and food plants. Per- 
fect specimens of tridenticola may be separated from arnicella by the 
minute white dash at base of fore wing, the black streak in fold, and by 
the angle of meeting of the second costal pale streak and the corre- 
sponding dorsal streak — obtuse in tridenticola, acute in arnicella. On 
genitalic characters of both sexes the two species will not be confused. 
The very long curved aedeagus, one-third longer than that of arnicella, 
is a character visible in the dry insect. 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 115 

(56) Bucculatrix spectabilis new species (Fig. 157.) 

Face dull white, tuft of mingled white and gray hairs, the gray predominat- 
ing above; eye-caps white, antennal stalk gray, segments shading to whitish at 
liases. Thorax white, gray-speckled, tegulae dark gray anteriorly. Ground 
color of the fore wings dull white, the basal half sparsely dusted with black- 
tipped brownish scales, these scales concentrated along edge of costa and along 
dorsum near base; before middle of costa, a small oblique streak of black-tipped 
brown scales ; beyond middle, a broad patch of such black-tipped scales, bending 
in the middle of the wing, thence extending to termen above tornus ; this patch 
is margined outwardly by a line of black scales which bends at a sharply de- 
fined obtuse angle in the middle of the wing; the costal half of this black line is 
followed by an erect white costal spot; on dorsum, an elongate oval dark patch, 
half of it lying above the fold, reaches nearly to tornus and is followed at tornus 
by a whitish spot, lying a little basad of the white costal spot ; apical area 
heavily dark dusted, the blackish apical spot encircled by white or lightly dusted 
scales ; a line of black-tipped scales through the middle of the white cilia from 
opposite apex almost to the gray cilia at tornus. Hind wings and cilia gray. 
Legs gray, tibial hairs of the hind pair whitish, tarsal segments whitish, gray- 
tipped. Metathorax with a large black spot each side of midline ; abdomen dark 
fuscous, anal scales paler. 

Alar expanse 7.5 mm. 

Female genitalia (fig. 157). Ovipositor modified, rasping rods strong, vagi- 
nal setae large, elongate, midway with a single basally directed point ; lateral 
anterior margins of segment 8 prolonged, simulating anterior apophyses ; on 
tergite of segment 8, a large fan of specialized scales on each side of mid-line, 
the longer lateral scales reaching nearly to tip of ovipositor, beneath these scales 
and toward mid-line, areas of broad-based microscopic spinules ; on sternite of 8, 
latero-posterior fans of specialized scales, and anterior to these, patches of broad- 
based spinules, bordered anteriorly by a sinuate sclerotized line ; a narrow trans- 
verse plate at posterior ventral margin of sclerotized anterior half of segment 8; 
on intersegmental membrane laterally, depressed pockets of small dark-pig- 
mented specialized scales ; ostium at the anterior margin of the broadly produced 
segment 8, circular, its margins sclerotized, abruptly contracting to the slender 
ductus bursae, which bends to the right and is sclerotized through segment 7 ; 
inception of ductus seminalis in segment 6, adjacent to the sclerotized section; 
bursa copulatrix in the anterior end of abdomen, signum a ring of closely placed 
spined ribs. 

Type. — 2, Madera Canyon, 4880 feet, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona, 29 
August, 1959 (R. W. Hodges) [Cornell U., Type No. 3644]. 

Paratype. — 2, same data as the type, except date, August 1 (R. W. Hodges) 
[Cornell U.]. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



116 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Food plant and early stages unknown. 

Both by general aspect and genitalia, B. spectabilis is most nearly 
related to B. tridenticola new species. The peculiar shape of the vag- 
inal setae is diagnostic. 

(57) Bucculatrix seorsa new species (Figs. 158, 159, 159a.) 

Face white, tuft white or faintly ocherous, eye-caps white, antennal stalk 
with conspicuous black annulations. Thorax white, with a few minutely dark- 
tipped scales. Fore wings white, with two black dots and aggregations of mi- 
nutely dark-tipped pale ocherous scales ; scarcely perceptible groups of such 
scales near base of costa, in the basal half of fold, and below fold near base; 
before middle of costa a small group of such scales ; beyond middle of costa a 
larger diffuse patch of ocherous dark-tipped scales, which may be indistinctly 
connected with a black spot on the disc, this spot may be a minute dot or may 
be composed of a number of scales and is then more or less elongate ; immedi- 
ately below middle of fold, a few raised scales form a small black dot followed 
by pale ocherous dark-tipped scales extending from above fold to dorsum ; this 
black dot, the discal spot, and the black-tipped scales at apex are about equally 
spaced (cf. B. leptalea) ; just before apex the pale dark-tipped scales form oppo- 
site groups, leaving the apex of the wing white; from the extreme apex a few 
black-tipped scales project into the cilia, and may form a broken line along 
termen ; a second short line of black-tipped scales at apex beyond middle of the 
white cilia. Hind wings white, faintly ocherous tinged. Legs white, pro- and 
mesothoracic tarsal segments black-tipped, metathoracic brown-tipped. 

Alar expanse 7 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 159, 159a). Harpe broad, costal margin abruptly curv- 
ing to a small apical lobe (cucullus), bearing short conical setae; tegumen in- 
curved, the socii arising from the incurved edges of tegumen, and thus directed 
ventrad ; uncus present, a minute curved setose hook ; anellus a cone ; aedeagus 
wide in basal half, abruptly narrowing to the curving outer half ; vinculum a 
narrow band. Scale sac pear-shaped. 

Female genitalia (fig. 158). Segment 9 modified, rasping rods well-devel- 
oped and strongly sclerotized; vaginal setae relatively large, bilobed or with up 
to four or rarely five or more teeth ; near each lateral margin of sternite of 8, 
a narrow raised plate, marked with oblique ridges, and lateral to these, areas of 
closely placed low rounded elevations ; near posterior margin of tergite of 8, two 
groups of slender hair-like scales ; on intersegmental membrane laterally, oval 
slightly depressed pockets bearing groups of short specialized scales ; ostium at 
the anteriorly produced margin of segment 8; a short wide sclerotized section 
of ductus bursae bending to the right is followed by a short membranous sec- 
tion ; signum ribs narrow, spines very long and slender. 



A N N !•: T T E F. BRAUN 117 

Type. — 9, Wendel, Lassen County, California, on Artemisia tridentata Nutt., 
June 15, 1951 (H. H. Keifer) [U.S.N.M., Type No. 65029]. 

Allotype.— S , same data as the type [U.S.N.M.]. 

Paratypc—9, Seton Lake, Lillooet, British Columbia, May 30, 1926 (J. Mc- 
Dunnough) [C.N. Coll.]. 

No details of the early stages are known. 

In wing markings and general aspect, B. seorsa is almost indistin- 
guishable from B. leptalea. The group of scales at one-third of costa 
in B. seorsa, suggesting an oblique streak, is represented by a faint 
ocherous suffusion below costa in B. leptalea; the relative positions of 
the black plical dot, the discal dot, and the black scales at apex may aid 
in separation of the two species. The only certain means of separation 
are the very different genitalia of these two species (compare figures 
148 and 159, and figures 147 and 158). Female genitalia indicate 
close relationship to B. angitstisquamella ; the short, wide sclerotized 
section of the ductus bursae and the narrow raised plate on segment 8 
(sometimes obscured on the slide) separate seorsa from angitstis- 
quamella. 

(58) Bucculatrix angustisquamella Braun (Figs. 160, 160a, 161, 161a.) 

1925. Bucculatrix angustisqiiamclla Braun, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. LI : 220. 

Type 2, Logan Canyon, near Logan, Utah [A.F.B.Coll.]. 
1958. Bucculatrix angustisqiiamclla Braun, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. LXXXIV: 

107. 

Face white, tuft of mingled white and gray hairs ; eye-caps white, minutely 
gray speckled, each segment of the stalk shading from white through pale gray 
to dark gray. Thorax white, finely gray dusted. Fore wings white, scales, 
especially toward apex, narrow ; brown- or black-tipped scales are grouped into 
ill-defined markings, with a scattering of minutely brown-tipped scales ; a few 
minutely brown-tipped scales along costa from base, a more distinct streak in 
fold near base, and some brown-tipped scales along basal third of dorsum ; from 
just before middle of costa, a narrow oblique streak of dark-tipped scales, which 
may meet the upper edge of a larger patch of dark-tipped scales on middle of 
dorsum, bearing a group of black raised scales toward its inner edge below fold ; 
a second, broader and less oblique costal streak, is marked at the end of the cell 
by two or three darker scales, and is connected at its inner side with the dorsal 
patch and outwardly meets an irregular transverse band of dark-tipped scales ; 
on the outer side of this transverse band below apex is a group of blackish 
raised scales; dark scales at apex may form an apical spot, but usually appear 
scattered at apex and along termen ; a line of dark scales through the middle of 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



118 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

the cilia. Hind wings grayish white, cilia pale gray with ocherous bases. Legs 
grayish white, tarsal segments dark gray-tipped. 

Alar expanse 7.5 to 8 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 161, 161a). Harpes typical of the group, tapering, 
slender beyond middle, apex with short heavy setae ; tegumen long, exceeding 
the harpes, socii small, setose; uncus present, a slender, sharp, setose hook; 
anellus a slender, obliquely truncate cone ; aedeagus long, slender, tapering, 
aperture before the slender curving apical section ; vinculum a slightly retuse 
band. Scale sac (fig. 161a) very small. 

Female genitalia (figs. 160, 160a). Segment 9 modified, rasping rods strongly 
sclerotized, vaginal setae in lateral and median groups, convex with sharp api- 
cal teeth, the larger with seven or eight teeth ; segment 8 laterally finely reticu- 
late (fig. 160a) ; on the intersegmental membrane lateral to ostium, a depressed 
transversely elongate group of short specialized scales ; ostium in a slight de- 
pression, ductus bursae sclerotized into segment 6, bending to the right and 
tapering to the slender membranous section ; signum a ring, ribs narrow, spines 
long and slender, the dorsal ribs with but one or two spines. 

Specimens examined. — 2 $ , 3 2 . 

Utah : Logan Canyon, near mouth of cottonwood Canyon, 2 type, 15,22 
paratypes, amongst sagebrush, altitude 5500 feet, July 2, 1924 (A. F. Braun) 
[A.F.B.Coll.]. 

British Columbia : Oliver, 1 $ , altitude 1000 feet, September 9, 1953 
(J. E. H. Martin) [CN.Coll.]. 

Food plant and early stages unknown. 

The description of the fore wing is compiled in large part from the 
female type ; in the other specimens the markings, though present, are 
less conspicuous, owing to fewer and paler dark-tipped scales. In gen- 
italia, the slender harpes of the male, and the long sclerotized section of 
the ductus bursae separate aiigitstisqiiainclla from seorsa new species. 

(59) Bucculatrix Columbiana new species (Figs. 162, 162a, 163, 163a.) 

Face white, tuft of white and gray hairs ; eye-caps white, antennal stalk 
grayish white, with wide blackish annulations. Ground color of the fore wings 
white; markings formed by pale grayish ocherous and grayish ocherous dark 
brown-tipped scales ; basal third of the wing sometimes immaculate, but more 
often with a few dark-tipped scales along costa near base and a patch of dark- 
tipped scales lying between fold and dorsum near base; at one-third of costa an 
oblique dark streak not reaching middle of wing; at middle of costa a larger 
dark patch and a little basad of it on dorsum, a large patch of dark-tipped 
scales, somewhat half-crescent-shaped, bears on its inner margin below fold, a 
few black raised scales ; in the middle of the wing beyond these two patches of 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 119 

dark-tipped scales is a considerable area of pale ocherous scales, scarcely per- 
ceptibly dark-tipped, which may spread toward costa and dorsum, thus occupy- 
ing a considerable proportion of the apical third of the wing; within this area, 
a black discal dot; a short line of black scales, sometimes conspicuous, margins 
termen below apex; an irregular line of black-tipped scales through the gray- 
ish cilia from apex along termen. Hind wings gray, with faint coppery luster. 
Legs gray, tarsal segments darker-tipped. Abdomen grayish ocherous above. 

Alar expanse 6.5 to 7 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 163, 163a). Harpe concave, the broad apex produced 
and bent toward the median line, upper margin bearing a row of conical setae, 
with an additional group of several such setae at tip; tegumen narrow and elon- 
gate, socii long setose, subscaphium a dorso-ventral plate; anellus an elongate 
cone; aedeagus very long, basal third wide, thence abruptly narrow, slightly 
expanding at tip ; vinculum with a broad deep anterior sinus. Scale sac large, 
nearly equalling in length the second abdominal segment. 

Female genitalia (figs. 162, 162a). Segment 9 modified, rasping rods strong, 
vaginal setae minute ; on each side of segment 8 a group of long specialized 
scales ; two minutely reticulate areas nearer median line ; ostium opening in a 
deep broad depression with pointed flaring lateral margins ; ductus bursae wide 
at ostium, bending to the right and rapidly narrowing; signum near posterior 
end of bursa copulatrix, ribs irregular, with one or more short ribs interpolated 
anteriorly between the long ribs, spines variable (fig. 162a). 

Type. — $ , Kelowna, British Columbia, on Iva axillaris (James Fletcher) 
[U.S.N.M., Type No. 65030]. 

Allotype— 2, same data as the type [U.S.N.M.]. 

Paratypcs. — 1 6,\ 2, and 1 c? , 1 2 lacking hind wings and abdomen, same 
data as the type [U.S.N.M.]. 

The food plant, Iva axillaris Pursh, is a plant of widespread range 
in saline or alkaline soils of western United States and Canada. The 
white cocoons, with seven or eight, sometimes obsolescent ribs are spun 
on the underside of the coarsely hairy leaves. 

The genitalia of the male separate this species from all others ex- 
cept the following, which differs only in minor, but definite, structural 
details. 

(60) Bucculatrix sororcula new species (Figs. 164, 164a, 165, 165a.) 

Face and tuft white, eye-caps white, antennal stalk white with blackish annu- 
lations. Thorax and fore wings white; pale ocherous brown-tipped scales form 
the marks, which may be distinct (2 allotype), or obsolescent, with some faint 
or lacking ( S type ) ; a few pale ocherous scales along costa near base ; a short 
oblique streak at one-third of costa ; near middle of costa, a larger patch of 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOG, 18. 



120 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

brown-tipped scales, and somewhat basad of it on dorsum a similar patch of 
scales (reduced to a faint ocherous shade in S type), bearing on its inner side 
on the fold one to three black raised scales ; an elongate black discal dot at end 
of cell (absent in $ type) ; a patch of brown-tipped scales at three-fourths of 
costa, not encroaching on the white costal cilia ; a few black scales at extreme 
apex, and a few black-tipped scales in the white apical cilia. Hind wings pale 
gray, with paler cilia. Legs white, tarsal segments dark-tipped. 

Alar expanse 6 to 6.5 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 164, 164a). Harpe very concave and fitting over the 
large convex and strongly sclerotized anellus, then with its broadly produced 
apex bent toward the median line (cf. left harpe in the figure) ; apex clothed 
with several rows of short conical setae (cf. columbiana) ; tegumen narrow and 
elongate, socii long setose ; below each socius a narrow erect setose lobe arising 
from near margin of tegumen (not present in columbiana) ; aedeagus very long 
and slender except in basal fourth and extending forward from the tip of the 
socii to the posterior margin of segment 2 (about one-third longer than in the 
closely allied columbiana) ; vinculum with a broad anterior sinus. Scale sac 
small, half as large as in columbiana. 

Female genitalia (figs. 165, 165a). Scarcely to be distinguished from the 
genitalia of columbiana, except that the rasping rods are less well-developed and 
less strongly sclerotized, and the signum ribs narrower and the spines more 
slender. 

Type. — S, Boyce Thompson Arboretum, Superior, Arizona, July 11, 1939 
(A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Allotype— 9, Olancha, Inyo County, California, May 21-31 [U.S.N.M.]. 

Bucculatrix columbiana and B. sororcula furnish another example 
of the pairs of closely related species, so often occurring in this genus. 
The configuration of markings is the same in the two species, and by 
genitalia the females can scarcely be separated. In the male genitalia, 
however, the two species differ in the armature of the apex of the 
harpe, the much greater length of aedeagus in sororcula, and especially 
in the presence of the elongate setose lobes arising from tegumen below 
socii. 

Although the food plant is not known, it is unquestionably a Com- 
posite, and may be the same as that of columbiana or another species 
of the genus Iva. 

(61) Bucculatrix nigripunctella Braun (Fig. 166.) 

1923. Bucculatrix nigripunctella Braun, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. XLIX : 125. 
Type ?, Palm Springs, California [A.F.B.Coll.]. 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 121 

Face white, tuft white, with a few pale gray hairs ; eye-caps white, antenna! 
stalk white, with dark fuscous annulations. Thorax white. Fore wings white, 
with a faint scarcely discernible pale grayish straw-colored suffusion along the 
middle of the wing nearly to apex ; wings marked with black or black-tipped 
scales placed singly or in groups; a few (two to six) black scales in the basal 
half of the wing, two or three just above the fold, two or three below it; three 
small groups of black-tipped brownish scales on costa, about equally spaced, the 
first before middle, the third, placed before apex, is the largest; a line of three 
black scales in the disc at three-fourths ; a group beyond middle of dorsum, and 
another at tornus, in which the scales are more narrowly dark-tipped ; a con- 
siderable aggregation of black scales in apex extends along termen about half- 
way to tornus ; minutely black-tipped scales form a broken line at the base of 
the white cilia. Hind wings and cilia white, with a faint ocherous tinge. Legs 
white, tarsal segments narrowly dark-tipped. Abdomen dull straw-colored. 

Alar expanse 7.5 to 8 mm. 

Female genitalia (fig. 166). Segment 9 modified, but rasping rods scarcely 
differentiated ; on segment 8, lateral large patches of elongate specialized scales 
directed posteriorly and toward mid-ventral line ; posterior to ostium near mid- 
ventral line, a pair of finely reticulate sculptured patches ; on each side of ostium 
on the intersegmental membrane is a transversely elongate patch of very minute 
widely spaced slender scales ; ostium large, minutely spinulose, tapering to the 
slender ductus bursae, which is sclerotized into segment 6 ; a short membranous 
section of the ductus enters bursa copulatrix in segment 5 ; signum weak dor- 
sally, ribs long ventrally, where the spines are long and slender. 

Specimens examined. — 2 9. 

California : Palm Springs, Riverside County, 2 type, 2 paratype (not 
male as stated in the original description), March 26, 1917 [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Food plant and early stages unknown. 

The female only is known. The species may be recognized by the 
conspicuous black scales on the white fore wings and by the character- 
istic genitalia. The paratype shows fewer of the black scales in the 
basal and apical areas of the wing. 

Although the rasping rods of the ninth segment are not well differ- 
entiated, the shape and modification of the ovipositor lobes indicate 
that nigripunctella should be assigned to this group. 

(62) Bucculatrix atrosignata new species (Figs. 167, 167a, 168, 168a, 168b.) 

Face white, tuft white with a few pale gray hairs ; eye-caps white, antennal 
stalk white with conspicuous blackish annulations. Thorax and fore wings 
white. The following description is based on the female type, with differences 
in the male allotype noted; the marks are formed by groups of broadly black- 
tipped scales conspicuously contrasting with the pure white ground color, and 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



122 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

by a few grayish scales along basal third of costa ; at two-thirds of costa, a 
rather small patch of black-tipped ocherous scales (diffuse in the male and 
merely faintly brown-tipped) ; on dorsum, opposite this patch, a large irregular 
patch of black-tipped scales (in the male these scales pale brown-tipped as in the 
costal patch) ; the apical fourth of the wing is conspicuously blackish by an 
accumulation of the black-tipped scales, producing toward apex an evenly pep- 
pered aspect, and including some almost black spots (in the male, the scales of 
this area are pale brown-tipped as in the other marks) ; the inner margin of this 
area is irregular and produced toward base in the middle of the wing; a small 
triangular pure white costal spot indents it just before apex; some black-tipped 
scales project into the cilia along termen; cilia pure white. Hind wings and 
cilia white. Legs white, a little shaded with gray, tarsal segments narrowly 
gray tipped. 

Alar expanse 6.5 to 7 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 168, 168a, 168b). Posterior margin of eighth sternite 
sclerotized ; harpes almost cylindric, broadening at base, apices with strong 
conical setae; socii very long, slender, enlarging at the setose apex; a pair of 
spinulose ridges meeting at an acute angle below the anal opening ; anellus large, 
exceeding tegumen ; aedeagus short, cylindric, tapering slightly to the triangular 
aperture; vinculum a broad band, its posterior margin strongly sclerotized. 
Scale sac (fig. 168b) indistinctly bilobed, scales few and elongate. 

Female genitalia (figs. 167, 167a). Entire ninth segment strongly sclero- 
tized, apophyses heavy, clavate ; rasping rods developed, vaginal setae large ; 
ductus bursae expanding before the circular ostium ; signum characteristic, each 
of the larger spine-bases of a signum rib dividing into three acute forks, each 
emitting a slender spine (fig. 167a). 

Type.— 2, Eureka, Utah, May 30, 1911 (Tom Spalding) [U.S.N.M., Type 
No. 65031]. 

Allotype.— $ , same data as the type [U.S.N.M.], 

Food plant and early stages unknown. 

The female is chosen as the type because of its perfect condition, 
with contrasting" black marks on a pure white ground. The male, 
though lacking the sharp contrast between ground color and markings, 
is recognizable as the same species. 

Biicciilatrix atrosignctta is distinct in wing color and marks, and in 
genitalia from all other species of our fauna. 

(63) Bucculatrix enceliae new species (Figs. 24, 172, 172a, 173, 173a.) 

Face white, tuft white or with an admixture of grayish hairs ; the small 
white eye-caps not concealing the large eyes, annulations of antennal stalk vary- 
ing from pale grayish ocherous in faintly marked specimens to dark brown in 



ANNETTE K. BRAUN 123 

the more conspicuously marked specimens. Fore wings white, with the better - 
defined marks Formed by dark brown-tipped scales, and with a more general 
dusting, especially in the apical half of the wing, of paler minutely brown-tipped 
scales, leaving two undusted white costal streaks, and a white patch just before 
tornus; the marks may be obsolescent, most of the scales forming them scarcely 
dark-tipped, and finally the wings may be almost immaculate. When the marks 
are well-defined by dark brown-tipped scales (as in the female type, and to a 
less extent in the male allotype), they consist of a streak of dark brown-tipped 
scales along costa ending in a patch of dark brown-tipped scales just before 
middle of costa, which is followed by an oblique undusted white streak, sepa- 
rated from a second oblique white streak by an oblique streak of the dark brown- 
tipped scales which in the middle of the wing blends with the pale minutely 
brown-tipped scales; apical fourth of wing clothed with narrowly brown-tipped 
scales ; a few dark brown scales at extreme apex and above them a narrow short 
longitudinal white line ; a similar group of dark brown scales on middle of ter- 
nien; just beyond middle of dorsum, a patch of dark brown-tipped scales ma)' 
extend nearly to the middle of the wing, and is followed by a large patch of 
white scales ; cilia gray opposite apex, shading to white at tornus, a line of dark- 
tipped scales through the cilia, becoming faint toward tornus. Hind wings and 
cilia pale grayish or whitish ocherous. Legs pale ocherous, shaded with fuscous, 
tarsal segments pale gray-tipped. Abdomen pale ocherous. 

Alar expanse 7 to 9 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 172, 172a). Harpe broadly rounded, costa for two- 
thirds its length margined with short heavy setae, setae around apex and on 
inner surface short and slender; socii elongate, setose, projecting but little be- 
yond tegumen ; gnathos a minutely spinulose hood ; anellus lobed at apex ; aede- 
agus slender, tapering gradually, but widening at aperture, two rows of acute 
teeth (cornuti) before aperture; vinculum triangular, heart-shaped. Scale sac 
present. 

Female genitalia (figs. 173, 173a). Entire ninth segment strongly sclero- 
tized and partially dark-pigmented ; lobes of ovipositor fused with the body of 
the segment and only defined by setal arrangement, rasping rods strong, vaginal 
setae closely placed ; apophyses appearing as anterior prolongations of the 
strongly sclerotized segment ; lateral anterior margins of segment 8 produced 
and simulating a rudimentary second pair of apophyses ; segment 7 overlies the 
base of segment 8, with a median pair of specialized scale tufts beneath its pos- 
terior margin, a second pair of tufts of longer specialized scales lateral to these, 
and attached beneath the overlying segment 7 ; ostium at the anterior margin of 
segment 8, with the membrane of segment 8 lateral to it minutely spinulose; a 
straight sclerotized section of ductus bursae is microscopically spinulose ; signum 
a ring, the ribs irregularly spined, at least some of them bilaterally spined (fig. 
173a). 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



124 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Type. — 9, Whitewater, California, " on Encelia farinosa, iss. Mar. 10, 1930 " 
(C. M. Dammers) [U.S.N. M., Type No. 65032]. 

Allotype— $, San Diego, California, April 24-30 [U.S.N.M.]. 

Paratypes. — 3 9, same data as the type; 2 S, Palm Springs, Riverside 
County, California, March 20-30 [U.S.N.M.] ; 2 $, 1 9 , Palm Springs, Cali- 
fornia, March 26 and 28, 1917 (G. R. Pilate) [A.F.B.Coll.] ; 1 $, Loma Linda, 
San Bernardino County, California, [U.S.N.M.]; 3 S, 1 9, Loma Linda, Cali- 
fornia. June 4, 16, 18. 1912 (G. R. Pilate) [A.F.B.Coll.] ; 3 $,\ 9 , San Diego, 
California, May (Ricksecker) [U.S.N.M.]; 3 $,2 9, Boyce Thompson South- 
western Arboretum, Arizona, rearing record B.2312, imagoes April 23, April 27. 
1962; 2 2, near Tucson, Arizona, rearing record B.2312, imagoes April 15, 
April 23, 1962; 2 9, Apache Trail, Arizona, rearing record B.2312, imagoes 
April 27, April 29, 1962 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll. and A.N.S.P.]. 

The food plant of the Whitewater, California, and of the Arizona 
specimens is Encelia farinosa Gray (Brittle-bush), a widespread and 
common shrub of the deserts of Arizona, southern California and 
Mexico. Encelia calif or nica Nutt., a shrub of the seacoast of southern 
California, is probably the food plant of the San Diego specimens. 

The following description of the life history is based on the reared 
Arizona specimens. 

The egg is placed on the upper side of the leaf, beneath and partially 
hidden by the pubescence ; a short, more or less contorted mine, in 
which all the parenchyma is consumed, is scarcely visible except by 
transmitted light. The larva leaves the mine on the underside of the 
leaf, then feeding externally, skeletonizing irregular patches, with upper 
epidermis remaining intact. Feeding is completed early in April. 

The cocoon, an intricate and beautiful structure, is usually spun on 
the upper side of the leaf, most often over the midrib. It consists of a 
dense inner ridged cocoon, covered by a broad thin outer sheet of silk. 
The ridges of the posterior section of the inner cocoon, except for one 
or two dorsal longitudinal ridges, slant backward at a very acute angle. 
This typical Bucculatricid cocoon is covered by a broadly elliptical sheet 
of thin open silken mesh, marked with slightly elevated and thickened 
ridges, which curve obliquely backward from the union of the two sec- 
tions of the cocoon, and less obliquely forward. 

The large eyes, conspicuous in the living insect, are a distinctive 
feature of the species. Many specimens (all of the Arizona series) lack 
the dark dusting of the fore wings ; the aspect is that of a white ground, 



ANNETTE K. BRAUN 125 

marked with groups of dark-tipped scales, which do not define white 
streaks as described for dusted specimens. Pale or immaculate speci- 
mens, difficult to identify, may he determined with certainty by the 
characteristic genitalia. 

Bucculatrix enceliae is the most specialized of the line of species with 
modified ninth segment of the abdomen of the female, involving the 
development of the inner margins of the ovipositor lobes into rasping- 
rods, fusion of the remaining areas of the lobes with the membranous 
portion of the ninth segment, which in this species is completely sclero- 
tized, and the transfer of function of the ovipositor lobes to the vagina 
with its specialized vaginal setae. 

(64) Bucculatrix latella Braun (Figs. 169, 170, 170a, 171.) 

1918. Bucculatrix latella Braun. Ent. News XXIX : 246. Type 9, Loma Linda, 

California [A.F.B.Coll.]. 
1958. Bucculatrix latella Braun. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. LXXXIV : 107. 

Face white, tuft white, with ocherous hairs in the middle posteriorly; eye- 
caps white, antennal stalk with pale gray annulations. Fore wings white, with 
scattered minutely brown-tipped pale ocherous scales, and an occasional black- 
tipped scale; a broad ocherous streak, sometimes obsolescent, from base along 
fold to one-fifth ; on middle of dorsum a large conspicuous ocherous patch, bear- 
ing on its inner side just above dorsum a group of darker brown-tipped raised 
scales; a little distad of this on costa. a closer grouping of the scattered pale 
ocherous scales sometimes forms a more or less distinct ocherous patch; at end 
of cell, a minute, but distinct black dot; apex of the wing occupied by brown- 
tipped ocherous scales, the ocherous shade sometimes lacking, leaving only the 
minute brown tips ; cilia white, occasionally with a few dark-tipped scales pro- 
jecting into them opposite apex, but no ciliary line. Hind wings white or whit- 
ish ocherous, cilia concolorous at bases, shading outwardly to white. Legs 
whitish ocherous, tarsal segments grayish ocherous-tipped. Abdomen whitish. 

Alar expanse 9.5 to 12 mm. 

Male genitalia (fig. 169). Harpes cylindric, curved, their tips meeting in 
median line before spreading, with dense short heavy setae along apex ; socii 
setose, long, tegumen with an elongate median lobe, subscaphium elongate, bi- 
laterally spinulose ; anellus elongate, constricted in the middle ; aedeagus slender 
throughout ; vinculum moderately wide. Scale sac large, scales slender and 
densely packed. 

Female genitalia (figs. 170, 170a, 171). Segment 9 highly modified, oviposi- 
tor lobes fused with the sclerotized segment, their tips prolonged into strongly 
sclerotized cutting points, vaginal setae with thick curved outer margins ; apoph- 
yses strong; sternite of segment 8 with two lateral anteriorly projecting lobes, 
its lateral margins fringed with long hair-scales, and a pair of latero-ventral 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



126 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

tufts of specialized scales ; on posterior margin of segment 7, a scale tuft mid- 
ventrally (not shown on figure) and long hair-scales mid-dorsally ; except for 
the ovipositor setae and the specialized scales, segments 8 and 9 are naked, and 
visible in the dry specimen; ostium rounded, diverging lines in the depression 
on segment 8 ; signum obliquely placed, ribs with long slender spines. 

Specimens examined. — 12 $ , 5 2 . 

California: Loma Linda, 5 type, June 3, 1912, 1 $ paratype, April 21, 
2 $ paratypes, June 1, 4 (G. R. Pilate) [A.F.B.Coll.] ; Monache Meadows, 
Tulare County, 8000 feet, 1 <? , 1 2, July 13, 1917 (G. R. Pilate) [A.F.B.Coll] ; 
8 <?, 2 2, July 1-14, July 24-31 [U.S.N.M.]. 

Arizona: Flagstaff, 1 2, July 18, 1939 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Food plant and early stages unknown. 

In general aspect, B. latella resembles B. eurotiella Walsingham 
from which it may be distinguished by the black dot at end of cell, the 
white cilia without ciliary line of dark-tipped scales, and the absence of 
dark-tipped scales along termen. The very different genitalia of the 
two species indicate no near relationship. 

Section III 

Species 65 

One species, Bucculatrix sporobolella Busck, is assigned to a sepa- 
rate section of the genus on the basis of the unique male genitalia and 
the unusual food plant, a species of grass. 

(65) Bucculatrix sporobolella Busck (Figs. 174, 174a, 174b, 175, 175a.) 

1909. Bucculatrix sporobolella Busck, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. XI : 183. Type 2 , 
Cimarron, New Mexico [U.S.N.M., Type No. 12691]. 

Face creamy white, tuft white below, largely reddish ocherous or dark gray 
above; eye-caps creamy white, antennal stalk white with blackish annulations. 
Thorax white, dusted with reddish ocherous or fuscous. Basic ground color of 
the fore wings white, but so closely overlaid with minutely reddish ocherous- 
or fuscous-tipped scales as to obscure the ground color ; the markings are pro- 
duced by evenly reddish ocherous or fuscous scales, with which are mingled 
black scales, most numerous along the outer margins of the oblique streaks, thus 
defining them; at basal third, a very oblique costal streak; before apical third, 
a second broader and more conspicuous streak, more densely dusted with black 
scales, curves upward in the middle of the wing and may as a narrow line reach 
the apex; this streak is in part margined above with white scales; a longitudinal 
reddish ocherous or blackish streak in the fold may or may not curve down- 
wards and connect with a very oblique streak arising just within the middle of 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 127 

dorsum, curving and following the fold; a group of black scales lies on the inner 
margin of thi> streak below fold; apex of wing more or less dusted with black- 
tipped scales; two lines of black-tipped scales in the cilia, one near base, one 
near tip. Hind wings and cilia fuscous. Legs silvery ocherous, tarsal segments 
more or less broadly black-tipped. Abdomen silvery beneath, dark fuscous above. 

Alar expanse 7.5 to 8 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 174, 174a, 174b). Harpes broad at base tapering to the 
narrow cucullus, armed with heavy setae at apex, free costal arms curving; 
tegumen expanding into large broad wings, their sclerotized outer margins with 
a line of inwardly directed fine setae; socii small, slender, cylindric, terminating 
in a flat circular setose pad ; two erect small elongate angled processes arising 
in mid-line may represent the gnathos; anellus globular, lobed at apex; vinculum 
narrow, produced as a broad median lobe posteriorly, emarginate anteriorly ; 
aedeagus curved, gradually tapering to the slender apex ; cornuti a long row of 
short spines. Scale sac large, scales clustered (fig. 174b). 

Female genitalia (figs. 175, 175a). Ductus bursae sclerotized nearly to an- 
terior margin of segment 6 and bending to the right, wider before ostium ; on 
each side lateral to ostium, on the intersegmental membrane, a patch of small 
specialized scales ; acuminate diverging sclerotizations from dorsal margin of 
ostium ; broadly expanded finely setose free flaps flank the latero-ventral mar- 
gins of ostium ; on dorso-lateral posterior margin of sclerotized basal half of 
segment 8, a small curved sclerotized process ; signum strong, the dorsal ribs 
one-half or less the length of the ventral, spines long acicular (fig. 175a). 

Specimens examined. — 2 S , 4 2 . 

New Mexico: Cimarron, 2 type (genitalia slide No. 10414, J. F. G. C), on 
Sporoboliis airoideSj Sept. 1907 (C. N. Ainslie) [U.S.N.M.] ; 2 cotype, same 
data as the type. 

California: Loma Linda, San Bernardino County, 1 S [genitalia, fig. 174], 
1 2, July 11, 1912, 1 6,1 2, October 15, 1912 (G. R. Pilate) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

The dates, July and October, of the California specimens indicate 
two generations a year ; however, no data on the larval habits are avail- 
able. Sporobolus airoides Torr., a species of grass, is an unusual and 
unexpected food plant for a species of Bucciilatrix. The cocoon is pure 
white, extremely slender and pointed, evenly ribbed ; length 8 mm. 

This species can be recognized by the characteristic wing markings, 
especially by the second costal streak, with white scales margining it on 
its upper side (i.e. toward costa) in the middle of the wing. The gen- 
italia, especially the unique male genitalia, different from anything 
known in the genus, at once identify it. The heavy setae of apex of 
harpe and the female genitalia suggest relationship to the Composite 
feeders (Section II) and raise a doubt of the food plant association. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



128 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Section IV 
Species 66 to 90 

The larvae of species of this section, whose food plants are known, 
feed, with few exceptions, on members of amentiferous plant families 
(as Quercus, Betnla, Corylns, Alnus). The imagoes have a distinctive 
type of genitalia in both sexes, indicating descent from a common an- 
cestor. The European B. thoracella Thunb. belongs in this section. 

Typical of the section in the male (figs. 179, 181, 186, 190, 201, 
ct al.) are the small rounded harpes, setose inwardly and outwardly, 
which have assumed a ventral position, with the free arms of costa 
lying in a more or less ventral position ; costa often with a small 
pointed basal process which engages vinculum ; the inner concave mem- 
branous basal area of harpe closely associated with anellus (fig. 189) ; 
anellus with sclerotized lateral rods ; aedeagus usually short, stout cyl- 
indric with acute apex, aperture ventral to and basad of the apex; 
vinculum usually very narrow, often thread-like. As specialization 
proceeds, modification of these organs takes place, and the final product 
may diverge widely from the type just described (see figs. 204, 207, 
216, 217, 219, 222, 224). In the last mentioned species (eclecta, fig. 
224) the lobing of the harpe suggests a relationship with the Malvace- 
ous feeders. 

In the females of this section, segment 8 is partially retracted into 
segment 7, and the sternite of the sclerotized basal half of segment 7 
and its membranous posterior half (the intersegmental membrane) par- 
tially overlie the sternite of segment 8, thus lying ventral to the basal 
half of segment 8 and the ostium. This overlying sclerotized basal half 
of segment 7 thus forms a protective covering for the loosely attached 
tufts of non-striated specialized scales on the intersegmental membrane, 
then ventral to the ostium, and on the basal half of segment 8, lateral 
to the ostium. For the relation of these segments and the position of 
specialized scale tufts, see Figure 176; the positions of such tufts are 
shown by heavy black dots. In addition to the ventral tufts of special- 
ized scales, there are in most species of this section clusters of special- 
ized scales attached at the dorsal anterior margin of segment 8 (fig. 
176). The shape and arrangement of these scales are distinctive (see 
figs. 182, 184, 191, et al.). Fringing the posterior margins of both 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 129 

tergite and sternite of segment 7 are rows of more or less specialized 
scales, attached at the anterior margin of the intersegmental membrane, 
and lying beneath and hidden by the normal body scaling ; such fringes 
are shown in Figures 182, 185, 191, et al. The shape of sclerotized 
areas contiguous to the ostium may have specific value. In the females 
of this section, there is less departure from the general type than in 
males ; however, comparison of the figures will show some degree of 
variation and further specialization. 

Distinctive characters of the genitalia are mentioned in the descrip- 
tion of each species of this section. 

The general aspect of the species of this section is such that speci- 
mens can often be tentatively assigned to it, awaiting verification of 
their position by examination of genitalia. In color they vary from a 
white ground (copeuta) or nearly white or pale ocherous ground 
(packardcllo, albert iclla) with more or less dark dusting, to a rather 
uniform ocherous color (trifasciella, coronatella) , and finally to an al- 
most black ground (fitgitans, locuples) ; in general, three more or less 
well-defined pale or sometimes lustrous silvery oblique costal bars may 
be distinguished, separated by the ground color. The patch of raised 
scales on or just within the dorsal margin is usually large and con- 
spicuous. 

(66) Bucculatrix packardella Chambers 

(Figs. 21, 52, 52a, 52b, 52c, 178, 178a, 179, 179a, 179b.) 

1873. Bucculatrix packardella Chambers, Canad. Ent. V: 151. Type locality, 
Kentucky (near Cincinnati, Ohio). [Two specimens thus named, pre- 
sumably by Chambers, in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, but not 
labeled types, do not represent this species.] 

1875. Bucculatrix packardella Chambers, Cin. Quart. Journ. Sci. II : 120. 

1923. Bucculatrix packardella Forbes, Mem. 68, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta., 
p. 158. 

Face creamy white, minutely brown speckled ; tuft whitish, tips of hairs 
brown ; eye-caps white, minutely brown speckled, stalk whitish, annulate with 
dark brown, the rings narrower than the distance between them. Thorax white, 
with brown specks. Ground color of the fore wing creamy white, the ground 
color in the basal half somewhat obscured by the fine dusting of minutely brown- 
tipped scales ; in the apical half of the wing, the scales, basad of their brown 
tips, are pale golden brown or orange tinged, the outer half of the wing thus 
contrasting with the pale basal half of the wing ; this orange color borders the 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



130 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

costa and forms an orange streak along the fold ; on costa, immediately before 
the orange or golden shade of the apical half of the wing, the white ground 
color is less densely dusted, forming the semblance of an oblique streak which 
is sometimes margined inwardly by the deeper color ; beyond middle of costa, an 
oblique white, but lightly dusted, streak crosses the w ? ing to termen ; an indis- 
tinct whitish spot before apex ; on middle of dorsum a group of raised scales 
forms a dark brown or blackish spot, usually conspicuous and extending to the 
fold ; a blackish apical spot, from which a few dark-tipped scales form a short 
line in the cilia below apex ; a line of dark-tipped scales in the middle of the 
cilia curves around apex. Hind wings and cilia pale straw-colored. Legs pale 
straw-colored, tarsal segments often dark-tipped. Abdomen pale, sometimes with 
a slight fuscous shading, anal tuft paler. 

Alar expanse 6 to 6.5 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 179, 179a, 179b). Harpes typical of the section, short 
setose on inner and outer surfaces; socii small, inwardly curving, short setose; 
anellus a broad short truncated cone ; aedeagus short, stout, bent dorsad near tip, 
its abruptly acute tip directed dorsad, aperture oval ; vinculum a very narrow 
band. Scale sac elongate, scales slender (fig. 179b). 

Female genitalia (figs. 178, 178a). The slender scales fringing posterior 
margins of segment 7 but little specialized ; on the intersegmental membrane 
ventral to ostium, an arch of dark specialized scales, the scale-mass densest and 
broadest laterally, in mid-ventral line slightly emarginate; a small sclerotized 
plate posterior to ostium; ductus bursae long, with sclerotized strips bearing 
scattered teeth; bursa elongate, extending into segment 1, signum in segment 3; 
signum ribs with curved spines directed posteriorly. 

Specimens examined. — Over 100, representing both sexes. 

Ohio: Cincinnati, 7 S, 6 2, March 29 to May 15; 2 2, rearing record 
B.2217, on Quercus shumardii Buckl., imagoes March 29 and April 3; 2 $ , 2 2, 
rearing record B.753, on Quercus shumardii, imagoes June 26 to June 30; 4 6 , 
3 2, July 1, July 3; 6 $, 5 2, August 6 to September 8, all emerging from 
typical cocoons; 1 S, November 15 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.] ; 6, $ , 2, 
April 29 to May 13 (A. F. Braun) [U.S.N.M.] ; 2 $, 2, May 5, May 17 (A. F. 
Braun) [A.N.S.P.]. 

Michigan: Livingston County, 1 S, August 7 (Ralph Beebe). 

Ontario: Toronto, 3 $,\ 2, July (H. S. Parish) [J. R. Eyer Coll.] ; 3 $, 
1 2, 25.5.15 (H. S. Parish) [Cornell U.]. 

Pennsylvania: Philadelphia, 2 (sex not determined), March 16, April 21 
(F. Haimbach) [A.N.S.P.]; 2 S, 2.22.14 [Cornell U.] ; Roxborough, 1 (sex 
not determined), May 19 (F. Haimbach) [A.N.S.P.]. 

District of Columbia: Washington, 1 2, " on oak," iss. April 17, 1903 
(August Busck) [U.S.N.M.]; 1 2 , " on tulip," May 13/85 (C. V. Riley Coll.) 
[U.S.N. M.]; (without locality) 1 $, 9/5/85, "Beech," 1 6, 28/4/85, with 
cocoon, " Beech," 1 2, 15/5/85, with cocoon, " Beech," all bearing the number 
3635 (C. V. Riley Coll.) [U.S.N.M.]. 



ANNETTE K. BRAUN 131 

Delaware: Wilmington, 2 6.2 9. June 4, July 10 to 16 (D. F. Bray); 
Stanton. 3, 6 . 9, June to July 3 ( D. F. Bray) [U. of Del.]. 

New Jersey: New Lisbon, 1 9. .May 17, 2 2. July 26, 2 9, Aug. 28 (Dar- 
lington Coll.) [A.N.S.P.]; Caldwell. 1. May 11 (W. D. Kearfott) ; Watchung 

Alts.. 4. S, 9. April 3. April 25; Essex Co., "on chestnut," May 15, "on oak," 
May 4, May 15 ; Montclair, July 18. " on oak." Sept. 20; Essex Co. Pk.. 1 S with 
cocoon, "hickory." May 4 (W. D. Kearfott) [all U.S.N.M.]. 

New York: " N. V.." 1 8,5 9, (Coll. Beutenmueller ) [U.S.N.M.]; Mon- 
roe County. 4 9," ex oak," May 3 to May 14, 5 (5,3 9 , May 2 to June 3, 1 9 , 
August 14 ( C. P. Kimball ) [C. P. Kimball Coll.] ; 1 S , June 3. 1 9 , " on oak " 
(C. P. Kimball) [A. E. Brower Coll.]; Hemlock Lake, 1 9, 1.IX.16 [Cor- 
nell U.]. 

Rhode Island: Elmwood, 3 <5 , 2 9, May 6, June 10 to 30, July 28 ( E. D. 
Keith) [A. E. Bower Coll.]. 

The larvae are miners in the first three instars, later feeding ex- 
posed on the underside of leaves of various species of oaks (Ouercus 
spp. ) , and occasionally, perhaps accidentally, on beech. The egg is de- 
posited on the upper side of the leaf. The short thread-like mine (fig. 
52a ) at first follows a vein, often the midrib, later sharply diverging 
from it. After leaving the mine, and moulting in the small open-mesh 
moulting cocoon on the underside of the leaf (fig. 52b), the larva eats 
small irregular patches of leaf tissue, leaving the upper epidermis ; the 
second moulting" cocoon is similar to the first, but slightly larger. The 
mature larva is dull green, with pale tubercles ; setae long. The white 
cocoon (fig. 52c) is characterized by the many closely placed fine 
ridges, 10 to 12 in number. It is spun on leaves or bark of trees, or in 
herbage beneath the tree, descending by a silken thread which may be 
blown for as much as 40 feet from the food tree. On a vertical surface, 
as a tree trunk, the anterior end is placed downward. A single oak 
leaf may have a dozen or more mines ; shaded leaves as well as leaves 
of the upper canopy are mined. 

In the latitude of Cincinnati, there are three generations a year; 
imagoes emerge from overwintering cocoons from late March to early 
May ; a second generation appears in late June ; the third from mid- 
August to early September, some of these possibly hibernating ; larvae 
hatching from eggs laid by this generation of moths become full-fed in 
late fall; the winter is passed in the pupal state. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



132 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

The description of the moth is based on reared material in perfect 
condition from Cincinnati, that is, essentially from the type locality. 
It is one of our commonest species and widespread. The pure white, 
finely ridged cocoon, with many ridges in contrast to the few ridges of 
related species, is the best diagnostic character for reared material. A 
similar cocoon, but with a few less ridges, is found in B. luteella 
Chambers, and in B. recognita new species; from the former, the moth 
is separated by the apical spot and dark ciliary lines ; from the latter by 
the absence of an oblique fascia at basal third; from both by the very 
different genitalia of both sexes. The fine speckling of the face and 
antennal eye-caps, present also in the Pacific Coast B. albertiella Busck, 
is a good diagnostic character for the eastern species. The combina- 
tion of a conspicuous arch of dark specialized scales ventral to ostium 
(without additional groups of specialized scales) and the dentate ductus 
bursae occurs in B. packardella and in B. albertiella only. 

(67) Bucculatrix albertiella Busck (Figs. 180, 180a, 180b, 181.) 

1909. Bucculatrix albertiella Busck, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. XI: 184. Type S, 

Alameda County, California [U.S.N.M., Type No. 12693]. 

1910. Bucculatrix tetrella Braun, Ent. News XXI: 175. Type $, Mills Col- 

lege, Alameda County, California [A.F.B.Coll.]. (New synonymy.) 

Face white, minutely dark-ocherous speckled ; hairs of tuft mixed whitish and 
reddish ocherous, the reddish ocherous predominating; antennal eye-caps whit- 
ish, dotted with dark ocherous, stalk annulate with golden or dark brown. Tho- 
rax creamy white, brown dotted. Fore wings creamy white, dusted with mi- 
nutely brown-tipped scales ; the markings are produced by bands and patches of 
pale lustrous scales ; these are four in number, the first near base and sometimes 
produced along fold; the second and third are oblique bands crossing the wing, 
the second to middle of dorsum, sometimes broken or ill-defined at its middle, 
and on its inner margin below fold a conspicuous tuft of black-tipped raised 
scales ; the third, more evenly outlined, crosses the wing to tornus where it is 
broadest ; the fourth is a more or less triangular patch at apical fourth of costa, 
nearly crossing the wing; between these marks are oblique more or less dusted 
pale streaks and bands, one indistinct near base, the second and third crossing 
the wing; a few black-tipped scales at apex form a slightly curving apical spot; 
cilia pale ocherous, with a line of narrowly black-tipped scales curving around 
apex. Hind wings and cilia pale grayish ocherous. Legs ocherous, fuscous- 
shaded, hind tarsal segments black-tipped. Abdomen silvery beneath, grayish 
ocherous and fuscous-shaded above. 

Alar expanse 8 mm. 



ANNETTE F. BRAIN 133 

Male genitalia ( hg. 181). Harpes typical of the section, long curved setae 
on inner and outer surfaces, costa with small basal process; socii stout, incurved, 
setae long; aedeagus short, stout, abruptly narrowing to the acute tip directed 
dorsad. Scale sac large, globular, scales slender. 

Female genitalia (figs. 180, 180a, 180b). On intersegmental membrane ven- 
tral to ostium, an arch of black specialized scales, the arch broadest at each end 
with several rows of scales, narrowing mid-ventrally to a line of small scales; 
a curved sclerotized plate posterior to ostium; ostium wide, with flaring sclero- 
tized walls ; ductus bursae wide, with a sclerotized band bearing rows of minute 
teeth; signum a ring constricting bursa copulatrix near its posterior end; sig- 
num ribs with curved spines directed posteriorly, a few minute accessory spines. 

Specimens examined. — 34, representing both sexes. 

California: Alameda County, S type, "Larva on Quercits agrifolia," May 
[U.S.X.M., Type No. 12693] ; 7 cotypes, <3, 2. four of these " Larva on Qitcr- 
cus agrifolia." May [U.S.N.M.] ; 7, S, 2, May [U.S.N.M.] ; 1 S [A.F.B. 
Coll.]; 1 <$, VI.4.1908, (G. R. Pilate) (type of tetrella Braun) [A.F.B. Coll.] ; 
2 c?,4 2, May 22 to June 7 (paratypes of tetrella Braun) [A.F.B. Coll.] ; San 
Francisco, 15,12, May 18, 19, (H. H. Keifer) [U.S.N.M.] ; 1 (sex not de- 
termined), "on oak," Sept. 19 (ex Cal. Acad. Sci.) [U.S.N.M.] ; 1 $, "on 
Quercits agrifolia," June 1 (Wild Coll.) [Cornell U.] ; 1 9, October 4 (H. H. 
Keifer) [Cornell U.] ; Stanford, Santa Clara Co., 3 $, 1 2, "reared from Q. 
agrifolia," IV. 18. 46, em. Y.22.46 (J. W. Tilden) [A.F.B.Coll.] ; Santa Bar- 
bara, 2 2, reared from cocoons on Oitercus agrifolia Nee, rearing record B.860, 
imagoes August 8, 1915 [A.F.B.Coll.] ; Westwood Hills, Los Angeles Co., 2 2 , 
"ex live oak" (H. M. Bohart ) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

The range of B. albertiella is probably coextensive with that of its 
food plant, Quercits agrifolia Nee, that is, it may be expected in the 
coastal areas and valleys of California south of San Francisco Bay. 
Farther to the east (in the foothills of the Sierras) another species 
(B. co pho pasta new species) seems to replace it. In the original de- 
scription ( Busck, 1909, I.e.) the cocoon is described as "pure white, 
rather bluntly rounded at the ends, evenly ribbed; length, 6 mm." 

The near relationship of this species to the eastern packardella is 
evident from a comparison of the female genitalia. The long setae of 
the socii and harpes separate albertiella from all other oak-feeding 
species. 

(68) Bucculatrix coniforma new species (Figs. 184, 184a, 184b.) 

Face creamy white, tuft reddish ocherous; eye-caps and the two following 

segments of antennae creamy white, remaining segments extremely short and 

annulate with dark brown, producing a series of very narrow rings. Scales of 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



134 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

thorax broadly tipped with reddish ocherous, especially anteriorly. Fore wings 
creamy white, the ground color obscured by the dusting of ocherous- or dark- 
brown-tipped scales ; a dusted area occupies the basal fourth of wing and is pro- 
duced along the fold ; following this is an oblique undusted costal streak, narrow 
near costa, angulated above fold and continued to dorsum as a broad band ; an 
oblique dusted band borders this outwardly and below middle of wing is con- 
tinued to termen as a broad darkly dusted band, and is marked on its inner 
border on the fold by a few dark brown raised scales ; from middle of costa, an 
oblique creamy white streak; at two-thirds of costa, a narrow creamy white 
streak ; apical area paler, more evenly ocherous ; a black apical spot, continued 
along the bases of the whitish ocherous cilia toward tornus as a fine blackish 
line ; a second dark line in the middle of the cilia curves around apex and ex- 
tends nearly to tornus. Hind wings and cilia fuscous. Legs pale whitish ocher- 
ous, shaded with fuscous, tarsal segments broadly blackish-tipped. 

Alar expanse 7.5 mm. 

Female genitalia (figs. 184, 184a, 184b). On the ovipositor lobes, minute 
setae amongst the typical long setae ; posterior margin of segment 7, both dor- 
sally and ventrally, fringed with specialized scales, those of the ventral margin 
of several sizes ; sternite of 7 sculptured ; on the intersegmental membrane and 
ventral to ostium, an inverted V-shaped arch of specialized scales ; on the ante- 
rior dorsal margin of segment 8, a row of minute, dark-pigmented scales, cylin- 
dric in shape and tapering to a conical apex (fig. 184a) ; ostium with lateral 
anteriorly directed acute wings ; ductus bursae sclerotized to inception of ductus 
seminalis. Signum broad ventrally, very narrow, nearly obsolete dorsally ; sig- 
num ribs irregularly spined (fig. 184b). 

Type. — ?, Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts, August 6 (F. M. Jones) 
[A.N.S.P., Type No. 7815]. 

Food plant and early stages unknown. 

The sort antennal segments of the moth, narrowly ringed with 
brown and white, and the female genitalia separate this species from all 
others of this section. 

(69) Bucculatrix platyphylla new species (Fig. 183.) 

Face creamy white, tuft of mingled white, pale ocherous and brownish hairs ; 
eye-caps creamy white, antennal stalk Whitish, annulate with dark brown for 
over half its length, then follow several brown segments, then two white, sepa- 
rated by a brown segment, then several brown segments, last few segments 
whitish, faintly brown-dotted. Thorax ocherous. Ground color of the broad 
fore wings predominantly pale straw-color, with the marks formed by ocherous, 
more or less conspicuously brown-tipped scales ; a patch of such scales along 
costa at base, a second similar, slightly broader patch before middle of costa, a 
large conspicuous brownish ocherous patch at two-thirds, extending obliquely to 



ANNETTE V. BRAUN 135 

the middle of the wing; scales of basal half of wing' below Fold minutely brown- 
tipped, below middle of fold a black spot with a few raised Males, followed by 
ocherous and brown-tipped scales; apex of wing with a golden ocherous patch; 
cilia shading to pale fuscous outwardly, no ciliary line. Hind wings very broad 
(half again as broad as usual), pale grayish ocherous, somewhat irrorated. 
Leg's pale straw colored. 

.Mar expanse 9 mm. 

Female genitalia (fig. 183). Fringing scales of segment 7 short, except 
laterally on sternite ; on intersegmental membrane an acute arch of minute spe- 
cialized scales, its ends curving very slightly outward; no specialized scale tufts 
on sternite of segment 8; on dorsal anterior margin of 8, a line of minute spe- 
cialized scales; ostium bowl-shaped, ductus bursae short, entering dorsally the 
anterior lobe of the bilobed bursa copulatrix ; the posterior and smaller lobe 
receives the ductus seminalis ; signum ribs long, with acute spines posteriori} - , 
attenuated and ending in a series of minute spines and knobs. 

Type— 2, E. Aurora. New York, May 18, 1913 (W. Wild Coll.) [Cornell 
I'.. Type No. 3645]. 

Food plant and early stages unknown. 

Represented by the female type only. 

The broad wings, especially the broad hind wings, broader than in 
any other species observed, will enable immediate recognition of this 
species ; the specific name, platyphylla, refers to the broad wings. The 
bilobed bursa copulatrix, with inception of the ductus seminalis in the 
small posterior lobe, is unique in the genus, so far as observed. 

(70) Bucculatrix ochrisuffusa new species (Figs. 182, 182a.) 

Face pale ocherous, tuft reddish ocherous ; eye-caps pale ocherous, antennal 
stalk indistinctly annulate. Thorax reddish ocherous. Fore wings bright red- 
dish ocherous, with a few brown-tipped scales on the costal area beyond middle 
and along dorsum from the patch of raised scales to tornus ; apical area paler ; 
markings ill-defined, indicated only by their paler color ; an oblique streak from 
basal fifth of costa, a similar but shorter and narrower streak from near middle 
of costa; on middle of dorsum, a large patch of blackish brown raised scales, 
extending to fold ; the ground color a little paler basad of the raised scales ; no 
apical spot, no ciliary lines. Hind wings and cilia brownish fuscous, darker 
than the fore wings. Legs ocherous, slightly shaded with fuscous. Abdomen 
fuscous above, paler beneath. 

Alar expanse 8 mm. 

Female genitalia (figs. 182, 182a). Ovipositor lobes with minute setae 
amongst the typical long setae; sternite of segment 7 sculptured, dorsal posterior 
margin fringed with long specialized scales, ventral margin, except mid-ven- 

MEM. AMER. EXT. SOC, 18. 



136 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

trally, fringed with specialized scales which progressively become longer later- 
ally ; mid-ventrally, on intersegmental membrane, a pair of small scale tufts ; on 
each side of ostium, on sternite of 8, a large dense patch of dark specialized 
scales ; on anterior margin of segment 8, mid-dorsally, a pair of scale patches of 
few scales, lying transversely; ostium flaring, with lateral acute anteriorly di- 
rected points ; ductus bursae contracting before ostium, gradually enlarging to 
bursa; signum a broad ring, the ribs irregularly spined, the spines continuing 
as detached fine points (fig. 182a). 

Type— 5, Cincinnati, Ohio, June 6, 1910 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

The food plant of this species is probably white oak (Qiiercus alba 
L.). 

Bucculatrix ochrisuffusa agrees with luteella Chambers in the ill- 
defined markings and absence of apical spot and ciliary lines, but is at 
once separated from it by the more reddish color of the fore wings, the 
larger size, and especially by the different female genitalia. 

( 71 ) Bucculatrix trifasciella Clemens 

(Figs. 15, 16, 32, 53, 185, 185a, 186, 186a.) 

1866. Bucculatrix trifasciella Clemens, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. A': 147. Type S, 
Pennsylvania (probably Easton) [A.N.S.P., Type No. 7500]. 

1872. Bucculatrix trifasciella Stainton, Tin. No. Amer., p. 272. 

1873. Bucculatrix trifasciella Chambers, Canad. Ent. V : 149. 

1875. Bucculatrix trifasciella Chambers, Cin. Quart. Journ. Sci. II: 120. (Mere 

mention. ) 
1903. Bucculatrix trifasciella Busck, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. V: 220. 
1873. Bucculatrix obscurofasciella Chambers, Canad. Ent. V: 150. Type 2, 

Kentucky [M.C.Z.] ; "Type" 5. Kentucky [U.S.N. M.]. 

Face pale whitish ocherous, tuft reddish ocherous ; eye-caps white or tinged 
with ocherous, antennal stalk annulate with blackish brown. Thorax ocherous. 
Fore wings ocherous, marks (typically) silvery in male and sharply defined 
(fig. 15), dull whitish or pale ocherous in female, sometimes faintly dusted and 
not sharply defined (fig. 16). Three equidistant oblique costal streaks, the first 
from basal fourth, the third from two-thirds the wing length, its apex nearly 
meeting, at an angle, the tip of a similar dorsal streak from just before tornus; 
on middle of dorsal margin a blackish brown patch of raised scales extending 
to fold, preceded by a paler spot (never silvery), and followed by a patch of 
brown-tipped scales limited outwardly by the dorsal silvery (or pale ocherous) 
streak; a blackish apical spot, preceded in the male by a few silvery scales; in 
the cilia and not in contact with the apical spot, a line of dark-tipped scales, 
curving around apex and extending through the terminal cilia toward tornus, 
this line sometimes indistinct below apex. Hind wings and cilia fuscous in male, 
paler and more ocherous in female. Legs ocherous, fuscous shaded, hind tarsal 
segments broadly blackish-tipped. Abdomen fuscous above, ocherous beneath. 



ANNETTE V. BRAUN 137 

Alar expanse 7.? to 8 mm. 

.Male genitalia (figs. 186. 186a). Harpes typical of the section, setose out- 
wardly and sparsely inwardly, terminating in a small pointed process, basal 
process present; socii short, broad, and widely separated, sinus between them 
shallow; anellus with strongly sclerotized lateral rods; aedeagus short, stout, 
with lateral rounded bulges before the narrow and acute tip; vinculum thread- 
like. Scale sac very large. 

Female genitalia (figs. 185, 185a). Fringing scales of posterior margins of 
segment 7 long; on intersegmental membrane ventral to ostium, a semicircle 
of long specialized scales ; on each side of ostium on sternite of 8, a large patch 
of specialized scales; minute specialized scales at anterior margin of tergite of 8 
attached to a narrow transverse plate ; margin of ostium outcurved and sclero- 
tized. Spines of signum ribs long and slender (fig. 185a). 

Specimens examined. — 21 8 , 21 2, and 25 sex not determined. 

Pennsylvania: Easton (?), 8 type [A.N.S.P.] ; Hazleton, 1 8, 2 2. July 
13, 17. 29 (W. G. Dietz) [A.N.S.P.] ; 1 8, June 8 [Cornell U.] ; Folsom, 1 2, 
5.7.91 [A.X.S.P.] ; Arendtsville, 1 (sex not determined), July 6, 1921, "on 
oak" (S. W. Frost) [A.N.S.P.]. 

New Jersey: 15, 8, 9 (probably W. D. Kearfott) [U.S.N.M.] ; New Lis- 
bon, 6, 8 , 2, June 11, June 18, three of these labeled " from small green larvae 
feeding naked underside scrub oak"; 1, "emerged August 31, 1938, leaf miner 
white oak, underside," 1, "underside oak leaves," emerged June 20; 1, August 
7, 1938, "on oak " ; 2 2, July 13, July 16, 1942; Whitesbog, 1 2, July 26, 1940 
(E. P. Darlington) [A.N.S.P.]; Wenonah, 2 2, V.15.10 (F. Haimbach) 
[A.N.S.P.]. 

Kentucky: 2 type of obscurojasciella ( V. T. Chambers) [M.C.Z.] ; 2 
"type" of obscurojasciella (V. T. Chambers) [U.S.N.M.] ; 1 specimen without 
locality label (from Chambers) [A.N.S.P.]. 

Ohio: Cincinnati, 1 8,1 2, rearing record B.654, on Quercus palustris 
Muenchh., imagoes April 27, 29; 1 2, rearing record B.493, on Quercus palus- 
tris, imago August 27, from typical dark gray cocoon ; 2 8 , on oak, imagoes 
August 6 ; 1 8 , on Quercus bicolor Willd., imago July 19 ; 1 8 , " on red oak," 
imago July 9; 3 8 , 3 2, May 13 to June 26; 2 8, August 1 and 14; 4 8,2 2. 
rearing record B.2287, emerging from gray cocoons, April 26, April 30 (A. F. 
Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.] ; 1 8, 1 2, (A. F. Braun) [U.S.N.M.] ; Clermont County, 
1 8 , June 27 ; Mineral Springs, Adams County, 1 8 , June 27, 1 2 , July 20 
(A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.] ; Fort Hill, Highland County, 1 2, rearing record 
B.2220, on Quercus rubra L. (Q. borealis maxima), imago April 22 (A. F. 
Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Ontario: Sparrow Lake, 1 8,1 2, July 11, 17, 1926 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B. 
Coll.]. 

No Locality: 2 8, nos. 570, 575. " Walsingham det." [A.N.S.P.]. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



138 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

The larvae of B. trifasciella feed on leaves of various species of oak ; 
red oak, Quercus rubra L. (borealis maxima), in many localities ap- 
pears to be the preferred food plant. Feeding usually takes place on 
leaves high up in the tree. The mine is similar to that of packardella, 
the moulting cocoons (both first and second) somewhat larger than 
those of packardella; the exposed larva may feed on either the upper 
(B.493 and B.654) or the lower side of the leaf. The cocoon (fig. 53) 
broad and stout, with six or seven ridges, is characterized by the fusion 
or anastomosis of ridges; it may be either dark gray (as described by 
Clemens) or pale gray or even whitish. In the generation emerging in 
the summer (i.e. in the same season) the cocoon is generally spun on 
the underside of a leaf, often on the same leaf with the mine and eaten 
patches. 

Specimens occur in which the markings are obscure and not lus- 
trous in the male ; such specimens, if reared, can definitely be assigned 
to trifasciella by characters of the cocoon — its shape and number of 
ridges, and often by its gray color. 

This species is closely allied to B. qitinqueiiotella Chambers, but in 
quinquenotella the markings are silvery in both sexes, and a fifth sil- 
very spot is present basad of the patch of raised scales. Other points 
of differentiation are enumerated under quinquenotella. 

(72) Bucculatrix quinquenotella Chambers (Figs. 187, 188, 189.) 

1875. Bucculatrix quinquenotella Chambers, Cin. Quart. Journ. Sci. II: 120. 
Type locality, Kentucky. (Type not in existence.) 

Face whitish ocherous, tuft reddish ocherous to brownish ocherous ; eye-caps 
white, scarcely tinged with pale ocherous, antennal stalk annulate with brown. 
Thorax brownish ocherous, tegulae and extreme base of fore wing pale whitish 
ocherous. Fore wings pale ocherous to dark brownish ocherous, marks brilliant 
silvery, more or less iridescent in both sexes. Three oblique and equally spaced 
silvery marks from costa; the first passes obliquely across the wing to dorsal 
margin just basad of the patch of raised scales and is broken on the fold; the 
second, from just before middle of costa, shorter and narrower than the first, 
does not reach the middle of the wing ; the third, at two-thirds of costa, points 
toward tornus, its apex a little beyond a larger triangular spot on dorsum near 
tornus ; a black apical spot containing a few raised scales is margined inwardly 
by a narrow curved silvery iridescent streak, not reaching either margin ; the 
large patch of black raised scales at middle of dorsum lies just within the dorsal 
margin and attains the fold, the ground color deepened by dark-tipped scales 



A N N KTT E 1". IS RAT X 1 39 

between it and the silver}' spot near tornus; a few raised black scales (easily 
lost) on termen just above tornus; a line of black-tipped scales at the base of 
the cilia curving around apex and continuing to tornus, is connected at apex to 
the black apical spot by the raised scales. Hind wings and cilia pale brownish 
or reddish ocherous to dark fuscous. Legs pale ocherous. shaded with fuscous 
in the darkest specimens only. Abdomen pale ocherous, sometimes darkened 
above with dark fuscous shading. 

Alar expanse 7 to 8 mm. 

Male genitalia (fig. 188). Very similar to trifasciella, except that the harpes 
are larger and broader and exceed the socii, the latter not widely separated, and 
the aedeagus scarcely bulges before the acuminate apex ; an elongate group of 
minute cornuti present. Scale sac large. 

Female genitalia (fig. 187). Sternite of segment 7 sculptured, the lobes 
fringed with long scales, scales of posterior dorsal margin of 7 shorter ; on inter- 
segmental membrane and ventral to ostium, a curved row of very small scales ; 
on each side of sternite of 8, an elongate patch of specialized scales ; at anterior 
margin of tergite of 8, a double row of small specialized scales; margin of 
ostium with two outwardly directed acutely pointed processes; signum as in 
trifasciella. 

Specimens examined. — 67, 6,9. 

Kentucky: Red Bird River, Clay County, 1 2, imago VII. 13.33 (A. F. 
Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Ohio: Adams County, 1 2, June 30, 1928 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Michigan: Bath, Clinton County, 1 S, May 26, 1957 (R. W. Hodges) 
[Cornell U.]. 

Missouri: 2 $, 1 2 ( Murtfeldt Coll.) [Cornell U.]. 

Iowa: Iowa City, 2 8,6 2. July 2, 1918 (A. W. Lindsey) [U.S.N. M.] ; 
1 2. July 2, 1918 (A. W. Lindsey) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Tennessee: Monteagle, 1 6,1 2, June 28, July 2 (Richards) [Cornell U.]. 

Georgia: Xeel Gap, 1 2, June 25, 1946 (P. W. Fattig) [U.S.N.M.]. 

South Carolina : Cherry Hill Recreation Area, Rte. 107, Oconee County, 
2000 feet, 3 6. Aug. 7 to 11, 1 S, Sept. 4, 1 2, Aug. 11, collected as part of a 
project sponsored by the American Philosophical Society (R. W. Hodges) 
[Cornell U.]. 

North Carolina: Highlands, Macon County, 3865 feet, 23, <J, 2, July 5 to 
August 20, 1958, collected as part of a project sponsored by the American Philo- 
sophical Society (R. W. Hodges) [Cornell U.]. 

District of Columbia: Washington, 1 2, June 1, 1901, (Aug. Busck) 
[U.S.N.M.]. 

New Jersey: Lakehurst, 2 2, July 4, 1907 (W. D. Kearfott) [U.S.N.M.]. 

New York: Monroe County, 8 2,15 (some in poor condition), May 14 to 
July 23 (C. P. Kimball) [C.P.K.Coll.]. 

MEM. AMER. EXT. SOC, 18. 



140 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Massachusetts: Barnstable, 1 $,2 9. July 6, 10, August 15 (C. P. Kim- 
ball) [C.P.K.Coll.]. 

New Hampshire: Center Harbor, 1 2 (Collection H. G. Dyar) [U.S.N.M.]. 

Ontario: Smoky Falls, Mattagami R., 1 5, 19.VI.34 (G. S. Walley) [C.N. 
Coll.] ; Sparrow Lake, 2 $, July 12, 14 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Quebec: Marks, 3 $, 1 ?, 29.VI.1933 (G. S. Walley) [C.N.Coll.]. 

Nova Scotia : Halifax, 3 <J , 1 2, " Bred ex larva, Food oak " [Qitcrcus rubra 
L.], March 2, 3, 1951 (J. McDunnough) [Nova Scotia Museum of Science]. 

Chambers' unusually accurate description has assured recognition 
of this species. 

Except for the Nova Scotia specimens I have seen no reared mate- 
rial, and no data on the larval habits are available. The cocoons (of 
the Nova Scotia specimens) are pale brown in color, and very similar 
to those of B. trifasciella, agreeing with that species in the tendency to 
fusion and anastomosis of the ridges. 

Bucculatrix quinquenotella is closely allied to B. trifasciella, from 
which it differs in the brilliant luster of the marks in both sexes, with 
an additional silvery spot on dorsum basad of the raised scales, and 
the position of the ciliary line, connected to the apical spot in quin- 
quenotella, separated from it in trifasciella. The Nova Scotia speci- 
mens and some of the North Carolina specimens display the dark 
brownish ocherous color of the fore wings ; in genitalia these agree 
with the paler specimens. Pale specimens with spots scarcely shining 
also occur. Specimens in poor condition may be separated from tri- 
fasciella by differences in genitalia, especially of females. 

To conserve the high luster of the marks, specimens should be 
mounted when fresh. Marks are considerably dimmed in relaxed 
specimens. 

(73) Bucculatrix domicola new species 

(Figs. 38, 39, 40, 54, 54a, 54b, 54c, 190, 191, 191a.) 

Face creamy white, tuft ocherous anteriorly and laterally, brown posteriorly ; 
eye-caps creamy white, scales rarely minutely dark-tipped, antennal stalk annu- 
late with dark brown. Thorax pale ocherous to brownish ocherous, scales 
rarely dark-tipped, extreme base of fore wing pale when the thorax is pale. 
Fore wings brownish ocherous, darkest in the costal area between the silvery 
streaks and on dorsum, especially between the patch of raised scales and tornus. 
Marks silvery iridescent in both sexes, but sometimes so encroached upon by 
the brownish scales of the ground color as to be reduced to mere silvery lines, 



ANNETTE V. BRAUN 141 

or sometimes ill-defined and not silver)'; three parallel and equidistant oblique 
costal streaks, the first from basal fourth, the second near middle, the third, at 
two-thirds of costa, meets or nearly meets at an angle in the middle of the wing 
a similar slender dorsal streak from just before tornus; a few silvery scales pre- 
cede the black apical spot in which there are a few raised scales ; a large patch 
of dark brown raised scales on middle of dorsum, extending to fold ; often a quad- 
rate patch of paler ground color basad of the patch of raised scales ; a few raised 
scales at tornus ; a faint line of dark-tipped scales extends from the apical spot 
along termen near the base of the apical cilia ; a second line of dark brown- 
tipped scales curves around apex and extends to tornus, lying closely parallel to 
the first ; cilia varying from ocherous to pale fuscous, darker at tornus. Hind 
wings and cilia fuscous, darker in males. Legs ocherous, fuscous outwardly, 
tarsal segments dark-tipped. Abdomen grayish ocherous below, dark fuscous 
above. 

Alar expanse 7 to 7.5 mm. 

Male genitalia (fig. 190). Harpes typical of the section, nearly attaining the 
socii, setose outwardly and sparsely setose inwardly, terminating in a small 
pointed process, a small basal process present; socii short, broad and widely 
separated, the sinus between them shallow ; aedeagus gradually tapering to the 
narrow' acute tip ; vinculum a very narrow band. Scale sac large, scales slender. 

Female genitalia (figs. 191, 191a). Fringing scales of the posterior margins 
of segment 7 long and slender, lobes of sternite of 7 sculptured ; on interseg- 
mental membrane near posterior ventral margin of 7, an arc of specialized scales 
of moderate length; posterior to ostium (but anterior to the arc) a median dense 
patch of small specialized scales; on the anterior margin of tergite of 8, a mass 
of minute scales; margin of ostium sclerotized, with two outwardly directed 
acutely pointed processes ; signum ribs with spines grading from long acute to 
minute short. 

Type. — <5, Cincinnati, Ohio, rearing record B.2219, with cocoon, imago 
August 19, 1955 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Allotype. — 9, Cincinnati, Ohio, rearing record B.2219, with cocoon, imago 
August 19, 1955 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Paratypes. — 2 S, Cincinnati, Ohio, March 2; 2 S, 4 9, Cincinnati, Ohio, 
rearing record B.2219, imagoes April 23 ; 1 9, with cocoon, imago June 29; 
4 $ , 2 9, rearing record B.2219, imagoes July 4, July 5; 12 $,6 9, with co- 
coons, rearing record B.2219, imagoes August 10 to September 2 (A. F. Braun) 
[A.F.B.Coll.] ; 1 $ , New Lisbon, New Jersey, June 2, 1940, emerging from 
cocoon on underside of a leaf (E. P. Darlington) [A.N.S.P.] ; 1 8, Monroe 
County, New York, May 19 (C. P. Kimball) [C.P.K.Coll.]. 

In addition to the specimens listed above, one cocoon was collected 
August 11, near West Union, Adams County, Ohio. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



142 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

The specimens of the type series from Cincinnati emerged from 
cocoons spun by larvae feeding on leaves high up in trees of Quercus 
palustris Muenchh., and Quercus shiimardii Buckl. The egg is de- 
posited on the upper side of the leaf against the midrib or a lateral vein. 
The mine (figs. 54a, 54b) is short, somewhat contorted, thus differing 
from that of B. packardella often occurring on the same trees with this 
species. The larva commonly, in the June and later summer genera- 
tions, descends to the ground by a silken thread, spinning its cocoon on 
any convenient surface. The cocoon (fig. 54c) is pale whitish stra- 
mineous, slender, elongate, with six or seven prominent ridges. 

Three generations a year have been observed and specimens reared 
at Cincinnati ; moths emerge from overwintering pupae from early 
March to late April; the larvae of a second generation become full-fed 
and pupate about mid-June, the imagoes emerging the last of June and 
early July; a third generation pupates early in August, imagoes emerg- 
ing in August and early September ; larvae from eggs laid by this gen- 
eration become full-fed and pupate in late September or October. 

Buccidatrix domicola is allied to both B. trifasciella and B. quiu- 
quenotella, and males may be mistaken for small males of trifasciella; 
from quinquenotella it is at once distinguished by the less conspicuous 
silvery streaks and the absence of a silvery spot basad of the raised 
scales. This species often occurs together with packardella ; worn or 
pale specimens with obscure markings may be distinguished from that 
species by the darker hind wings and dark fuscous upper side of the 
abdomen. 

The more slender tapering aedeagus of the male, and the mass of 
minute specialized scales on the dorsal anterior margin of segment 8 
in the female are the most distinctive characters of the genitalia. From 
all other oak-feeding species it is separated by the slender few-ribbed 
cocoon. 

(74) Bucculatrix zophopasta new species (Figs. 192, 193, 194, 194a.) 

Face white, tuft on vertex dark ocherous or dark fuscous ; eye-caps white, 
antennal stalk annulate with dark brown. Thorax ocherous or irrorated dark 
fuscous. Fore wings (in the reared Oregon series and in the California series) 
ocherous, the scales shading to brown at their tips, or (in the Vancouver Island 
series) irrorated dark fuscous, with an angulated white fascia near base and two 
oblique costal streaks ; extreme base of wing pale ; the angulated fascia is oblique 



ANNETTE l-\ BRAIN 143 

Erom basal fourth of wing to fold, where sometimes slightly interrupted by 

"■round color, and here angulated and perpendicular to the dorsal margin which 
it attains before the middle immediately basad of the large patch of black raised 
scales; this hand may be produced as a white or pale ocherous shade through 
the middle of the wing; from middle and two-thirds of costa, less oblique streaks, 
in dark specimens somewhat obscured by encroachment of the fuscous scales; 
the second of these attains the termen above tornus ; a transverse white bar 
across apex at the base of the cilia; cilia whitish or pale fuscous, with a ciliary 
line of black-tipped or dark brown-tipped scales, which in pale specimens be- 
comes obsolete before tornus. Hind wings in the paler specimens pale stramine- 
ous in female, pale fuscous in male, in dark specimens pale fuscous in both 
sexes. Legs pale stramineous, shaded with fuscous, tarsal segments broadly 
tipped with fuscous. Abdomen dark fuscous above, whitish beneath. 

Alar expanse 7 to 8 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 192, 193). Harpes setose outwardly, sparsely setose 
inwardly, terminating near inner margin of apex in a small pointed process, 
basal process present; socii short, broad, setose, tegumen sclerotized in a nar- 
row band between them ; aedeagus curving near tip and tapering to the acutely 
pointed tip ; vinculum a very narrow band. Scale sac with rather short, rounded 
scales. 

Female genitalia (figs. 194, 194a). Lobes of sternite of 7 sculptured, fring- 
ing specialized scales of posterior margins long and narrow ; mid-ventrally on 
intersegmental membrane a patch of short specialized scales ; on anterior margin 
of tergite of 8, a short curved group of curved specialized scales, and anterior 
to it on the intersegmental membrane, a mass of small scales ; ostium funnel- 
shaped, shallowly indented mid-ventrally, sclerotized ; signum ring obsolescent 
dorsally, spines of signum ribs acicular, of uneven length. 

Type. — $, Hood River, Oregon, "Reared from Qucrcits garryana, em. 
9.VII.51" (V. W. Olney) [U.S.N.M., Type No. 65033]. 

Allotype. — 2, Hood River, Oregon, "Reared from Quercits garryana, em. 
11.VII.51 " (V. W. Olney) [U.S.N.M.]. 

Paratypes.— 3 $ , 6 2, same data as the type and allotype [U.S.N.M.] ; 4 $, 
7 2, Victoria, British Columbia, May 5 to May 14 and June 16 to 22 (W. R. 
Carter) [U.S.N.M.] ; 1 2, Victoria, British Columbia, 8.VI.1920 (W. Downes) 
[C.N.Coll.]; 1 2, Victoria, British Columbia, 14.VI.23 (E. H. Blackmore) 
[A.F.B.Coll.] ; 3 $, 1 2, Mineral King, Tulare County, California, June 17, 
June 24-30, and July 16-23 [U.S.N.M.]. 

All of the reared series and the California series are pale ; all of the 
Victoria, British Columbia specimens are irrorated dark fuscous ; gen- 
italia slides have demonstrated the specific identity of the two series. 
The species is distinct in wing markings and in genitalic characters. 

MEM. AMEE. ENT. SOC, 18. 



144 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

The food plant of the British Columbia and Oregon specimens, 
Quercus garryana Dougl., is confined to the northern Pacific coastal 
region and valleys of western Washington and Oregon ; the food plant 
of the California series (from the foot hills of the Sierras) may pos- 
sibly be Quercus lobata Nee. 

(75) Bucculatrix litigiosella Zeller (Figs. 195, 195a.) 

1875. Bucculatrix litigiosella Zeller, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien XXV: 354. 
Type 2 , bearing the following labels : ( 1 ) White label with " Dallas, 
Tex. Boll" printed, (2) Green (typical) Zeller label with "Buccula- 
trix litigiosella Z.," (3) Small white label with " Zeller " printed on it, 
(4) Red "Type" 14959, (5) 2 genitalia slide 29.X.1957, J.F.G.C. No. 
10655. Dallas, Texas [M.C.Z., Type No. 14959]. 

The following description of the type is compiled from Zeller's de- 
scription, supplemented by notes and a sketch of the type at Cambridge : 

Tuft pale ocherous, browner centrally ; antennae annulate with fuscous. Fore 
wings pale ocherous, markings a shade darker, with tips of scales brown ; costa 
to one-third with dark-tipped scales ; " the first costal spot " near base, becomes 
obsolescent below costa ; the second before middle is short, both first and second 
costal spots lightly dusted, the second separated from the third costal spot by 
the pale ground color; the third costal spot, darker than the first two and the 
most conspicuous costal mark, is broad on costa and curves to the middle of the 
wing; the fourth costal mark is pale, lightly dusted on costa, directed toward 
termen, and becoming obsolete ; on dorsal margin beyond middle, a large patch 
of dark brown scales, followed toward tornus by paler dark-tipped scales (con- 
colorous with those of the third costal spot) ; a few dark-tipped scales on dor- 
sum near base, along termen, and at apex ; a line of black-tipped scales encir- 
cling the apex in the pale ocherous cilia. Hind wings and cilia pale gray. 
Abdomen pale dusty gray, underside and anal tuft pale ocher yellow. 

In the above description, I have followed Zeller in regarding the 
pale areas as ground color and the areas of dark-tipped scales as the 
markings, rather than the reverse, as in the descriptions of all other 
species of the section. 

Female genitalia (figs. 195, 195a). Typical of the section; minute sockets 
at the anterior margin of tergite of 8 indicate a group of specialized scales (lost 
on the slide) ; no other patches of specialized scales visible on the slide; if any 
were present on the intersegmental membrane, these were lost in the preparation 
of the slide ; lobes of sternite of segment 7 sculptured ; ostium rounded, margin 
laterally with minute sclerotized points ; signum the typical ring of spined ribs, 
ribs irregularly spined with long and short acute spines (fig. 195a). 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 145 

Only the female type from Texas has been examined. Zeller in his 
description of the species states " Zwei 6 im Museum Cambridge " ; 
Dr. Clarke at the time of making the slide found but one specimen and 
this a female, from which the slide was made and here figured. 

Food plant unknown, but probably a species of Quercus. 

Zeller compares his specimens with the European B. ulmella Zeller ; 
this suggests the possibility of its identity with the elm-feeding species 
of the Northeast, which is at once separated from litigiosella by the 
very different and characteristic genitalia (cf. fig. 223). 

Forbes (1923, Mem. 68, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta., p. 158) 
identified as litigiosella a small species (6 mm.) on white oak. I have 
examined this specimen and it is an example of rccognita new species, 
and is included among the paratypes of that species. 

(76) Bucculatrix coronatella Clemens (Figs. 20, 196, 197.) 

1860. Bucculatrix coronatella Clemens, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. : 13. Type 
locality, Pennsylvania ( ? Easton). Type not in existence. 

1872. Bucculatrix coronatella Stainton, Tin. No. Amer., pp. 108, 109. 

1873. Bucculatrix coronatella Chambers, Canad. Ent. V: 151. 

1903. Bucculatrix coronatella Busck, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. V: 198. 
1923. Bucculatrix coronatella Forbes, Mem. 68, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta., 
p. 158. 

Head yellowish white, tuft orange-ocherous centrally, eye-caps yellowish 
white tinged with ocherous posteriorly, antennal stalk dotted with brown above. 
Thorax orange-ocherous, tegulae and extreme base of fore wing pale. Ground 
color of fore wings a uniform orange-ocherous or sometimes brownish; at basal 
fifth, above the fold, an oblique whitish spot, narrowly separated from the costal 
margin by ground color ; on the dorsum, opposite its apex, a second whitish 
spot, followed by a patch of black raised scales, which may be conspicuous, ex- 
tending from dorsum to fold, reduced to a few scales, or sometimes absent; 
ground color behind the raised scales not darkened ; near middle of costa an 
oblique whitish streak; at two-thirds, an irregular whitish band, angulated at its 
middle, crosses the wing to tornus; an apical whitish patch before the small 
black apical spot may extend into cilia of costa and termen, thus encircling it; 
a line of black-tipped scales in the cilia opposite apex continues to tornus, some- 
times merely as a faint pale line; a few of the marginal scales along termen, 
especially near tornus, often black-tipped; cilia whitish or pale ocherous, tinged 
with fuscous toward dorsum. Hind wings and cilia gray or pale reddish fus- 
cous. Legs pale stramineous, hind tarsal segments faintly dark-tipped. Abdo- 
men stramineous below, fuscous and reddish brown above. 

Alar expanse 7.5 to 8 mm. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



146 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Male genitalia (fig. 197). Harpes typical of the section, setose outwardly, 
terminating at apex in a small pointed process, basal process present ; socii short, 
broad, setose; aedeagus stout, tapering to the acutely pointed tip; vinculum a 
very narrow sclerotized band. Scales of scale sac long and slender. 

Female genitalia (figs. 196, 196a). Dorsal posterior margin of segment 7 
fringed with specialized scales, the ventral posterior margin fringed laterally 
only with long specialized scales ; on intersegmental membrane and ventral to 
ostium, a dense tuft of specialized scales on each side of mid-ventral line, con- 
nected by less closely placed scales ; on sternite of 8, on each side of ostium, a 
large elongate patch of dark specialized scales ; on anterior margin of tergite of 
8, a row of very small scales ; ostium ventrally with narrow lobed, dorsally 
broadly lobed sclerotization ; signum ribs irregularly spined, with some long 
acicular spines. 

Specimens examined. — 17 S, 19 2. 

District of Columbia: Washington, 1 $, "on birch," iss. 19 July, 1894; 
1 $, July 1, 1902; IS,'' coll. on birch " May 11, 1901 (A. Busck) [U.S.N.M.] ; 
1 $, May 20, 1885 (Koebele Collection) [A.F.B.Coll.]. Without locality, but 
probably from the vicinity of Washington, D. C. : 5 S, 12 2 , " on black birch," 
some with cocoons, May 6 to May 11, 1885, March 24, 1884, January 11, 1884 
(C. V. Riley Coll.) [U.S.N.M.]. 

Virginia: Falls Church, 1 $,2 2, May 11, June, 1903 (August Busck) 
[U.S.N.M.]. 

New Jersey: New Lisbon, 3 $, 1 2, July 7, 1942 (E. P. Darlington) 
[A.N.S.P.]. 

Pennsylvania : Floradale, Adams County, 2 $ ,2 2 , with cocoons, July and 
August. 1917 [J. R. Eyer Coll.]. 

Ontario: Ottawa, 1 2, June 27, 1934 (C. H. Young) [C.N. Coll.] ; Bob- 
caygeon, 1 2, June 23 (J. McDunnough) [C.N. Coll.]. 

Ohio: Blue Creek, Adams County, 2 S, rearing record B.2282, on Betula 
nigra L. (river birch), imagoes July 18, July 22, 1958 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B. 
Coll.]. 

Kentucky : Along Triplett Creek, Morehead, Rowan County, rearing record 
B.2283 on Betula nigra L., larvae only, July 9, no imagoes reared. 

The following notes on the life history of this species are based on 
the material reared on Betula nigra L. in Adams County, Ohio. 

The egg is deposited on the underside of the leaf against a vein — 
usually a lateral vein — and is marked with the typical hexagonal sculp- 
turing. The very fine thread-like, irregularly winding mine, usually 
not over a centimeter in length, but sometimes 1.5 cm. long, is filled 
with blackish frass. Moulting cocoons, the first and second similar ex- 
cept for size, are spun on the upper side of the leaf of closely woven 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 147 

fine silk, so thin as to be almost transparent, with the larva curled 
within or the cast skin plainly visible as a whitish spot. External feed- 
ing" takes place commonly on the underside of the leaf. Mature larva 
pale green with reddish tinge on thoracic segments and head. Cocoon 
pale to brownish ocherous, with seven or eight ridges, of which five or 
six are well-defined; in several of the Pennsylvania examples, the 
ridges are somewhat diagonally placed, with resulting anastomosis and 
fusion. 

Larvae were collected on June 30 in first and second moulting co- 
coons ; the last instar larva feeds for only a few days before spinning ; 
first cocoon spun July 4. 

The food plant of the Washington specimens, labeled " black 
birch," is probably Betula nigra L. Betula nigra has sometimes been 
called " black birch " (see Little, Check List of Native and Naturalized 
Trees of the United States, 1953). 

Clemens' type is not in existence and our conception of the species 
is based on the series reared on "black birch." Busck (1903, I.e. ) 
states " In the U. S. National Museum is a large series bred from 
black birch and determined as this species. As it agrees with Clemens' 
description and very likely was compared with Clemens' type, this se- 
ries may properly be regarded as representing B. coronatella." 

In the fore wing (fig. 20) cubitus is obsolete beyond the cell, its 
course beyond this point merely indicated by a slight difference in the 
wing surface. Clemens (I.e., p. 108) noted this character under the 
generic description preceding the species description. 

The uniform ground color of the fore wings without darkening be- 
hind the raised scales (as in the related oak-feeding species), the black 
raised scales, black apical spot and black apical ciliary line forming the 
only dark marks, distinguish this species. The unusual position of the 
moulting cocoons — on the upper side of the leaf — is characteristic. 

(77) Bucculatrix canadensisella Chambers (Figs. 34, 176, 198, 199, 199a.) 

1875. Bucculatrix canadensisella Chambers, Canad. Ent. VII: 146. Type 2, 
"N. S." (? Nova Scotia) [U.S.N.M., Type No. 5775]. [A "type" 
also in M.C.Z.] 

1923. Bucculatrix canadensisella Forbes, Mem. 68, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. 
Sta., p. 158. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



148 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

1927. The Biology of the Birch Leaf Skeletonizer, Bucculatrix canadensisella, 
Chambers. Friend, Roger B., Conn. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 288. (A 
detailed treatment, with map of distribution and extensive bibliography.) 

Face whitish, more or less brownish tinged, tuft white, centrally brown ; eye- 
caps white, antennal stalk with narrow brown annulations. Thorax brown, 
tegulae white, the white sometimes spreading to cover all but a narrow mid- 
dorsal stripe. Base of wing white, the white color sometimes spreading out- 
wardly below fold, and rarely confluent with the white dorsal spot ; ground color 
of the fore wing dark brown, reddish brown, or sometimes paler fuscous and 
then more or less irrorated; from basal fifth of costa an oblique streak, broadest 
on costa, sometimes meeting the white oblique dorsal spot placed before middle 
of dorsum, but more often separated from it by ground color ; a patch of black 
raised scales borders the dorsal spot posteriorly; just before middle of costa and 
at three-fourths, oblique white streaks, the second the longer ; a little anterior to 
the second of these, a less oblique dorsal streak; near apex a white mark, widest 
on costa, curves to termen, enclosing the black apical spot ; a line of black-tipped 
scales curves around the black apical spot from the white costal mark to tornus, 
the scales less broadly black -tipped toward tornus ; cilia reddish tinged. Hind 
wings gray, the cilia brownish or reddish tinged. Legs brown outwardly, tarsal 
segments broadly brown-tipped. Abdomen silvery white beneath. 

Alar expanse 7 to 8.5 mm. 

Male genitalia (fig. 198). Harpes typical of the section, setose outwardly, 
terminating at apex in a small pointed process, a small basal process ; socii 
short, broad, setose, sinus between them shallow ; aedeagus stout, tapering to the 
acutely pointed tip ; vinculum a very narrow sclerotized band. Scales of scale 
sac of two kinds, slender and pointed and broadly oval. 

Female genitalia (figs. 199, 199a). Both dorsal and ventral posterior mar- 
gins of segment 7 fringed with long specialized scales; on the intersegmental 
membrane and ventral to ostium, a dense tuft of specialized scales on each side 
of mid-ventral line ; on sternite of segment 8, on each side of ostium, a large 
dense patch composed of several rows of specialized scales ; on anterior margin 
of tergite of 8, a row of very small scales, emarginate mid-dorsally ; margin of 
ostium sclerotized, with two outwardly directed acute processes ; signum ribs 
with long spines posteriorly, grading anteriorly to short acute spines. 

Some 150 specimens, including the types, and representing both 
sexes, have been examined in the collections of the United States Na- 
tional Museum, Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Cana- 
dian National Collection, in my own collection, and in other collections. 

Friend (I.e.) has mapped the distribution of this very common 
species, basing his map on records available to him at that time ( 1927). 
As shown on his map and referred to in the text, B. canadensisella oc- 
curs in the Canadian provinces from New Brunswick to British Colum- 
bia; to these records I add Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 149 

[C.N.Coll.]. His records include stations in the New England States, 
Xew York, Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota; it is also recorded 
[A.N.S.P.] from Hazleton, Pennsylvania " bred from Betula nigra " 
and from Xew Jersey, Whiteshog. The southern record from North 
Carolina is based on two females reared from Betula lit tea Michx. f., 
Eagle's Nest, altitude 5000 feet [A.F.B.Coll.]. In addition, mines 
have been observed, but no moths reared, on Betula lutea on the Appa- 
lachian Trail, near Newfound Gap, Great Smoky Mountains, Tennes- 
see at an altitude of approximately 5000 feet, and on the summit of 
Big Black Mountain, Kentucky, altitude 4000 feet ; that is, it may ap- 
parently be found along the higher summits of the Southern Appa- 
lachians. To these, I add a disjunct occurrence of the species from 
Colorado : Moraine Park, Rocky Mountain National Park, 2 <J , reared 
on Betula occidentalis Hook. [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

The mine is a very narrow and contorted linear mine, 15 to 20 mm. 
in length ; in the last two in stars the larvae feed externally, skeletoniz- 
ing the leaves, but leaving the upper epidermis intact. Feeding nor- 
mally takes place on the underside of the leaf; however, in the North 
Carolina and in the Colorado specimens, larvae fed on the upper sur- 
face of the leaf. Recorded food plants in the East include Betula popu- 
lifolia Marsh., B. papyrijera Marsh, (across Canada), B. lutea Michx. f., 
B. lenta L., B. nigra L. and the European B. alba L. ; in Colorado, B. 
occidentalis Hook. The brown cocoon is rather short and rounded at 
both ends, with five or six prominent ridges. There is apparently but 
one generation a year. The depredations of the larvae have been the 
subject of a number of economic papers. 

Bucculatrix canadensisella is allied to B. coronatella, agreeing with 
it in configuration of markings, but at once separated from that species 
by the dark brown or fuscous color of the fore wings. 

(78) Bucculatrix improvisa new species (Figs. 200, 200a, 201.) 

Face pale straw-colored, tuft pale ocherous, usually brown centrally ; eye- 
caps pale straw-colored, with a few brownish speckles, antennal stalk conspicu- 
ously annulate with dark brown. Thorax and fore wings golden brown or 
ocherous, the scales mostly tipped with dark brown, sometimes very narrowly ; 
the immediate base of wing paler ; a streak along fold sometimes orange-tinted ; 
at basal fourth, and separated from the costal margin by brown-tipped scales, is 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



150 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

a pale roundish spot nearly reaching the fold, this spot often more or less dusted 
with brown-tipped scales of the ground color, and sometimes obliterated; just 
before middle of costa, an oblique pale streak ; at two-thirds of costa, a second 
but narrower oblique pale streak, which ma}' meet, at a very obtuse angle or 
even lie in line with, a faint pale spot or streak at tornus ; between these two 
costal streaks the ground color is darkened ; a pale spot precedes an irregular 
group of black-tipped scales at apex, some of which project irregularly into the 
cilia and may touch a line of black-tipped scales opposite apex ; on middle of 
dorsum, a large patch of black or dark brown-tipped raised scales, with an ill- 
defined pale patch basad of it ; between the raised scales and the pale streak at 
tornus, the ground color is darkened, the scales sometimes broadly brown- or 
blackish-tipped; the area beyond the pale tornal streak is usually of a more uni- 
form golden ocherous color, and the slender scales projecting from it into the 
cilia of termen are pale brown-tipped, the outer line of these scales meeting the 
line of black-tipped scales opposite apex with a strong contrast. Hind wings 
and cilia fuscous, in the male the apex of the wing considerably darker and 
somewhat irrorated. Legs grayish straw-colored, the tarsal segments darker at 
tips. Abdomen dark fuscous above, pale beneath. 

Alar expanse 7 to 7.5 mm. 

Male genitalia (fig. 201). Harpes typical of the section, but very slender 
and parallel-sided, rounded at apices ; socii bent inwardly, thus appearing nar- 
row and acute, when flattened, broad and rounded ; aedeagus elongate, tapering 
to the acuminate apex; vinculum a very narrow band, posteriorly curving mid- 
ventrally. Scale sac large, nearly globular. 

Female genitalia (figs. 200, 200a). Fringing specialized scales of posterior 
margins of segment 7 short, only half as long as the normal scales overlying 
them ; on each side of ostium on sternite of 8, a large patch of specialized scales, 
made up of innumerable small, pointed, heavily pigmented scales ; at anterior 
margin of tergite of 8, a long double row of minute specialized scales; margins 
of ostium outcurved; bursa copulatrix very small, signum occupying one-half its 
length, ribs closely placed, each becoming attenuated and ending in a series of 
minute spines and knobs (fig. 200a). 

Type. — $ , Fort Ancient State Memorial, Warren County, Ohio, rearing rec- 
ord B.2284 (larva on Tilia americana L.), imago in early July (A. F. Braun) 
[A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Allotype. — 9, same data as the type. 

Paratypes. — 3 S , 3 2, same data as the type; 1 $ , imago July 9. 

Food plant, Tilia americana L. ; rarely mines occur on Tilia ne- 
glecta Spach and on T. heterophylla Vent. 

The egg is laid on the upper side of a leaf against a vein ; the mine 
is a fine thread lying at first alongside the vein for 8-10 mm., then 
sharply diverging from it for about 2 mm. ; on thin leaves the mine may 



ANNETTE V. BRAUN 151 

be 20-25 mm. long, with the section diverging from the vein 4-5 mm. 
long and sometimes winding. After leaving the mine, the leaf is eaten 
in patches, leaving the upper epidermis. Both first and second moult- 
ing cocoons white. The fifth instar larva is greenish red, with tuber- 
cles white and strongly contrasting. The cocoons of the early summer 
generation, spun by larvae becoming full-fed in mid-June, are to be 
found on the underside (sometimes on the upper side) of leaves of the 
food plant ; they are usually yellowish, anterior and posterior ends 
bright orange or reddish orange, and sides (in contact with the leaf) 
narrowly reddish orange, with the reddish color sometimes spreading 
over the whole anterior section of the cocoon ; occasionally cocoons are 
of a paler brownish ocherous color ; the even, regular ridges are few in 
number, not over six and sometimes fewer distinct. 

Two generations a year; larvae of the first generation, full-fed in 
June, produce imagoes in early July ; a second generation, with larvae 
in late August or early September, passes the winter in the pupal state. 

Bucculatrix improvisa may best be identified by genitalia, which are 
distinctive in both sexes ; in the male the slender harpes and acuminate 
aedeagus, in the female the large patches of minute specialized scales 
on sternite of 8 separate this species from others of the section. In 
wing markings, the pale spot (not the usual pale streak common to re- 
lated species) below costa at one-fourth the wing length, and the pale 
brown-tipped scales at tornus and termen, sometimes with a ragged 
effect, may be of some aid in identification. It somewhat resembles 
pale, lusterless examples of B. trifasciella. 

(79) Bucculatrix polytita new species (Figs. 202, 202a, 203.) 

Head pale buff, tuft with brown and ocherous scales intermixed; eye-caps 
pale, antennal stalk dark brown above, with narrow pale annulations, pale be- 
neath. Thorax pale buff, brown mid-dorsally. Base of fore wing pale buff, 
followed by a band of fuscous-tipped ocherous or dark fuscous scales ; this band 
is outwardly angulated on the fold and is followed by a broad pale buff band 
more or less distinctly outwardly angulated ; the middle third of the wing is 
occupied by a broad dark band, into which a pale oblique costal streak projects; 
this band is broadest on costa and its outer margin is angulated in the middle 
of the wing; in this band the scales vary from fuscous-tipped ocherous to black- 
ish fuscous, the darkest color usually in the outer costal area beyond the pale 
streak and below fold ; a patch of black raised scales borders its inner margin 
on dorsum ; the pale costal streak is nearer to the proximal than to the distal 
border of the dark band; the dark band is bordered outwardly by a pair of buff 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



152 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

streaks ; wing beyond this pair of streaks usually pale and when thus, the pair 
of streaks not sharply defined ; wing before apex creamy white, the white often 
encroached upon in darker specimens by fuscous-tipped scales ; a few black 
scales form an apical spot ; opposite it in the cilia a very short line of black 
scales, which only in the darkest specimens is continued as a faint line toward 
tornus ; cilia whitish to reddish ocherous. Hind wings varying from whitish 
ocherous in females to dark fuscous in the darkest males. Legs pale buff, tips 
of tarsal segments darker. Abdomen buff (female) to silvery gray (male) be- 
neath, brownish ocherous (female) to dark fuscous (male) above. 

Alar expanse 7 to 7.5 mm. 

Male genitalia (fig. 203). Harpes typical of the section, setose outwardly, 
with broad evenly rounded apex, and basal process ; socii short, broad, sinus be- 
tween them shallow, some long setae among the short setae ; anellus with strongly 
sclerotized lateral arms ; aedeagus stout, slightly bulging before tapering to the 
acute apex; vinculum a very narrow sclerotized band. Scale sac large, with 
long scales. 

Female genitalia (figs. 202, 202a). Dorsal posterior margin of segment 7 
fringed with short specialized scales, its ventral posterior margin, except mid- 
ventrally, fringed with specialized scales and at the lateral margin of the ster- 
num a tuft of long slender scales ; on the intersegmental membrane, ventral to 
ostium, a half circle of specialized, rather broad scales ; on each side of ostium 
on sternite of 8, a large patch of specialized scales, each composed of an anterior 
half of pale scales, overlying the bases of a dark-pigmented group of slender 
scales ; on the anterior margin of tergite of 8, a short line of very small dark 
specialized scales ; margin of ostium sinuate ; signum the usual ring of spined 
ribs, ventrally with an occasional short rib lying between the anterior ends of 
two long ribs, spining irregular (fig. 202a). 

Type. — $, Bobcaygeon, Ontario, 17. VI. '31, " swept from Tilia " (J. McDun- 
nough) [C.N.Coll., Type No. 7176]. 

Allotype,— 2, Bobcaygeon, Ontario, 17.VI.'31 (J. McDunnough) [C.N.Coll., 
Type No. 7176]. 

Paratypes. — 1 S , 3 2, Bobcaygeon, Ontario, June 17 to June 29 (J. Mc- 
Dunnough) [C.N.Coll.]; 5 2, Tweed, Ontario, 6.VII.1944, "on soft maple" 
(G. S. Walley) [C.N.Coll.]; 1 2, Maitland, Ontario, 30.VI.'31 (L. J. Milne) 
[C.N.Coll.]; 2 $, Pt. Pelee, Ontario, 17.VI.1927 (F. P. Ide) [C.N.Coll.]; 1 S, 
Sparrow Lake, Ontario, July 12, 1926 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.] ; 1 3, 2 2, 
Hull, Quebec. 20.VI.1955 (T. N. Freeman and G. G. Lewis) [C.N.Coll.]; 
1 $, Dechenes. Quebec, 23.VI.1933 (G. S. Walley) [C.N.Coll.]. 

Food plant not known with certainty ; the records " swept from 
Tilia " an " on soft maple " are not conclusive. Probably either one of 
these may prove to be the food plant. 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 153 

The distinctive characteristics of the wing markings of this species 
are the buff color of the pale markings, the broad pale band near base, 
the dark median area of the wing usually contrasting with the pale 
outer third, and especially the position of the pale oblique costal streak, 
which is noticeably nearer to the broad pale buff band than it is to the 
pale costal streak bordering the dark median area distally. In dark 
specimens (lacking the contrast between median and apical areas) the 
last is the best diagnostic character. In pale specimens, with expansion 
of pale areas, this streak may be nearly confluent with the pale band. 
Genitalia are distinctive ; in the male the broad even curve of the apex 
of harpe separates this species from all allied species ; in the female the 
two kinds of scales forming the specialized scale patches lateral to 
ostium, and the slender scales at the lateral margins of sternum of seg- 
ment 7 are diagnostic. 

(80) Bucculatrix luteella Chambers (Figs. 207, 207a, 207b, 208, 208a.) 

1873. Bucculatrix luteella Chambers, Canad. Ent. V: 151. Type 2, Kentucky 
[U.S.N.M., Type No. 520]. In Museum of Comparative Zoology, is a 
series of specimens, all marked type, of which only a few are B. lute- 
ella, the others are B. packardclla. A male " Type " in the Academy 
of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia represents this species. 

1879. Bucculatrix luteella Chambers, Canad. Ent. XI : 93. 

1923. Bucculatrix luteella Braun, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. XLIX : 357. 

1923. Bucculatrix luteella Forbes, Mem. 68, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta., p. 
156. 

Head white, tuft white, with a few yellow hairs in darker specimens ; eye- 
caps white, antennal stalk white, with distinct brown annulations, but in pale 
females with scarcely an indication of annulations. Thorax and fore wings 
creamy white or pale yellow ; the wing color shades to pale orange in the middle 
of the wing, there forming the inner margin of an oblique costal streak of the 
pale ground color, which blends with the pale ground color below fold ; on mid- 
dle of dorsum a patch of dark brown raised scales, variable in size and some- 
times entirely absent; beyond the oblique costal streak, the deeper color of the 
costal half of the wing borders a second pale streak which passes obliquely 
across the wing to termen ; in pale specimens these two oblique streaks are 
scarcely differentiated ; in darker specimens some of the orange scales are mi- 
nutely dark-tipped ; in the apical area, the scales are creamy white, yellow and 
pale orange intermixed ; no apical spot, no ciliary line, except that in darker 
males there may be a slight deepening of color at the extreme tips of a few of 
the scales projecting into the cilia; cilia concolorous with the pale ground color. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



154 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Hind wings varying from yellowish white in some females, to pale fuscous in 
male. Legs creamy white. Abdomen creamy white beneath, with fuscous shad- 
ing above. 

Alar expanse 5 to 6 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 207, 207a, 207b). Harpes typical of the section, short 
and broad, with evenly rounded apex, setose, not attaining socii, which project 
well beyond them ; socii elongate, sinus between them deep ; anellus a sclerotized 
ring; aedeagus long, bent beyond anellus and thence attenuated to the acute 
apex ; vinculum largely membranous, sclerotized only along its very obtusely 
angulated anterior margin. Scale sac small, elongate, scales long and slender 
(fig. 207b). 

Female genitalia (figs. 208, 208a). Posterior margins of segment 7 fringed 
with long specialized scales dorsally (omitted in figure) and ventrally except 
mid-ventrally ; on intersegmental membrane near posterior margin of the seventh 
sternite, and posterior to ostium, a pair of small specialized scale tufts ; ostium 
with pouch-like lateral expansion ; ductus bursae sclerotized in segment 7, ex- 
panded near bursa copulatrix nearly to width of bursa ; signum near posterior 
end of bursa, signum ribs with short, basally broad, abruptly pointed, appressed 
spines (fig. 208a). 

Specimens examined. — 16 S, 8 2, and types at the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, sex not determined. 

Kentucky: 2 type [U.S.N. M.] ; type series [M.C.Z.] ; S "type" [A.N.S.P.] ; 
1 2, labeled in Chambers' handwriting [U.S.N.M.] ; Mammoth Cave, 1 2, Sep- 
tember 9, 1940 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.] ; 1 (wings only) [A.N.S.P.]. 

Ohio: Cincinnati, 1 $ , 1 2, rearing record B.398, larvae on Ouercns alba 
L., imagoes August 4 and August 8, 1908; 5 $, May 27, 1911; 1 2, September 
1, 1920 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Iowa: Sioux City, 2 $, 1939 (C. N. Ainslie) [U.S.N.M.]. 

New Jersey: New Lisbon, 1 S, June 13, 1938, "bark oak," 1 2, " on white 
oak leaf," July 13, 1934 ( E. P. Darlington) [A.N.S.P.]. 

Pennsylvania : Roxboro, 1 (without antennae or abdomen), V-26 (F. Haim- 
bach) [A.N.S.P.]. 

District of Columbia: Washington, 1 2, 10/5,85 [U.S.N.M.]; 1 8, with 
cocoon on fragment of oak leaf, 21/7,84, "oak" [U.S.N.M.]. 

North Carolina : Highlands, Macon County, 3865 feet, 5 $ , August 1 to 
September 3, collected as part of a project sponsored by the American Philo- 
sophical Society (R. W. Hodges) [Cornell U.]. 

South Carolina : Cherry Hill Recreation Area, Rte. 107, Oconee Co., 2000 
feet, 1 2, collected as part of a project sponsored by the American Philosophi- 
cal Society (R. W. Hodges) [Cornell U.]. 

Bucculatrix lutcclla probably feeds on several species of oaks of the 
white oak group; Quercus alba L. is the food plant of the Ohio reared 



ANNETTE K. BRAUN 155 

specimens; the food plant of the Iowa specimens is probably Q. macro- 
carpa Michx. Cocoon similar to that of packardella, but with two or 
three fewer ridges. 

The configuration of wing markings is the same as in packardella, 
from which it is easily distinguished by the absence of apical spot and 
ciliarv line. In genitalia of both sexes it differs from all other de- 
scribed species. 

(81) Bucculatrix recognita new species (Figs. 204, 204;i, 205, 205a, 206.) 

1923. Bucculatrix litigiosella Forbes (not Zeller), Mem. 68, Cornell Univ. Agric. 
Exp. Sta., p. 157. 

Head creamy white, tuft with a greater or less admixture of ocherous or 
dark brown hairs; eye-caps creamy white, conspicuously dotted with brown- 
tipped scales, antennal stalk annulate, each segment shading from pale buff 
through brownish ocherous to dark brown at tip, and an occasional paler seg- 
ment near apex of antenna, antennal notch deep. Thorax including tegulae pale 
yellow, conspicuously dotted with brown-tipped scales or sometimes minutely 
dark-dotted. Fore wings yellow to orange-ocherous (sometimes cream-colored), 
the scales more or less broadly tipped with dark brown, thus producing in darker 
specimens the appearance of a brownish dusted or irrorated ground color ; the 
pale markings are formed by streaks of the pale ground color, which are how- 
ever sometimes slightly dusted ; three very oblique parallel pale costal streaks 
extend to the middle of the wing, the first at basal fifth is narrowly separated 
from the costa by the dusted ground color, the third is the best defined, the 
scales at its inner margin more deeply brown-tipped ; a short oblique streak from 
dorsum, often ill-defined or its position indicated only by the dark-tipped scales 
margining it toward base, meets the third costal streak at an acute angle (about 
60°) ; a patch of black raised scales just within the middle of the dorsal margin 
followed by scattered black-tipped scales, some of which are raised ; apical area 
sometimes less dusted by dark-tipped scales, thus contrasting; just before apex 
a whitish triangular spot partly in the cilia ; a small irregular black apical spot 
from which a faint line of dark-tipped scales extends along termen, both spot 
and line sometimes lacking; a second more conspicuous line in the middle of the 
whitish cilia curves around apex from the whitish triangular spot to tornus. 
Hind wings and cilia yellowish white to pale silvery gray. Legs pale yellow, 
the white hind tarsal segments black-tipped. Abdomen whitish, with faint fus- 
cous shading. 

Alar expanse 6 to 7.5 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 204. 204a). Harpes typical of the section, truncate, 
setose outwardly ; socii rounded, incurved and bent ventrad, with long setae ; 
anellus not differentiated as a definitive structure, but the membrane minutely 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



156 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

setose ; aedeagus long, stout, abruptly curving to apex, aperture margined later- 
ally by toothed flaps, teeth varying in number; cornuti, a group of three strong 
teeth ; vinculum with anterior lobe. Scale sac absent. 

Female genitalia (figs. 205, 205a, 206). Posterior margins of segment 7 
fringed with long pointed specialized scales ; a sclerotized band across the pos- 
terior dorsal margin of ostium, curving around ostium and terminating in two 
points, sclerotization prolonged posteriorly into a two-lobed process ; ostium and 
ductus bursae in segment 7 strongly sclerotized, margin of ostium and ductus 
bursae immediately before ostium armed with teeth ; signum ribs strongly sclero- 
tized and bearing short appressed teeth, between the ribs lines of fine teeth, an- 
terior to these, groups of microscopic teeth, arranged in more or less transverse 
rows (fig. 205a). 

Type. — 6 , with cocoon, Ottawa, Ontario, 5.VII.1955, " Quercus macrocarpa " 
(G. G. Lewis) [C.N.Coll., Type No. 7198]. 

Allotype— 9, Ottawa, Ontario, July 23, 1934 (C. H. Young) [C.N.Coll., 
Type No. 7198]. 

Paratypes.— l 6,19, with cocoons, Ottawa, Ontario, 8. VII, 10.VII.1955, 
"Quercus macrocarpa" (G. G. Lewis) [C.N.Coll.]; 1 9, Toronto, Ontario, 
25.5.15 [Cornell U.] ; 1 6, Cohasset, Massachusetts, June 8.07 (Owen Bryant 
Collector) [J. R. Eyer Coll.] ; 1 9, Waltham, Massachusetts, Sept. 22 (Morgan 
Hebard) [A.N.S.P.] ; 1 9, with cocoon on fragment of oak leaf, Kirkwood, 
Missouri (probably), " Bucculatrix on oak," 4/23.85 (284), " From Miss Murt- 
feldt " [U.S.N.M.] ; 1 9 , no locality, but probably Missouri, "on white oak," 
8/2.86, cocoon accompanying (Murtfeldt Coll.) [Cornell U.] ; 1 6, Essex Co., 
N. J., V.24 (W. D. Kearfott) [U.S.N.M.] ; 1 6, with cocoons on fragments of 
oak leaves, Washington, D. C, "AB114, iss. July 29-9" [U.S.N. M. ] ; 13 6, 
18 9 , Highlands, Macon Co., North Carolina, 3865 feet, August 3 to September 
3, 1958, collected as part of a project sponsored by the American Philosophical 
Society ( R. W. Hodges) [Cornell U.] ; 3 6,6 9, Cherry Hill Recreation Area, 
Rte. 107, Oconee Co., South Carolina, 2000 feet, August 11 to September 6, 
1958, collected as part of a project sponsored by the American Philosophical 
Society (R. W. Hodges) [Cornell U.]. 

The food plant of the Ottawa series is Quercus macrocarpa Michx. ; 
where this oak is not native, other species of the white oak group re- 
place it as a food plant. There are no data on the mining stages. The 
cocoon is pale yellow, with eight or nine ridges ; except for the fewer 
ridges and pale yellow color, it resembles that of B. packardclla Cham- 
bers. 

When the ground color of the fore wings is a bright yellow or 
orange-ocherous, and the pale markings are distinctly yellow, the spe- 
cies can be recognized easily. Specimens in which the clear yellow of 



ANNETTE F. BRA UN 157 

ground color and markings is obscured by dark dusting", if merely 
slightly abraded in the basal area of the wing, can scarcely be differ- 
entiated from packardelldj except by genitalia. 

Genitalia slides of type and allotype, and slides of the Missouri, 
Washington, D. C, North Carolina, and Cohasset, Massachusetts 
specimens demonstrate the specific identity of the series. The unusual 
genitalia separate this widely distributed species from all others. 

It is understandable that this species should have been identified as 
litigiosella Zeller, as Zeller's description of litigiosella agrees with the 
more densely dusted specimens of recognita. The genitalia of the two 
species are quite different. The specimen labeled litigiosella by Forbes 
and referred to on page 157 of Memoir 68, Cornell University Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station is the specimen from the Murtfeldt Col- 
lection reared on white oak (probably from Missouri) ; it is included 
among the paratypes of recognita. 

(82) Bucculatrix paroptila new species (Figs. 209, 210.) 

Face pale stramineous, tuft ocherous, with brown hairs centrally ; eye-caps 
stramineous, shading to reddish ocherous outwardly, antennal stalk dark brown, 
with narrow paler annulations. Thorax ocherous or golden brown, extreme 
base of fore wing ocherous. Fore wings golden brown, each scale tipped with 
darker brown, giving the wing a finely speckled appearance ; markings brilliant 
silvery; from basal fifth of costa, an oblique bar to fold, and on dorsal margin 
opposite its apex and often nearly in contact with it, a brilliant silvery spot, fol- 
lowed immediately by a patch of black raised scales ; a second, less oblique and 
shorter bar from middle of costa ; at two-thirds the wing length, a wedge-shaped 
perpendicular silvery mark, and opposite it on dorsum a somewhat narrower sil- 
very mark, also perpendicular to margin ; a black apical spot, margined toward 
base by silvery scales; from the pale costal cilia just before apex, a line of black- 
tipped scales extends around apex through the cilia to tornus. Hind wings and 
cilia dark gray-brown, darker than the fore wings. Legs dull ocherous, more or 
less shaded with dark fuscous. Abdomen fuscous above, silvery gray beneath. 

Alar expanse 6 to 7 mm. 

Male genitalia (fig. 209). Harpes typical of the section, long setose, apex 
evenly rounded, a small basal process ; socii tapering and curving toward mid- 
dorsal line, setose ; aedeagus widest beyond middle and thence tapering to acute 
apex ; vinculum a slender thread. Scale sac large, subglobose, scales of two 
kinds, very small dark scales and long, irregularly pigmented scales. 

Female genitalia (fig. 210). Posterior dorsal margin of segment 7 fringed 
with long specialized scales, posterior ventral margin with a short row of spe- 
cialized scales each side of mid-ventral line; on intersegmental membrane, an 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC., 18. 



158 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

arc of short broad specialized scales ; ostium flared, lateral margins prolonged 
into acute curved points, ventral margin with two short pointed processes; sig- 
num the typical ring of spined ribs, spines long and slender. 

Type.— S, Augusta, Maine, July 4, 1947 (A. E. Brower) [U.S.N.M., Type 
No. 65034]. 

Allotype.— 2. Bar Harbor, Maine. July 11. 1937 (A. E. Brower) [U.S.N.M.]. 

Paratypes. — 1 $ , 1 2 , Augusta, Maine, June 27, 1942, " on Comptonia 
asplenifolia," [genitalia slides from these paratypes] ; 1 $ , Augusta, Maine, 
June 30 ; 3 $ , 1 2 , Bar Harbor, Maine, July 2 to July 8 ; 1 2 , Bar Harbor, 
Maine, July 4, ''swept from Myrica gale" (A. E. Brower) [A. E. Brower 
Coll.]; 3 $, Barnstable, Massachusetts, June 26 to July 6 (C. P. Kimball) 
[C. P. Kimball Coll.]; 1 $, Merivale, Ontario, 22.VI.1933 (G. S. Walley) 
[C.N. Coll.]; 1 2, White Pt. Bch., Queens Co., Nova Scotia, 13.VII.1934 (J. 
McDunnough) [C.N. Coll.]. 

In addition to the type series, there are twelve specimens, £ and 2 , 
from the Brower and Kimball collections, not in good enough condition 
to be included in the type series, but recognizable if associated with 
specimens in better condition. 

There is little doubt that Comptonia asplenifolia (C. peregrina (L. ) 
Coult. ), and Myrica gale L. are the food plants of this species; the 
imagoes of species of Bucculatrix commonly rest on leaves of the food 
plant. 

Bucculatrix paroptila may be recognized by the uniform brown 
speckling of the fore wings, with lustrous silvery marks, of which the 
pair at two-thirds the wing length are perpendicular to the wing mar- 
gins, and by the dark hind wings. 

(83) Bucculatrix fugitans Braun (Figs. 18, 55, 55a, 55b, 55c, 211, 211a, 212.) 

1930. Bucculatrix fugitans Braun, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. LVI : 15. Type $, 
Mineral Springs, Adams County, Ohio [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Face pale ocherous, tuft fulvous ; eye-caps very small, stramineous, shading 
to fulvous, antennal stalk dark fuscous in male, with narrow pale annulations in 
the outer half only, fulvous near base in female, shading to dark fuscous and 
annulate in outer half. Thorax and extreme base of fore wing fulvous. Ground 
color of the fore wing (fig. 18) dark brown, almost black, with lustrous pale 
golden marks ; a moderately broad, straight or slightly curved pale golden fascia 
at one-fourth, followed just within the dorsal margin by a large patch of black 
raised scales ; a pale golden oblique spot near middle of costa, and another at 
three-fourths; an oblique pale golden spot before tornus; a small pale golden 
transverse mark at apex ; marginal line of blackish scales sharply contrasting 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 159 

with the pale fulvous cilia. Hind wings and cilia fuscous, darker in males. 
Legs dark fuscous above, hind tarsal segments pale at base, hairs of hind tibiae 
mingled fuscous and pale fulvous. Abdomen stramineous beneath, dark fuscous 
above. 

Alar expanse 6 to 7 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 211, 211a). Harpes typical of the section, apex evenly 
rounded, setose; socii short, broad, setose; aedeagus stout, abruptly tapering 
near apex to the acute dorsally directed tip; vinculum a slender thread. Scale 
sac very large, subglobose, in diameter nearly equalling the length of segment 2; 
scales slender. 

Female genitalia (fig. 212). Apophyses short; posterior margins of segment 
7 fringed with specialized scales, those on the dorsal margin short, those on the 
ventral margin long, with the longest scales mid-ventrally ; on the intersegmental 
membrane ventral to ostium, a curved row of short specialized scales ; on dorsal 
anterior margin of segment 8, a short row of very small specialized scales ; dor- 
sal margin of ostium sclerotized and produced laterally into sharp points ; ductus 
bursae long, bursa copulatrix extending from segment 5 into segment 2, with 
the signum in segments 3 and 4; signum a ring transversely placed, signum ribs 
armed on each side with short sharp spines as in callistricha (see fig. 213a). 

Specimens examined. — 5 (5,6$. 

Ohio: Mineral Springs, Adams County, S type, 4 ? paratypes, rearing rec- 
ord B.1352, from larvae on Corylus americana Walt., imagoes July 20 to 23 
(paratypes), July 30 (type), 1928; Pond Lick, Scioto County, 2 $ ,2 ?, rearing 
record B.2180 (on Corylus americana) , imagoes July 16 to July 22, 1953 (A. F. 
Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Massachusetts: Framingham, 1 $, VI. 1.07 ( C. A. Frost) [A. E. B rower 
Coll.]. 

Maine: Oxbow, 1 $ (in poor condition), VI. 6.41 [A. E. Brower Coll.]. 

In addition to Corylus americana Walt., the food plant in the New 
England localities may be Corylus cornuta Marsh. The egg is depos- 
ited on the upper side of the leaf, over the midrib or on one of the prin- 
cipal lateral veins. The very fine linear mine (fig. 55a) is much con- 
torted, often bent back on itself. The thin, but dense papery moulting 
cocoons are spun on the underside at the margin of the leaf. After 
leaving the first moulting cocoon (i.e. in the fourth instar) the larva 
eats at first one or two very minute patches of leaf in which the upper 
epidermis is left intact; in all subsequent feeding, the entire leaf sub- 
stance is consumed; in the last instar, the holes form elongate patches, 
divided by fine lines only (fig. 55b). The mature larva is green, shad- 
ing to reddish toward the head, setae very minute. The cocoon (fig. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



160 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

55c) is reddish brown, short and stout, with eight ridges, which are 
sometimes ill-defined. 

By the last week of June, most of the larvae have left the mines and 
are feeding externally. Feeding is completed early in July, with emer- 
gence of the imagoes during the latter part of July. 

No larvae of a generation overwintering in the pupal state have 
thus far been discovered; such a generation is indicated by the early 
June dates of the Massachusetts and Maine specimens. Considerable 
time may elapse between deposition of eggs and the discovery of feed- 
ing larvae on the leaves ; such larvae ( in Ohio ) should probably be 
looked for in October. Thus far, any larvae collected in late July, in 
August, and in early September have proved to be the following species, 
B. callistricha new species. 

(84) Bucculatrix callistricha new species 

(Figs. 17. 33, 37. 213. 213a, 214. 214a.) 

Face silvery white, tuft reddish brown, on vertex centrally dark brown ; eye- 
caps silvery white, antennal stalk dark fuscous, apical 8 or 10 segments silvery 
white. Thorax dark brown, tegulae silvery white. Fore wings (fig. 17) dark 
brown, almost black, with brilliant silver)- marks ; a short silvery dash in fold 
at base; base of dorsal margin narrowly silvery; from basal fourth of costa an 
oblique silvery streak to middle of wing; a little posterior to the costal streak, an 
oblique silvery streak from dorsum to fold, followed by a patch of black raised 
scales, the two streaks not meeting; an oblique silvery streak from middle of 
costa, and another more slender streak from three-fourths of costa ; on dorsum 
before tornus a triangular silvery spot, anterior to the third costal streak ; a 
transverse silvery mark immediately before apex, and following it at the extreme 
apex, a small group of black scales which project slightly into the cilia beyond 
the line of black-tipped scales which extend from costa around apex to tornus ; 
cilia fulvous, becoming fuscous toward tornus. Hind wings and cilia dark fus- 
cous, with slight reddish tinge. Fore and middle legs dark fuscous, hind legs 
silvery outwardly, tibiae with fuscous hairs, tips of tarsal segments pale. Under- 
side of abdomen silvery gray, fuscous above in male, paler in female with anal 
tuft pale ocherous. 

Alar expanse 7 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 214, 214a). Harpes typical of the section, setose on 
outer surface, with apical margin indistinctly angled by a slight projection, 
basal process present; socii slightly incurved, setose, tegumen projecting in a 
small median lobe; aedeagus short, stout, abruptly pointed, its tip directed dorsad; 
vinculum a very narrow band. Scale sac (fig. 214a) small (compare with that 
of fugitans, fig. 211a, drawn to the same scale). 



ANNETTE F. BRAIN 161 

Female genitalia (figs. 213, 213a). Apophyses long; posterior margins of 
segment 7 fringed with long specialized scales ; on intersegmental membrane 
ventral to ostium, an arc of closely placed short specialized scales ; on dorsal 
anterior margin of segment 8, a very short row of small specialized scales ; 
dorsal margin of ostium sclerotized and produced laterally into long acuminate 
points ; ductus bursae very short, entering bursa copulatrix near anterior margin 
of segment 7; bursa extending to anterior margin of segment 3; signum in seg- 
ment 6, ribs with paired short spines, longer and more strongly sclerotized to- 
ward anterior end. 

Type. — 6, Beaver Pond, Adams County, Ohio, rearing record B.2193 (on 
leaves of Corylus americana Walt.), imago April 30, 1954 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B. 
Coll.]. 

Allotype. — 9 , same data as the type. 

Paratypes. — 3<$ ,52, same data as the type, except dates of emergence April 
25 to May 3 ; 1 2 , Pond Lick, Scioto County, Ohio, rearing record B.2145, 
imago May 8, 1951 [A.F.B. Coll.] ; 6 <$ , 3 9, east of London, Laurel County, 
Kentucky, rearing record B.1486, imagoes May 8 to May 19, 1935 [A.F.B. Coll.] ; 
2 3,7 2, Rocky Arbor Roadside Park, Juneau County, Wisconsin, rearing rec- 
ord B.2173 (on leaves of Corylus cornuta Marsh.), imagoes April 3 to May 12, 
1953 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.] ; 1 3, Lac Saguay, Quebec, 9.VI.1941 (G. S. 
Walley) [C.N.Coll.] ; 1 2. Dechenes, Quebec, 23.VI.1933 (G. S. Walley) [C.N. 
Coll.]. 

The type series, except the two flown specimens from Quebec, was 
reared on leaves of Corylus americana Walt, and C. cornuta Marsh. 
The egg (fig. 37) is placed on the upper side of the leaf over a vein as 
in B. fugitans; it is broadly oval in outline, tapering but very slightly 
to the micropylar end and is marked with minute hexagonal reticula- 
tions. The very slender thread-like mines, similar to those of B. fugi- 
tans, but longer, are not distinguishable in the field from those of fugi- 
tans except by the dates when they are occupied by mining larvae. 
Feeding habits are identical with those of B. fugitans; the mature larva, 
though similarly colored, is more hairy. Cocoon similar to that of B. 
fugitans. 

The larvae are actively feeding in the mines in the latter part of 
July; at this time the leaf immediately adjacent to the early part of the 
mine is blackened, suggesting that there has been a considerable time 
interval between feeding in the early and late parts of the mine, and 
that feeding has recently been resumed. The feeding period is spread 
over a month or six weeks, as observed for the Ohio specimens ; the 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



162 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

earliest date of cocoon spinning was August 4 ; feeding larvae have 
been collected as late as September 6. The larvae of the Wisconsin 
series were collected September 4 ; September 7 the date of the first co- 
coon. The imagoes emerge in late April and early May of the follow- 
ing year. The species is apparently single-brooded. 

Biicadatrix callistricha is separated from the allied B. fugitans by 
the silvery white tegulae and silvery marks at base of fore wing, the 
pair of oblique silvery streaks at basal fourth, in contrast to the trans- 
verse complete fascia of fugitans. Genitalia of the two species differ 
only in minor details. 

(85) Bucculatrix eugrapha new species (Figs. 177. 215.) 

Face pale stramineous, tuft brown with pale stramineous hairs laterally ; eye- 
caps pale stramineous, antennal stalk gray above, paler beneath. Fore wing 
brown, with lusterless whitish marks ; base of wing especially below the fold, 
white with faint ocherous tinge ; at one-fourth of costa an oblique whitish streak, 
and opposite its apex just before middle of dorsum, a whitish spot reaching fold 
is margined behind by a few black raised scales; just before middle of costa, a 
second oblique pale costal streak; at three-fourths of costa, a nearly perpendicu- 
lar whitish streak; just before tornus on dorsal margin a slightly oblique whitish 
streak; at extreme apex a minute black spot, and opposite apex and projecting 
into the cilia, a short line of black-tipped ocherous scales ; scales on costa before 
apex and along termen project irregularly into the cilia; cilia pale brownish 
fuscous. Hind wings and cilia fuscous. Legs gray, tarsal segments paler at 
bases. 

Alar expanse 8 mm. 

Male genitalia (fig. 215). Harpes typical of the section, median setae long, 
grading to short and more closely placed setae around apical margin, basal proc- 
ess present; socii broad, setae short; anellus with strongly sclerotized lateral 
arms ; aedeagus tapering to the acute dorsally directed tip, before its apex a thin 
membranous bilobed ventral flap ; vinculum weakly sclerotized, its anterior mar- 
gin retuse, lateral angles with strongly sclerotized points ; posterior margin of 
segment 8 fringed with long hair-like scales, the intersegmental membrane be- 
tween it and the genitalia strongly sclerotized. Scale sac (fig. 177) with long 
slender scales. 

Type.— S, Tweed, Ontario, 7.VII.44 (G. S. Walley) [C.N. Coll., Type No. 
7179]. 

Only the male type is known. 

Food plant and early stages unknown. 



ANNETTE K. BRA IN 163 

Bucculatrix eugrapha is easily separated by markings from all other 
species of the section. In genitalia, distinguishing characteristics are 
present in the aedeagus and vinculum. 

(86) Bucculatrix cerina new species (Figs. 216, 216a. 216b.) 

Face stramineous, tuft stramineous, on vertex with mingled ocherous and 
brown hairs; eye-caps and antennal stalk stramineous, the stalk with pale brown 
annulations. Thorax stramineous, shaded with ocherous. Fore wings pale stra- 
mineous, with a decided yellowish cast and lightly dusted with ocherous-tipped 
scales ; markings formed by ocherous oblique transverse bands, in which some 
of the scales are brown-tipped ; the first of these lies almost at base, the second 
arises before the middle of costa and bears on its inner margin on the fold a 
small patch of brown raised scales, the third passes across the wing from three- 
fifths of costa to tornus; separating the third ocherous oblique band from the 
ocherous apical area is an oblique band of ground color from costa to termen, 
extreme apex pale; cilia stramineous, with irregularly projecting ocherous 
scales but without defined ciliary line. Hind wings and cilia pale stramineous. 
Legs and underside of body pale stramineous, abdomen above faintly fuscous 
shaded. 

Alar expanse 5.5 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 216, 216a, 216b). Harpes in general typical of the 
section, but modified in shape, basally broad with heavy setae, contracting at 
middle, thence slender and parallel-sided, with shorter fine setae; socii small, 
narrowly oval, sparingly setose, their tips convergent; anellus broad, inverted 
bowl-shaped ; aedeagus typical of the section, tapering to the acute apex ; vincu- 
lum broad, evenly rounded. Scale sac (fig. 216b) very elongate, scales very 
long and slender. 

Type. — $, Siesta Key, Sarasota County, Florida, January 5, 1951 (C. P. 
Kimball) [A.N.S.P., Type No. 7816]. 

Paratypc.— S, Key Vaca, Monroe County, Florida, XI.13.1952 (C. P. Kim- 
ball) [A.N.S.P.]. 

Food plant and early stages unknown. 

Although neither type nor paratype is in perfect condition, the 
yellow aspect of this species is characteristic. In genitalia, B. cerina is 
distinct from all other described species. 

(87) Bucculatrix copeuta Meyrick (Figs. 8, 217, 218.) 

1919. Bucculatrix copeuta Meyrick, Exot. Microlep. II: 288. Types, $, 2. 
Toronto, Ontario [B.M.]. 

Head shining white, tuft rarely with a few ocherous-tipped scales ; eye-caps 
large, lustrous white, antennal stalk whitish, faintly marked above with pale gray 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



164 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

dots. Thorax white. Fore wings lustrous white, with pale ocherous, lightly 
dusted costal and dorsal streaks (fig. 8) ; the first very oblique costal streak 
from before middle of costa extends to the middle of the wing; the second from 
middle of costa extends obliquely to beyond the middle of the wing; from middle 
of dorsum a less distinct oblique streak (sometimes absent) curves posteriorly 
and as an attenuated line follows the fold, sometimes meeting the apex of the 
second costal streak ; a broader band crosses the wing irregularly from apical 
fourth to termen, and is continued along costa and termen by fainter dusting, 
thus enclosing a pure white area, within which lies the black apical dot ; oppo- 
site the apical dot, a short line of black scales at base of cilia, not always sepa- 
rated from the apical dot, and a second short line in the cilia, thus forming a 
series of three black marks at apex. Hind wings pale silvery gray, cilia white. 
Legs and underside of body silvery white. 

Alar expanse 6.5 to 7 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 217, 217a). Harpe with an inner lobe, acute near its 
apex and margined with curved setae; socii prolonged into pointed tips, bearing 
minute setae on their inner margins near tip, elsewhere long setose ; anellus 
broad, lateral margins narrowly sclerotized ; aedeagus stout, aperture appearing 
hooded, apex curving dorsad to the pointed tip ; cornuti, two weakly sclerotized 
teeth ; vinculum narrow, mid-ventrally shortly produced. Scale sac large, glo- 
bose, outer scales broad, inner linear. 

Female genitalia (figs. 218, 218a). On the intersegmental membrane, ven- 
tral to ostium, a broad arch of specialized scales, the inner rows of scales near 
its free ends minute, outer long, grading to a single row of short scales mid- 
ventrally ; ostium abruptly wide ; dorsad of ostium a sclerotized plate prolonged 
posteriorly ; ductus bursae sclerotized nearly to segment 6 ; signum faint, the 
ring open dorsally, each rib usually with one large strongly sclerotized section, 
followed by sections terminating in one to several short sharp spines (fig. 218a). 

Specimens examined. — 3 $ , 3 2 . 

Ontario: Sparrow Lake, 2 6,2 2, July 12 to July 17, 1926 (A. F. Braun) 
[A.F.B.Coll.] ; Waubamic, Parry Sound, 1 2, June 25 (H. S. Parish) [Cor- 
nell U.]. 

Maine: Augusta, 1 <? , " bred ex plum, emgd May 29, 1945 " (A. E. Brower) 
[A. E. Brower Coll.]. 

Brower records it from " plum ", but with no data on the early- 
stages or cocoon. Pin-cherry, (Prunus pensylvanica L.f. ), is abun- 
dant in the area at Sparrow Lake, Ontario, where the four specimens 
recorded above were collected and may possibly be its food plant there. 

In the original description, Meyrick makes no mention of a dorsal 
streak. In a letter dated November 12, 1927, in reply to mine noting 
the presence of a dorsal streak in specimens from Sparrow Lake, On- 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 165 

tario, Meyrick wrote " The two original examples of Bucculatrix cope- 
uta, though in very good condition, do not show any dorsal streak or 
trace of it ; but since then I have received seven more examples from 
Canada, which I consider certainly the same species, and some of these 
show the dorsal streak, one having it quite well-marked as you describe 
it ; no doubt your specimens are the same species, which has a distinct 
aspect, owing to the pure white ground colour." 

The white ground color and ocherous streaks may suggest relation- 
ship with the gall-forming species, but the genitalia indicate relation- 
ship with the oak and birch feeders. The three black marks placed in 
sequence at the apex of the wing, although not always sharply sepa- 
rated, are the best identifying characters of copeuta. 

(88) Bucculatrix locuples Meyrick (Figs. 57, 219, 220, 220a.) 

1919. Bucculatrix locuples Meyrick, Exot. Microlep. II: 287. Type $, To- 
ronto, Ontario [B.M.]. 

1923. Bucculatrix locuples Forbes, Mem. 68, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta., 
p. 159. 

Face lustrous pale ocherous, tuft dark reddish brown, rarely paler ; eye-caps 
pale ocherous, antennal stalk dark fuscous, with broad whitish annulations in the 
outer half. Thorax reddish black. Fore wings black, with faint bronzy tinge, 
marks lustrous pale golden ; before middle of costa, a triangular oblique golden 
spot; at two-thirds of costa, a slightly less oblique golden spot; before middle of 
dorsum and anterior to the first costal spot, a triangular golden spot reaching to 
fold or beyond and bordered outwardly by a large patch of black raised scales ; 
at tornus a second triangular golden spot ; cilia gray, with a line of black-tipped 
narrow scales extending from costa before apex to tornus. Hind wings irro- 
rated dark fuscous, cilia concolorous. Posterior tibiae, except the hairs, yellow- 
ish silvery; first tarsal segment blackish, remaining segments silvery, with 
darker tips. Abdomen dark bronzy fuscous above, paler beneath. 

Alar expanse 6 to 7 mm. 

Male genitalia (fig. 219). Male genitalia in general agreeing structurally 
with the section characters, but differing in appearance and with some notable 
specializations ; harpes elongate, narrow, tapering to the acute concave curved 
apices, median setae long, apical short, the basal process strong, curved, sclero- 
tized, more or less fused with vinculum ; the costal free arms of harpes stout and 
sinuate; socii oval, concave, setose; anellus cylindric ; aedeagus long, tapering to 
a sharp point, aperture elongate, nearly half the length of the aedeagus, with a 
long slender spine arising from its anterior angle ; vinculum sclerotized, pro- 
duced anteriorly into an acute angle. Scale sac absent. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



166 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Female genitalia (figs. 220, 220a). Dorsal and ventral margins of segment 7 
fringed with very long slender dark-pigmented scales ; on the intersegmental 
membrane ventral to ostium, a narrow transverse sclerotized irregular line : 
margins of ostium sclerotized and produced posteriorly; from membrane within 
ventral margin of ostium, a free pouch-like invagination ; signum the usual ring, 
very narrow dorsally, the ribs strongly sclerotized, spines acute (fig. 220a). 

Specimens examined. — 5 S , 13 9 . 

Kentucky : Plummer's Landing, Fleming County, 2 9 , rearing record 
B.1692 (on Alnus semdata (Ait.) Willd.). imagoes April 16, April 30, 1941; 
Crain Creek, Fleming County, 3 <5 , 3 9, rearing record B.2225 (on Alnus 
semdata), imagoes April 25 to May 7, 1956; Morehead, Rowan County, 1 8, 
7 9, rearing record B.2226 (on Alnus semdata), imagoes May 2 to May 12, 
1956 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Quebec: Fairy Lake, 1<S,19 (Alnus sp., record number 55-194) 25, 
30.VI.1956 (T. N. Freeman) [C.N.Coll.]. 

In addition to the localities listed above, larval work of this species 
has been observed on Alnus semdata in Montgomery County, Ken- 
tucky, and in Jackson and Vinton counties, Ohio. 

There are two generations a year (in Ohio and Kentucky) ; larvae 
of the first generation pupate early in July, the imagoes emerging the 
same season ; larvae of the second generation, much more numerous, 
may be collected during September, pupating from mid-September to 
early October, such larvae producing imagoes the following spring. 
The mine (on Alnus semdata) is a slender thread, about 2.5 cm. in 
length, its early part filled with black frass and thus difficult to detect 
on the leaf. The moulting cocoons, on the underside of the leaf, are 
papery in texture and orange ocherous in color. In the last two instars, 
as an external feeder, the larva eats irregular patches of leaf tissue, 
leaving the upper epidermis intact. Previous to spinning the cocoon, 
the larva outlines the area selected with erect strong curled silk threads. 
The hairy cocoons (fig. 57), spun on twigs, vary in color from bright 
brown to almost black, most commonly the latter ; eight prominent 
longitudinal ridges, with sometimes an additional indistinct ridge on 
either side ; the ridges of the anterior section are raised at the junction 
with the posterior section, the ends of the ridges projecting at right 
angles to the longitudinal axis of the cocoon. 

In genitalia of both sexes locuples is scarcely distinguishable from 
the European cidarella Zeller, also an alder feeder. Although the 



ANNETTE I'. BRAUN 167 

marks of the tore wings of locuples are the same in number as in cidar- 
ella and similarly placed, their brilliant golden luster separates locuples 
from cidarella. 

(89) Bucculatrix ainsliella Murtfeldt (Figs. 19. 19a. 221. 222. 222a. 222b.) 
1905. Bucculatrix ainsliella Murtfeldt, Canad. Ent. XXXVII: 218. Type $, 
with genitalia slide by Busck, Olmstead County, Minnesota [U.S.N.M., 
Type No. 65035] ; allotype 2, with genitalia slide by Busck, Olmstead 
County, Minnesota [U.S.N.M.] ; both pinned on the same mount, and 
here designated type and allotype. 
1923. Bucculatrix ainsliella Forbes. Mem. 68. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta., 
p. 159. 

Face creamy white, tuft white laterally, dark brown centrally ; eye-caps whit- 
ish, dotted with brown and dark brown on posterior margins, antennal stalk 
whitish with dark brown annulations and with intervening white segments pro- 
ducing a characteristic marking as follows: basal half of stalk regularly annu- 
late, then follow one white, two dark brown, one white, four dark brown, one 
white segment, followed by regularly annulate segments, last few segments pale. 
Thorax whitish, densely dusted with dark brown-tipped scales which form sev- 
eral defined dark marks. Whitish ground color of the fore wing more or less 
obscured by the dense dusting of dark brown-tipped scales, of which the more 
broadly dark-tipped scales form the dark markings. The species varies greatly 
in density of dusting and definition of markings, and thus the markings de- 
scribed may not always be discernible. A dark shade along costa broadens out- 
wardly to beyond middle of costa, narrowing below costa and as an oblique 
streak passing across the wing to termen there meeting a small patch of black 
scales ; in the middle of the wing, a short streak of whitish scales lies along the 
outer border of this dark oblique streak; the dark shade along costa may be 
indistinctly interrupted near base and before middle by slightly paler oblique 
shades ; on the middle of the dorsal margin a half-oval conspicuous brown spot, 
straight on the dorsal margin, and bearing within its inner edge a patch of black 
raised scales, and bordered before and behind and narrowly above by whitish 
scales ; apical area of wing less densely dusted, but with an aggregation of dark 
scales at extreme apex ; cilia with a median line of dark-tipped scales. Hind 
wings pale silvery gray, cilia tinged with fuscous. Legs and underside of body 
shining gray. 

Alar expanse 7 to 8 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 222, 222a, 222b). Harpe setose, with curved process 
at apex, the concave base appressed to the bulbous base of aedeagus ; a narrow 
sinuate band may represent transtilla ; socii elongate, setose, with a row of a few 
stronger setae inwardly ; anellus absent ; aedeagus narrow cylindric, enlarging 
to a strongly sclerotized bulbous base, with conspicuous cornuti, consisting of 
two parallel rows of strong curved setae ; anterior to the bulbous base, a more 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



168 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

membranous narrow segment curving to the left and posteriorly; vinculum and 
tegumen weakly sclerotized. Scale sac and the scales very elongate. 

Female genitalia (fig. 221). On anterior dorsal margin of segment 8, a mass 
of small dark scales, inserted on a broad triangular area (only a few of the 
scales shown on the figure) ; ostium oval, ductus bursae wide and strongly 
sclerotized near ostium, abruptly narrowing anterior to the sclerotized section, 
with inception of ductus seminalis just anterior to the sclerotized section; ductus 
bursae very long, several times the length of the body, coiled, and, except in its 
posterior third, armed with rows of teeth ; signum a ring, made up of separated 
groups of spined ribs. 

Nearly 100 specimens representing both sexes have been examined, 
including type material in the United States National Museum. Some 
twenty-five specimens from Rochester, New York, in the National 
Museum (Kearfott Collection) are erroneously labeled " Topotype." 
In the various collections, specimens have been examined from North 
Carolina (Highlands, 3865 feet) and South Carolina (Cherry Hill 
Recreation Area, 2000 feet, Oconee County), collected by R. W. 
Hodges as part of a project sponsored by the American Philosophical 
Society; from New Jersey (Essex County Park and Watchung Mts. ), 
Pennsylvania (Pittsburgh, one specimen only), New York (Rochester, 
Long Island, Monroe County), Connecticut (East River, New Haven), 
Massachusetts (Barnstable, Beverley, Martha's Vineyard), Maine 
(Augusta, Bar Harbor), Nova Scotia (Annapolis, "bred from red 
oak "), Ontario (St. Catherines, " host, Quercus borealis "), Michigan 
(Wayne County), Minnesota ( Olmstead, the type material). Some 
of these specimens are accompanied by cocoons, some bear notations 
" cocoon on oak ", " on oak," on " Quercus rubra" " on chestnut," 
" bred, skeletonizer Quercus borealis." 

This widely distributed common species was originally described 
from Minnesota specimens. Its distribution appears to follow a defi- 
nite pattern. It is reported to be present in great numbers on the oaks 
along the Blue Ridge Parkway and has been collected in North Caro- 
lina and in adjacent South Carolina. From there is occurs northward 
along the Appalachian Highlands and the coastal area of New England 
to Nova Scotia and west across the North to Minnesota. There are no 
records from the more southern midwestern states. 

Bucculatrix ainsliella is sometimes common enough to be of eco- 
nomic importance. From Miss Murtfeldt's account I quote the follow- 



. \ N N E T T E F. BR AUN 1 69 

ing: "Some of the leaves received from my correspondent [C. N. 
Ainslie] had attached — generally to the under surfaces — crowded 
groups of from twenty to thirty cocoons, and on many of the grass 
blades were double rows from one and one-half to two inches in 
length." 

Various species of oak and also chestnut are attacked by the larvae. 
Black oak (Oucrcus velutina Lam.) appears to be the preferred food 
in the type locality (Minnesota), red oak (Quercus rubra L. ) in other 
localities. The short thread-like mine (observed on red oak near St. 
Cloud, Minnesota) follows the midrib or a principal vein for most of 
its length, then sharply diverges from the vein ; the exposed larva feeds 
on the underside of the leaf, skeletonizing it. The white cocoon, taper- 
ing to each end, has six rather low and sometimes indistinct ridges. 
The winter is passed in the pupal state, with emergence the following- 
spring. The specimens examined bear dates from April to early Au- 
gust and to early September in North Carolina. These later dates 
suggest either a long period of emergence, or in favorable localities, a 
possible summer generation with feeding larvae in late June or early 

July- 

The Nova Scotia series is paler and less densely dusted, with the 
dark marks more sharply contrasting. The peculiar antennal markings 
are present also in B. pomijoliella, the wing markings of which are 
similar. Genitalia of both sexes serve to separate B. ainsliella from 
all other species of our fauna. Although the genitalia display much 
modification from the general type of the section, the harpe of the male 
indicates its assignment to this section. 



'&. 1 



(90) Bucculatrix eclecta new species (Figs. 223, 224, 224a.) 

Face creamy white, tuft brown centrally with pale stramineous hairs later- 
ally ; eye-caps creamy white, rough-scaled, and dotted with brown-tipped scales ; 
antennal stalk with alternating white and fuscous rings of equal width. Thorax 
creamy white, dotted with brown-tipped scales. Fore wings creamy white and 
dusted with ocherous brown-tipped scales ; aggregations of ocherous more broadly 
brown- or fuscous-tipped scales form the markings ; extreme base of wing white 
and nearly immaculate; beyond this a broad ocherous band angled on the fold 
crosses from costa to dorsum, where there are a few raised scales ; from before 
middle of costa, an oblique ocherous band, angled on the fold may (in $ type) 
extend as a broad band to dorsum, including within its inner border a patch of 
blackish raised scales ; this band is bordered inwardly by an oblique pale costal 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC., 18. 



170 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

streak, which may join, on the disc, a second pale costal streak, the two then 
dividing to encircle a brown oval spot below fold, which includes the above- 
mentioned patch of blackish raised scales; just beyond middle of costa, an oblique 
dark streak, the most conspicuous mark on the wing, is marked at the end of 
cell by a minute black dot, and as a more diffuse band attains tornus and ter- 
raen ; this band is separated from the ocherous more or less triangular costal 
area before apex by a narrow pale oblique costal streak ; extreme apex stramine- 
ous, opposite apex a few blackish scales project into the cilia and minutely 
dark-tipped scales form a line in the pale stramineous cilia from costa before 
apex to tornus. Hind wings and cilia pale stramineous, with a faint reddish 
fuscous tinge toward apex. Legs pale stramineous, with little fuscous shading. 
Abdomen stramineous, fuscous above, darker in male. 

Alar expanse 6.5 to 7 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 224, 224a). Harpes fused with vinculum, a broad con- 
cave thin ventral lobe, clothed distad with long outwardly oblique setae, its inner 
margins convex and approximate on mid-ventral line ; apical fourth of harpe 
(cucullus) distad of this lobe is more strongly sclerotized and is clothed with 
regularly spaced strong short setae ; a basal process articulating on tegumen, 
free arms of costa slender; socii small, much exceeded by the harpes, finely 
setose; anellus an asymmetric ring; aedeagus (fig. 224a) cylindric in basal half, 
apical half with an angular projection beyond which it gradually narrows in an 
arc to the apex ; vinculum a nearly equilateral triangle. Scale sac present ; the 
long slender scales with granular pigmentation. 

Female genitalia (fig. 223). Segment 9 elongate, ovipositor projecting in 
the dried specimen ; dorsal posterior margin of segment 7 fringed with short 
specialized scales, ventrolateral posterior margins fringed with long scales, ster- 
nite with strongly sclerotized sinuate transverse wrinkles; ostium circular, small, 
opening into a parallel-sided depression, which is subtended posteriorly by a 
small sclerotized arc ; ductus bursae narrow near ostium, widening beyond an- 
terior margin of segment 8; spines of signum ribs acicular. 

Type. — $ , Simcoe, Ontario, on Ulmus pumila, record number 56-176, August 
7, 1956 (G. G. Lewis) [C.N.Coll., Type No. 7180]. 

Allotype— 2, New York (? Albany), "on elm, Dr. Felt. iss. July 31, 1919," 
with cocoon [U.S.N.M.]. 

Paratypcs. — 3 $, 4 $, same data as the type, with dates of emergence from 
August 6 to 16 (G. G. Lewis) [C.N.Coll.]; 1 9, "on elm, iss. July 21. 1919" 
with cocoon (E. P. Felt) [U.S.N.M.]; 6 S, 1 5, Augusta, Maine, June 5 to 
18, July 26, August 7, August 27 (A. E. Brower) [A. E. Brower and A.F.B. 
Coll.]. 

The food plant of the Ontario series (Ulmus pumila L. ) is not 
native to this continent ; it is however commonly planted, and the spe- 
cies has evidently transferred to it from one of our native species of 



ANNETTE l\ BRAUN 171 

elm. Cocoons, accompanying the reared Ontario series and the two 
New York specimens " on elm ", are black or blackish brown, rather 
short, with a varying number of longitudinal ridges, which appear as 
paler lines. 

In all characters, the imago of this species displays its near relation- 
ship to the European B. ulmella Zeller. The aspect of the imago is 
that of a diminutive ulmella; the configuration of markings is identical. 
Genitalia of both sexes confirm this relationship; the female genitalia 
are closely similar, but in the male, the more elongate harpes, the very 
different aedeagus. and the presence of a scale sac sufficiently differ- 
entiate this species from ulmella. The cocoons are not at all alike ; in 
a cocoon accompanying a specimen of B. ulmella in the United States 
National Museum, the ridges diverge diagonally from mid-dorsum ; 
the color is a pale brownish yellow. 

The male genitalia of Bucculatrix eclecta are transitional between 
the type exemplified by the preceding twenty-five species and the spe- 
cialized type common to the Malvaceous feeders. 

Section V 
Species 91 to 93 

Included in this section are three species feeding in the larval state 
on members of the genus Ceanothus. The section is characterized by 
the unique male genitalia (figs. 225, 227). In the female, the radiat- 
ing ribs of the broad signum and the sclerotized posterior projections 
of the genital segments are diagnostic characters. 

(91) Bucculatrix anaticula new species (Figs. 225, 225a, 226.) 

Face white, with fine fuscous dots, tuft white with grayish hairs intermixed ; 
eye-caps white dotted with fuscous, antennal stalk white with grayish annula- 
tions, the white interspaces narrower toward apex. Thorax white, dotted with 
fuscous. Fore wings chalky white, the ground color more or less obscured by 
the dusting of fuscous-tipped scales ; the markings are formed by aggregations 
of dull clay-colored scales, which are more or less broadly tipped with fuscous, 
and by lines or small groups of black or black-tipped scales ; from basal third of 
costa, a narrow oblique streak may curve slightly outward in the middle of the 
wing or may become obsolete below costa ; from middle of costa, a broad oblique 
band crosses the wing; opposite its end in the cilia, a few black scales; from 
the middle of the outer margin of this band, a short longitudinal spot composed 

MEM. AMER. EXT. SOC, 18. 



172 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

of a few black scales is margined toward costa with white scales ; between the 
band and apex of the wing, a patch of clay-colored scales which may join the 
band and thus surround the black spot and the white scales above it; a streak of 
dark-tipped scales along the basal third of fold ; an ill-defined clay-colored patch 
of fuscous-tipped scales on middle of dorsum bears on its inner margin a small 
group of black raised scales ; cilia white, the costal cilia speckled with fuscous- 
tipped scales, which tend to form a line curving around apex at the base of the 
cilia ; a second sharply denned line of dark-tipped scales through the middle of 
the cilia from apex to tornus. Hind wings shining pearly white, or faintly 
grayish ocherous tinged in male. Legs whitish, tarsal segments black-tipped. 
Abdomen whitish beneath, fuscous shaded above. 

Alar expanse 7 to 7.5 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 225, 225a). Harpes geniculate near apex, the dark 
brown or blackish pointed tips strongly sclerotized and meeting in the median 
line, the aspect of this section of the harpe suggesting a duck's bill ; a median 
elongate pointed dorsal process with lateral basal protuberances probably repre- 
sents the gnathos ; socii flattened, incurved, setose ; anellus with a sclerotized 
supporting rod produced anteriorly to a bulbous base ; the long slender aedeagus 
surrounded by a bulbous base (fig. 225a) from which it is emitted, two sclero- 
tized rods within the bulbous base lateral to the base of the slender tube of the 
aedeagus ; vinculum broadly rounded. Scale sac large. 

Female genitalia (fig. 226). Sclerotized sharp lateral projections at the pos- 
terior margins of the strongly sclerotized segments 7 and 8 ; anterior apophyses 
present as slender rods from the lateral anterior margins of segment 8 ; the wide 
ostium in the intersegmental membrane at anterior margin of segment 8 ; the 
signum occupies a large area on the ventral surface of the bursa copulatrix in 
segments 3 and 4, where the signum ribs converge toward the median ventral 
area, from its posterior end at the entrance of the ductus bursae a narrow ring 
encircles the ductus dorsally. 

Type. — $, Constance Bay, Ontario (near Ottawa), on Ceanothus ameri- 
canus, June 7, 1956 (G. G. Lewis) [C.N.Coll., Type No. 7181]. 

Allotype. — ■?, Constance Bay, Ontario, "reared on Ceanothus," 28-1-1933 
(G. S. Walley) [C.N.Coll., Type No. 7181]. 

Paratypes. — 4 S , 6 2 , same data as the allotype, except dates of emergence 
25-1-1933 to 31-1-1933; 1 9, same data as the type, except emergence June 11 
[3 S, 5 2, C.N.Coll., 1 5,1 2, A.F.B.Coll.]. 

The food plant, Ceanothus americanns L., is widely distributed, and 
with further collecting B. anaticula will be found to have a much wider 
range than is indicated by the type series. Mines, probably made by 
this species, have been observed on leaves of Ceanothus americanns on 
Clack Mountain, Rowan County, Kentucky in early July and late Au- 
gust, but no imagoes have been reared. Here the egg is deposited on 



ANNETTE 1". BRAUN 173 

the upper side of the leaf; all parenchyma is consumed toward the end 
of the very fine linear mine. Cocoons (accompanying the type series) 
are white, with six distinct ridges, and often an additional ill-defined 
ridge on each side. Under natural conditions imagoes emerge early 
in the summer. 

This species and the two following form a closely related group of 
species, similar in markings and in the characteristic male genitalia, 
different from anything else in the genus, and are only separated from 
one another by slight differences. 

(92) Bucculatrix disjuncta new species (Figs. 227, 227a.) 

Face white, with minute and scattered pale ocherous dusting, tuft white, with 
a few pale ocherous hairs; eye-caps white, ocherous dusted, antennal stalk white 
with pale ocherous gray annulations. Thorax white with pale ocherous dusting. 
Fore wings white, indistinctly and sparsely dusted with pale ocherous-tipped 
scales ; the markings formed by groups of ocherous and black-tipped ocherous 
scales; just within the costal margin from base to one-third, a fine line of dark- 
tipped scales ; from basal third of costa, a narrow oblique streak not reaching 
the middle of the wing; from middle of costa, a broad oblique triangular streak 
of dark-tipped scales, its apex joining in the middle of the wing an ill-defined 
patch of pale ocherous scales which continues across the wing to termen there 
meeting a few black scales ; at the apex of this streak in the middle of the wing 
a few black scales placed longitudinally, with a patch of white scales above them ; 
between this oblique streak and apex of the wing, a small patch of ocherous 
scales ; basal third of fold faintly ocherous ; just below middle of fold a group 
of black raised scales, followed by a patch of ocherous scales, only a few of 
which are dark-tipped ; a few dark scales at extreme apex of wing ; cilia white, 
the costal cilia minutely speckled, a ciliary line of dark-tipped scales from apex 
toward tornus. Hind wings silvery, faintly ocherous tinged. Tarsal segments 
broadly blackish fuscous-tipped. 

Alar expanse 7.5 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 227, 227a). Harpes slender, geniculate near apex, the 
apical section less abruptly pointed than in anaticula, its dark brown tips strongly 
sclerotized and meeting in the median line ; a median elongate pointed dorsal 
process with rounded basal protuberances probably represents the gnathos ; socii 
large, broadly flattened ; anellus with sclerotized supporting rod produced an- 
teriorly to an elongate bulbous base ; the slender thread-like aedeagus surrounded 
by a bulbous base similar to that of anaticula but differing in proportions; vincu- 
lum broadly rounded. Scale sac large. 

Type. — S, Denver, Colorado, on Ceanothus, iss. July 14, 1901 (H. G. Dyar) 
[U.S.N.M., Type No. 65036]. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



174 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

The elongate cocoon, accompanying the type specimen, is white, 
with indistinct low ridges. 

This species is closely related to the preceding species and to B. 
ceanothiella Braun and in fact was identified in the United States Na- 
tional Museum as the latter. While closely related to both of these 
species, the aspect of the moth is different from either ; a comparison of 
the male genitalia with the genitalia of anaticula shows well defined 
differences, chiefly in the shape of the harpes and the bulbous base of 
aedeagus, and in the shape and size of the socii. 

(93) Bucculatrix ceanothiella Braun (Fig. 230.) 

1918. Bucculatrix ceanothiella Braun, Ent. News XXIX: 246. Type 9, Col- 
ton, San Bernardino County, California [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Face white with minute sparse brown dusting; tuft white with a few brown 
hairs ; antennae white, the eye-caps dusted, especially posteriorly, with brown- 
tipped scales, the stalk conspicuously annulate with brown. Thorax white, tegu- 
lae tipped with brown scales. Fore wings white, dusted with minutely brown- 
tipped scales ; the markings are formed by lines and aggregations of more 
broadly brown- and black-tipped scales; such a line of dark scales lies just 
within the costal margin from base nearly to one-third the wing length; at one- 
third a triangular costal streak less oblique than the corresponding streak in the 
two preceding species; just beyond the middle of costa, a large patch of dark- 
tipped scales becomes attenuated in the middle of the wing and continues as a 
line of dark-tipped scales to middle of termen ; a group of dark-tipped scales in 
apex of wing ; an ill-defined line of dark-tipped scales from base on the fold ; 
a large semicircular spot on middle of dorsum, with a few blackish raised scales 
on its inner margin ; cilia white, costal cilia dusted with minutely dark-tipped 
scales, which form a well-defined ciliary line from apex to tornus. Hind wings 
and cilia pale silvery gray. Legs whitish, tarsal segments dark-tipped, middle 
tibiae with fuscous bars. Abdomen whitish. 

Alar expanse 6.5 mm. 

Female genitalia (fig. 230). Segment 8 strongly sclerotized, its lateral pos- 
terior margins projecting; posterior margin of segment 7 with rounded margi- 
nal sclerotized depressions in the intersegmental membrane ; anterior apophyses 
present; ostium small, in intersegmental membrane at the anterior margin of 
segment 8 ; ductus bursae with a short membranous section followed by a strongly 
sclerotized section from the middle of segment 7 to the middle of segment 6, 
where the ductus seminalis enters ; signum ventrally broadly expanded laterally 
and anteriorly, the ribs diverging obliquely and anteriorly from the mid-ventral 
line, narrowing to encircle the bursa copulatrix dorsally near its posterior end. 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 175 

known only from the female type, reared on Ceanothus sp., Colton, 
San Bernardino County, California. The mined leaf was collected in 
February, emergence of the imago April 10. 

The mine is a small irregular brownish blotch, with merely a very 
short early portion linear; on leaving the mine the larva feeds on the 
lower surface of the leaf leaving" the upper epidermis intact. The white 
cocoon is shorter and stouter than that of either of the two preceding 
species, with only four low ridges and a faint indication of a fifth. 

The wing markings in B. ceanothiella are slightly less oblique than 
in B. anaticula and in B. disjuncta; the abrupt narrowing of the costal 
streaks gives them a more or less quadrate aspect. In female genitalia 
it is distinct from anaticula. 

Section VI 
Species 94 

But a single species of our fauna, Bucculatrix pomijoliella Clemens 
is included in this section ; the European B. crataegi Zeller belongs here 
also. The male genitalia are distinctive. 

(94) Bucculatrix pomifoliella Clemens 

(Figs. 228, 228a, 228b, 228c, 229, 229a.) 

1860. Bucculatrix pomifoliella Clemens, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. : 211. 

Type 9, Eastern, Pennsylvania [A.N.S.P., Type No. 7501]. 
1872. Bucculatrix pomifoliella Stainton, Tineina of No. Amer., p. 146. 

1872. Bucculatrix pomifoliella Riley, Rep. Ins. Mo. IV: 149. 

1873. Bucculatrix pomifoliella Chambers, Canad. Ent. V: 150. 

1875. Bucculatrix pomifoliella Zeller, Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien XXV: 353. 

1880. Bucculatrix pomifoliella Walsingham, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. X : 204. 

1903. Bucculatrix pomifoliella Busck, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. V : 205. 

1922. Snodgrass, R. E. The ribbed-cocoon maker of the apple. Report Smith- 

sonian Institution, 1920, pp. 496-509, Plates 2 and 3. 

1923. Bucculatrix pomifoliella Forbes, Mem. 68, Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta., 

p. 158. 
1925. Bucculatrix pomifoliella Braun, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. LI: 222. 
1947. Bucculatrix pomifoliella Comstock, An Introduction to Entomology, p. 616. 
1869. Lithocolletis curvilineatclla Packard, Guide Stud. Ins., p. 354. [Type, 

M.C.Z.]. 
1880. Bucculatrix pomonella P'ackard, Guide Stud. Ins., 7th ed., p. 354. 

Additional references to this species have appeared in the economic 

literature. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



176 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Face creamy white, minutely brown-speckled except in the palest specimens, 
tuft varying from white with a few brown hairs centrally to predominantly 
brown, with only the front and a few lateral hairs whitish; eye-caps creamy 
white, typically minutely brown-speckled and posteriorly slightly brown-shaded ; 
antennal stalk in basal two-thirds evenly and regularly annulate with alternating 
white and brown rings, in apical third one longer and a second shorter dark 
brown section are separated from the evenly annulate basal two-thirds and apex 
and from one another by white rings. Thorax white with minute faint brown 
speckling, or densely brown dusted. Basic ground color of the fore wings 
creamy white, more or less obscured by the slight to dense dark dusting of 
brown-tipped scales ; in general the basal half of the wing is paler than the outer 
half, sometimes contrastingly so ; a line of dark scales along costal margin is 
deflected at one-third forming a short oblique wedge-shaped mark ; similar lines 
of dark scales lie along the fold and along base of dorsum ; from middle of costa 
an oblique streak, darkest and broadest on costa, crosses the wing to termen just 
above tornus, and is irregularly margined outwardly with blackish scales; this 
streak sometimes fades out before reaching termen ; on middle of dorsum a con- 
spicuous dark brown oval spot, sometimes encircled by whitish scales, bears a 
patch of blackish raised scales near its inner edge ; a dark brown apical spot, 
typically preceded by a pale half ring, which may be obscured by dark dusting; 
a line of dark-tipped scales in cilia from apex to tornus. Hind wings and cilia 
pale to dark grayish ocherous. Legs creamy white, with some fuscous shading 
and fuscous-tipped tarsal segments. Abdomen whitish to dark fuscous. 

Alar expanse 7 to 7.5 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 228, 228a, 228b, 228c). Harpes with slight indication 
of lobes, but the parts fused and strongly sclerotized, the apex dark-pigmented 
(fig. 228a), thus in ventral view concealing the thin membranous socii (fig. 
228b) ; vinculum greatly produced anteriorly to an acute rounded point and ex- 
panded at base into lateral wings, the outer margins of which are continuous 
with the tegumen ; aedeagus (fig. 228c) enormous, tapering from the swollen 
base to acute tip, aperture elongate, cornuti a line of closely placed short spines. 
Scale sac broad and shallow, scales short. 

Female genitalia (figs. 229, 229a). Ductus bursae sclerotized through seg- 
ment 7, expanding before ostium, its ventral margin produced posteriorly to an 
acute angle; inception of ductus seminalis at anterior end of expanded section; 
signum longitudinally placed, obsolete dorsally, ribs diverging, a series of short 
acute spines on swollen bases. 

Specimens examined. — approximately 75, representing both sexes. 

Pennsylvania: Easton, 2 type [A.N.S.P.] ; Arendtsville, 1 8, issued 5-22- 
1922 (S. W. Frost) [J. R. Eyer Coll.]; Oak Station, Allegheny County, 1 $, 
May 8 (Fred Marloff) [Cornell U.]. 

Virginia: Winchester, 1 (sex not determined), April 17, 1905 (Aug. Busck) 
[U.S.N.M.]. 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 177 

New Jersey: Montclair and Essex County. 8, S, 9 (WDK) [U.S.N.M.] ; 
New Lisbon, 11, 6 . 9, May and June dates, "bark of apple"; 1 S, "on wild 
cherry," July 22, 1935 (Darlington Coll.) [A.N.S.P.]. 

New York: Ithaca, 2 6 . 1 5, Comstock, No. Ill) [J. R. Ever Coll.]; Mon- 
roe County, 1 9. May 1945 "ex hickory" (cocoon on bark) [C. P. Kimball 
Coll.]; Gardenville, 1 $, March 14 [Cornell U.]. 

Massachusetts : Barnstable, 2 6.3 2 , June 26 to August 11 [C. P. Kimball 
Coll.]. 

Maine: Augusta, a few specimens in poor condition [A. E. Brower Coll.]. 

Ontario: Ottawa, 1 6 , on Crataegus sp., with cocoon (55-104A), 20.VI.1956 
(G. G. Lewis) [C.N.Coll.]. 

Ohio: Cincinnati, 1 6 , 4 9, rearing record B.477 (on Primus scrotina 
Ehrh.), imagoes June 29 to July 25 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.] ; 1 2, rearing 
record B.477. emerged July 19, 1913 (A. F. Braun) [A.N.S.P.] ; 1 $ , on plum, 
April 28, 1918 (A. F. Braun), 1 6, May 9, 1912 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.] ; 
Beaver Pond, Adams County, rearing record B.2190 (on apple), imago April 
19, 1954; 1 $, May 3, 1930 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Tennessee: Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Appalachian Trail, 
5200 feet, 1 c? , 1 9, rearing record B.2200 (on Amelanchier laevis Wieg.), 
imagoes April 25, 26, 1954 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

North Carolina: Great Smoky Mountains, Dock's Gap, 4930 feet, 1 2, 
rearing record B.2195 (on Amelanchier laevis Wieg.), imago April 25, 1954 
(A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]; Highlands, Macon County, 3865 feet, 1 9, June 
29, 1958, collected as part of a project sponsored by the American Philosophical 
Society (R. W. Hodges) [Cornell U.]. 

Missouri: Kirkwood, 2 9, April 2, 1894 (erroneously labeled ambrosiae- 
foliclla), show the characteristic antennal markings of pomifoliella [U.S.N.M.] ; 
1 9, April 15 (Murtfeldt Coll.) [Cornell U.]. 

Utah : Logan Canyon, Cache County, 5500 feet, 3 8,8 9 , rearing record 
B.1181 (on Physocarpus malvaceus Kuntze), imagoes March 12 to April 15, 
1925 (A. F. Braun) [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

Washington: Pullman, 1 <$ , 1 9, 19.VI.33 (J. F. Clarke) [U.S.N.M.]. 

British Columbia: Victoria, 1 (sex not determined) [E. H. Blackmore] ; 
1 <?, 24.6.1923 (W. R. Carter) [U.S.N.M.] ; Seton Lake, Lillooet, 1 9, 6.VI.1926 
(J. McDunnough) [C.N.Coll.]. 

No Locality : a long series glued on cards, No. 48x ; one pinned specimen, 
iss. April 6, 1883 (Riley Collection) [U.S.N.M.] ; 2 from the Fernald collection 
without locality label [U.S.N.M.]. Associated with the series on cards and also 
bearing the number 48x, and labeled " Bucculatrix pom." is a twig crowded with 
cocoons, all of which are white. 

As indicated by the above records, the native food plants include a 
number of tree and shrub members of the Rosaceae. The economic im- 
portance of B. pomifoliella resulted with the transfer to apple as a food 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



178 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

plant and consequent great increase in abundance. The crowding of 
cocoons on twigs of apple (see figure in Comstock) has no counterpart 
on native food plants. 

The egg is deposited on the lower surface of the leaf next to the 
midrib ; the fine linear mine in its early course follows the midrib, then 
diverges from it ; the length is dependent on the thickness of the leaf. 
The larva leaves the mine through the upper epidermis, spinning its 
moulting cocoons commonly on the upper side of the leaf, sometimes on 
the underside. The exposed larva, green shaded with red, feeds with 
rare exceptions on the upper side of the leaf, eating out irregular 
patches, but leaving the lower epidermis intact, which then shows as an 
iridescent patch. These iridescent patches are characteristic evidence 
of the presence of larvae of B. pomijoliella. 

The cocoon, of the usual ribbed type common to the genus, is spun 
upon a twig or other convenient surface ; it is slender elongate, with 
seven or eight well-defined ridges. Its color varies with the food plant ; 
on apple the cocoons are white or whitish ; on Amelanchier and Phys- 
ocarpus pale tannish ocherous ; on Primus serotiua reddish brown; the 
single cocoon on Crataegus is dark brown. Except in the North, there 
are two generations in a year. 

The imagoes vary greatly in different parts of their range; western 
specimens are uniformly paler than eastern specimens and may lack 
almost entirely any dark dusting in the basal half of the wing. Geni- 
talic slides demonstrate the specific identity. 

The characteristic genitalia of both sexes separate B. poiuifoliella 
from all other described species, and are constant for the species 
throughout its range, except for some variation in the length of the 
aedeagus. Its close relationship to the European B. crataegi Zeller is 
indicated by the genitalia, which resemble those of crataegi, but show a 
greater degree of fusion and sclerotization as well as other obvious 
differences. 

Section VII 
Species 95 

A single species, Bucculatrix ilecella Busck, characterized in the 
male by the lobed harpes, the well-defined gnathos, and the reduced 
socii, and in the female by the unusual signum (fig. 231), constitutes 
this section. 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 179 

(95) Bucculatrix ilecella Busck (Figs. 231, 232. 232a.) 

1915. Bucculatrix ilecella Busck. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. XVII: 91. Type 9, 
Victoria, Texas [U.S.N. M.. Type Xo. 19248]. 

Face white, finely speckled with grayish fuscous-tipped scales ; tuft white, 
mixed with ocherous fuscous; eye-caps white, dotted with fuscous, antennal stalk 
white with dark gray or brown annulations. Thorax and fore wings white, the 
ground color more or less obscured by the dusting of minutely to broadly dark- 
tipped scales; aggregations of the more broadly dark-tipped scales form the ill- 
defined markings; such a group of scales lies along costa near base and is more 
or less distinctly connected with an elongate patch of such scales in the fold 
beyond which are two or three ill-defined groups of scales in the fold; from 
middle of costa, and only distinct near costa is an oblique cross-band ; from two- 
thirds of costa, an oblique band, broad on costa and there forming the best- 
defined mark on the wing, crosses the wing; dark scales in the apex tending to 
separate into cross lines ; a line of black-tipped scales in the cilia. Hind wings 
pale silvery gray in female, darker gray in male. Legs white, hind tibiae dark 
fuscous outwardly, with an oblique white bar near middle, tarsal segments 
broadly fuscous-tipped. Abdomen silvery fuscous above, silvery white beneath. 

Alar expanse 4 to 4.4 mm. 

Male genitalia (figs. 232, 232a). Harpes bilobed, divided almost to base, a 
broad oval ventral lobe clothed with decumbent setae, and a very slender dorsal 
lobe, setose on its outer half; gnathos present, consisting of two slender arms 
joined at an obtuse angle; socii reduced to minute blunt protuberances; aedeagus 
stout, cornuti minute, numerous ; vinculum broad. Scale sac minute. 

Female genitalia (fig. 231). Ostium in membrane at anterior margin of 
segment 8 ; ductus bursae short, with lateral sclerotization before ostium ; bursa 
copulatrix in segments 5 and 6, relatively small, its posterior half globose, with 
entrance of ductus bursae posterior and ventral ; signum a series of radiating 
dentate lines, converging posteriorly and extending into the ductus for nearly 
one-third its length. 

Specimens examined. — 3 5,69. 

Texas: Victoria, 9 type, 9 " cotype," on Ilex sp., "holly," July (W. D. 
Hunter ) [U.S.N.M.] ; Brownsville, 3 <3 , 4 9, " reared from Wild Shrub," April 
4-17, 1933 (T. C. Barber) [U.S.N.M.]. 

One or more of the deciduous species of Ilex, several of which occur 
in Texas, are the food plants of ilecella, The cocoons are pure white, 
rounded at each end, 4 to 5 mm. in length, with seven sharply defined 
ridges. Apparently there are two generations a year. 

The material from Brownsville, Texas makes possible the amplifica- 
tion of the original description of the species by Busck. In the Browns- 
ville series, the markings are darker and more clearly defined than in 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



180 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

the type, with an additional patch of dark scales extending onto the 
disc, represented in the type by dark scales on the costal margin only. 
A genitalia slide of a female of this series agrees exactly with the slide 
of the type [Clarke No. 10413]. 

The characteristic genitalia easily enable recognition of this minute 
species. 

Section VIII 
Species 96 to 99 

Included in Section VIII are four species of our fauna, feeding in 
the larval state on members of the plant family Malvaceae. These 
species are characterized by unusual and unique features of the geni- 
talia of both sexes. Chief of these are, in the male, the lobed harpes 
and the tendency for the development of sclerotized plates of the ster- 
nite or of both sternite and tergite of the eighth abdominal segment; 
these plates may extend as free arms. In the female, the characteristic 
features are the position of the ostium at the posterior margin of the 
sclerotized basal half of segment 8, the development of a second pair of 
apophyses, those of the eighth segment, and perhaps most unique and 
distinctive, the presence of a dorso-lateral group of setae on a sclero- 
tized area at the base of the membranous posterior half of segment 8. 
These characters are also present in the Mediterranean Bucculatrix 
lavaterella Milliere, which indicates early separation from ancestral 
stock and a long period of differentiation and specialization of the spe- 
cies of this section. 

Although the wing markings of the species of this section conform 
to the general pattern of the genus, it may be possible to recognize a 
species of this section by the grouping of clusters of dark or dark-tipped 
scales to form four costal patches, about equally spaced, the first at or 
near the base of the wing (cf. figures 7 and 13). 

(96) Bucculatrix quadrigemina Braun 

(Figs. 22, 35, 235, 235a, 236, 236a, 236b.) 

1918. Bucculatrix quadrigemina Braun, Ent. News XXIX: 247. Type S, 

Loma Linda, San Bernardino County, California [A.F.B.Coll.]. 

1919. Bucculatrix althacae Busck, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. XXI: 109. Type, 

Stanford University, California [U.S.N.M., Type No. 22195]. New 
synonymy. 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 181 

Face whitish, often faintly shaded with pale fuscous-ocherous, tuft whitish, 
with pale fawn or brownish hairs intermixed; eye-caps straw colored to pale 
brown, antennal stalk straw colored, with dark brown annulations. Thorax 
straw colored, microscopically dusted with brown, tegulae more conspicuously 
brown-dotted. Fore wings creamy white more or less yellow or ocherous 
tinged, especially below fold, and except for the white oblique costal streaks 
separating the patches of ocherous brown-tipped scales, more or less dusted with 
minutely brown-tipped scales; in the type series of quadrigemina and in some of 
the specimens in the U.S.N.M. from San Bernardino County and San Diego, 
the ground color below the fold is scarcely or not at all dusted ; four large costal 
patches of ocherous brown-tipped scales, the first at base of wing, the second at 
one-third, the third, the broadest, at middle of costa, the fourth before apex and 
separated from it by a whitish streak of ground color ; these patches become 
indistinct toward the middle of the wing and blend with the more ocherous 
ground color below fold ; on middle of dorsum, a patch of more broadly brown- 
tipped scales bears on its inner margin and just within the dorsal margin a large 
patch of black-tipped raised scales ; at tornus, a whitish streak, defined out- 
wardly by more conspicuously dark brown-tipped scales which join the fourth 
costal patch; a few dark scales at extreme apex; cilia pale fuscous-stramineous, 
opposite apex with a line of dark-tipped scales, which is continued as a broken 
line to tornus. Hind wings and cilia pale to dark fuscous. Legs grayish buff, 
with dark brown-tipped tarsal segments. Abdomen fuscous, with stramineous 
anal tuft. 

Alar expanse 7 to 8 mm. (quadrigemina) ; 9 to 10 mm. (althaeae) . 

Male genitalia (figs. 235, 235a). Sternite of eighth abdominal segment a 
strongly sclerotized plate produced posteriorly into two free arms, which project 
to the tip of the harpes ; harpe with semicircular minutely setose ventral lobe, 
slender tip of harpe curving ventrad ; socii very small, arising from the incurved 
tegumen ; subscaphium defined; anellus broad at base curving to a slender tube 
apically ; aedeagus long, broad at base, constricted in middle, thence slender 
double-curved ; vinculum truncate anteriorly, with a mid-ventral strong sclero- 
tized dorso-ventral plate. Scale sac small, scales long, linear, pointed. 

Female genitalia (figs. 236, 236a, 236b). Anterior apophyses, lateral out- 
growths of the strongly sclerotized anterior half of segment 8, present ; tergite 
of segment 8 with two anteriorly projecting lobes, and dorsad of lateral line with 
tuft of hair-like scales directed obliquely posteriorly and toward median line; 
ostium opening at the posterior margin of the strongly sclerotized anterior half 
of the eighth segment ; ductus bursae sclerotized immediately before ostium ; 
signum ribs slender, spines long acicular (fig. 236b). 

Specimens examined. — 47, representing both sexes. 

California: Loma Linda, S type, June 25, 2 S , 1 9 paratypes, June 18 to 
30, 1912 (G. R. Pilate) [A.F.B.Coll.] ; 2 $, 1 $, June and September 
[U.S.N.M.]; San Diego, 2 <J . 1 5, [U.S.N.M.]; Stanford University, type of 
althaeae, Dec. 20, 1918, "on hollyhock" (labeled in U.S.N.M. isabella Type) 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



182 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

[U.S.N.M.] ; 3 cotypes, Dec. 20, 1918, 5 cotypes, $ , 2 , Feb. 10, 1919 [U.S.N.M.] ; 
2 2, Feb. 10, 1919 [A.F.B.Coll.] ; Ventura, 4, $, 2, X.1.14 (S. H. Essig) 
[U.S.N.M.]; Berkeley, 5 $, 2, December 11-18. 1925 (W. W. Jones) 
[U.S.N.M.] ; Berkeley, 5 $ , 4 2, rearing record B.992, imagoes October, 1918; 
5 8,2 2, December, 1924 [A.F.B.Coll.]; 1 8 , December, 1924 [A.N.S.P.]. 

This species has been reared in large numbers from the cultivated 
hollyhock (Althaea rosea Cav. ) ; its native food plant is not known, 
but will be found to be some related malvaceous plant of the semi-arid 
regions of southern California. With the transfer to the more succu- 
lent hollyhock as a food plant, considerable increase in size resulted, as 
evidenced by the greater expanse. Misled by the larger size and heavier 
dark dusting, Busck described the hollyhock-feeder as a new species 
(althaeae) closely related to quadrigemina. The unique genitalia, 
identical in both series, prove the synonymy. 

The egg (fig. 35) deposited on the lower surface of the leaf is 
ellipsoidal, reticulate, the ridges converging somewhat toward the 
micropylar end. 

When present in large numbers, the very long linear mines, fine 
thread-like in the early part, cross and recross one another ; the leaf is 
riddled with holes by the external feeding larvae. I quote the follow- 
ing description of the larva (I.e. p. 110) : " The free feeding mature 
caterpillar is 6 mm. long. Head light yellow with black continuous 
eyespots. Thoracic shield light gray with numerous (20) small black 
dots. Body light gray with darker gray transverse band across each 
joint, on which the large whitish tubercles stand out prominently. 
Setae blackish. Legs gray with two transverse darker lines and with 
last joint yellow. Abdominal legs well developed, normal in number, 
each with two posterior and one anterior crotchet. Anal legs with but 
one crotchet. 

" Cocoon 5 mm. long, white, with a yellowish tint, loosely woven 
with but slight indicated longitudinal ridges." An occasional cocoon 
shows well-defined, but very low fine ridges. 

(97) Bucculatrix gossypiella .Morrill (Figs. 233. 233a, 233b, 234, 234a.) 

1927. Bucculatrix gossypiella Morrill, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. V: 94-97. Type 
8, Cajeme, Sonora, Mexico [U.S.N.M., Type No. 40380]. 

1927. Observations on Bucculatrix gossypiella, a new and important cotton pest. 
Morrill, A. W., Journ. Econ. Ent. 20: 536-544. [3 plates, showing 
work of larvae on cotton.] 



ANNETTE K. BRAUN 183 

The type has the wings folded upward with the upper surfaces 
tightly appressed, and it is not possible to see the wing markings. I 
quote Morrill's brief description of the moth : 

" Face, tuft, head and thorax white. Fore wings white with black and light 
brown scale markings, cilia ochreous white. Hind wings and cilia ochreous white. 
Coloration closely similar to adults of Bucculatrix thurberiella Busck "... 

" Alar expanse. — 5 to 8 mm." 

Additional type material in the United States National Museum is 
not in sufficiently good condition to supplement the ahove description, 
nor to compare B. gossypiella with B. thurberiella. 

Male genitalia (figs. 233, 233a, 233b). Harpe with a median lobe, curving 
to acute tip, with several very long setae; cucullus oval when viewed dorso- 
ventrally, acute when rotated to show inner surface (fig. 233a), and long setose 
distad of the lobe; socii rounded, approximate; anellus cordate, minutely spinu- 
lose ; aedeagus long, gradually tapering, cornuti a mass of minute spines ; vincu- 
lum greatly expanded, produced anteriorly. Scale sac bilobed, similar to that of 
tlinrberieUa. 

Female genitalia (figs. 234, 234a). Anterior portion of segment 8 strongly 
sclerotized and prolonged to form the slender anterior apophyses; oval pockets 
on lateral margins ; ostium at the posterior margin of the sclerotized section of 
segment 8 ; signum open ventrally, very narrow dorsally, composed of contigu- 
ous parallel rows of acute spines arising from swollen bases (fig. 234a). 

In the paper in the Journal of Economic Entomology, Morrill gives 
a detailed account of the habits of the larvae, including the characters 
separating this species from B. thurberiella in its early stages. I quote 
a few excerpts from this paper. ' The egg of B. thurberiella. ... is 
elongated, projectile shaped with about 10 projecting ridges and stands 
perpendicular to the leaf. The egg of B. gossypiella is flattened, scale 
like, has as a rule five longitudinal ridges converging toward the micro- 
pylar end." . . . . " The larvae of B. gossypiella have the peculiar habit 
of boring in woody or hard tissues of the plant, such as stalks, 
branches . . . leaf petioles, and larger leaf veins as well as in the leaf 
blades and bracts . . . ". " Occasionally a blotch like or trumpet shaped 
mine is produced in the leaf tissue but never, as far as observed, a clear 
cut serpentine leaf mine similar to that made by B. thurberiella." Cot- 
ton stems in the United States National Museum show a mined circular 
area similar to that noted by Morrill in the leaf blade. 

This species, not so far recorded north of Mexico, is included here 
because of the possibility of its introduction. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. S0C, 18. 



184 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

(98) Bucculatrix sphaeralceae new species 

(Figs. 7, 237. 237a, 237b, 237c, 238, 238a.) 

Face white, tuft white with a few pale yellow hairs on vertex ; eye-caps 
white, the projecting hair-scales concealing the antennal notch of the male in 
the short first segment of the flagellum ; antennal stalk white, with pale brown 
annulations. Thorax white, pale yellow anteriorly, with a few brown-tipped 
scales. Fore wing (fig. 7) white; markings pale yellow-ocherous, the scales 
more or less brown or blackish tipped; four costal patches of such scales, the 
first near base, inconspicuous and lying along costa, the second at one-third ex- 
tends obliquely outward, becoming obsolescent before reaching the middle of the 
disc, the third, the largest, at middle of costa, may continue across the wing to 
termen as a slender pale yellowish line, marked at end of cell by a few ( 1-4) 
black scales, and on termen by a few black-tipped scales ; the fourth in the apical 
third is separated from the apex by a patch of white ground color and between 
it and the third patch the costa is marked with dark-tipped scales ; a pale ocher- 
ous shade in the fold (sometimes scarcely distinguishable) from near base to 
one-third is marked with a few black-tipped scales; this shade sometimes ex- 
pands by minutely dark-tipped scales to costa and to dorsum, and may bear a few 
black raised scales ; on middle of dorsum a patch of pale yellow, dark-tipped 
scales, on the inner border of which below fold is a small group of black raised 
scales ; this patch may equal in size the third costal patch or be reduced to an 
almost imperceptible yellowish shade, marked only by a few raised black scales; 
a few dark-tipped scales at extreme apex and a broken line of dark-tipped scales 
extending through the white cilia. Hind wings and cilia white, very faintly 
ocherous tinged. Legs white, inner side of anterior tibiae marked with a series 
of fine dark transverse lines ; tarsal segments sometimes dark-tipped. Abdomen 
white. 

Alar expanse 6.5 mm. (Texas specimens) to 9.5 mm. (California specimens). 

Male genitalia (figs. 237, 237a, 237b, 237c). Posterior ventral margin of 
segment 8 strongly sclerotized and projecting over vinculum, a median broad 
lobe, lateral lobes curving dorsad and clasping vinculum ; harpe with a long 
slender inward lobe directed posteriorly, cucullus gradually tapering and mar- 
gined with rows of short heavy setae ; gnathos, two outwardly curved bodies 
fringed with branched hairs; socii, flat circular pads clothed with long decum- 
bent hairs; anellus flask-shaped; aedeagus long, swollen at base, soon slender; 
vinculum evenly rounded. No scale sac. 

Female genitalia ( figs. 238, 238a ) . Basal half of segment 8 strongly sclero- 
tized, its lateral margins prolonged forward in the abdomen to form the anterior 
apophyses ; ductus bursae opening into an asymmetric greatly expanded sclero- 
tized chamber nearly the width of the segment ; laterally, in a depression at the 
base of the membranous posterior half of segment 8, a group of long setae di- 
rected obliquely toward mid-dorsum ; ductus bursae before ostium minutely den- 
tate ; signum ring narrow, very obliquely placed, the spines arranged in parallel 
groups (fig. 238a). 



ANNETTE !■". BRAUN 185 

Type— 6. Presidio, Texas, "ex Sphaeralcea, Oct. 18, 1939, cm. Oct. 30, 
1939" (|. R. Russell) [U.S.N.M., Type Xo. 65037]. 

Allotype. — 9, same data as the type. 

Paratypes. — 1 9. same data as the type, except date of emergence Nov. 3, 
1939; 5 6,1 9 , Presidio. Texas, '"material placed in rearing- jar 13 Oct. 1954. 
Moths found dead 11 Jan. 1955 " (J- R- Russell) [U.S.N.M.] ; 1 6 , San Benito, 
Texas, March 24-30 ( H. S. Barber) [U.S.N.M.] ; 2 9, Brownsville, Texas, 
VI.04 (H. S. Barber) [U.S.N.M.] ; 1 6,2 9, Blythe, California, "Bred 
Malva." Oct. 18-27, 1934 (C. Dammers) [U.S.N. M. ] ; 1 6, " Borrego V.. S. 
Diego Co., Calif., bred from Malva, April 13, 1936 " ( C. Dammers) [U.S.N.M.]. 

The three paratypes from Blythe, California are in such condition 
as to be unrecognizable except by genitalia, but are included in the type 
series for the value of the distribution data. 

The type of markings — four costal patches, the first near base of 
costa — is typical of the group of species feeding on Malvaceae. The 
remarkable and unique genitalia separate this species from all others of 
our fauna. 

(99) Bucculatrix thurberiella Busck 

(Figs. 13. 23, 239, 239a, 239b, 239c. 239d, 239e, 240, 240a, 240b.) 

1914. Bucculatrix thurberiella Busck, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. XVI: 30. Type 6, 
genitalia slide 9942, J. F. G. C, allotype 2, genitalia slide 9943, J. F. 
G. C, Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona [U.S.N.M., Type No. 16699], 

1916. Bucculatrix thurberiella, A Pest of Cotton in the Imperial Valley. Mc- 
Gregor, E. A. Journ. Econ. Ent. 9: 505-510. Plates 36, 37. 

1927. Bucculatrix thurberiella Morrill, Journ. Econ. Ent. 20: 536-544. 

Face white, tuft white with an occasional grayish hair ; eye-caps white, an- 
tennal notch very shallow, stalk with fuscous annulations. Thorax white. Fore 
wing (fig. 13) white; extreme costal margin from base to beyond middle black- 
ish, the black scales projecting onto the wing near base as a narrow elongate 
patch, at one-third as a slightly larger and oblique patch, near middle of wing 
as a conspicuous irregular patch which continues as a fine line ( sometimes obso- 
lete) obliquely across the wing to a conspicuous patch of blackish scales on ter- 
men which continues along termen in an irregular line to apex; beyond this the 
cilia are dotted with black-tipped scales ; a more even short line of scales in cilia 
near apex; cilia on termen immediately below apex often blackish; apical costal 
half of wing beyond the oblique streak dusted with paler brown and blackish- 
tipped scales; a few black-tipped scales below fold near base; a group of black 
scales just within the dorsal margin and on fold is followed by scattered brown 
scales. Hind wings and cilia pale whitish ocherous. Legs pale whitish ocher- 
ous inwardly, blackish fuscous outwardly, hairs of posterior tibiae white, tarsal 
segments white at base. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



186 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Alar expanse 7 to 8 mm., 9 mm. in some of the cotton-feeding specimens. 

Male genitalia (figs. 239, 239a, 239b, 239c, 239d. 239e, all figures to the same 
scale). Both tergite and sternite of segment 8 modified into specialized plates; 
sternite prolonged into two long slender prongs, the right prong the longer, 
laterally with two rounded lobes curving dorsad; the tergite a large flat plate 
terminating in two black pillars — masses of fused-together setae ; prongs of both 
sternite and tergite exceeding the genitalia; harpe (fig. 239a) with a stout costal 
lobe terminating in heavy setae, below tip with three long and several short 
setae, cucullus with short setae ; sacculus produced as a sharp pointed process ; 
socii slender, erect, widely separated ; anellus ovoid ; aedeagus long, gradually 
tapering ; vinculum an equilateral triangle. Scale sac bilobed, scales slender, 
forked. 

Female genitalia (figs. 240, 240a, 240b). Segment 8 strongly sclerotized 
except for a narrow posterior band, lateral margins produced anteriorly into 
curved processes, appearing as rudimentary apophyses ; raised pockets on lateral 
margins ; two short setae on a dorso-lateral sclerotized surface of the membra- 
nous posterior part of segment 8 (fig. 240a) ; ostium flaring, opening at the pos- 
terior margin of the sclerotized section of segment 8; signum faint, a mass of 
minute spines on a weakly sclerotized surface (fig. 240b). 

Specimens examined. — approximately 125 including the type series on Thur- 
beria thespesioides Gray and large series reared on cotton. 

Arizona : Pima Canyon, Santa Catalina Mountains, August and September, 
1913, type and allotype, and several paratypes, not all in good condition, all 
reared on Thurberia thespesioides Gray, together with $ and 9 genitalia slides 
from type material by Busck and Clarke; Mesa, 44, S, 9, "bred from Pima 
cotton bolls and leaves," November 1930 to January 1931 (H. C. Young); 
Tucson, 55, $ , 9 , with cocoons, " on cotton " with dates of emergence July and 
August (L. J. Bottimer) [U.S.N.M.] ; Madera Canyon, 4880 feet, Santa Rita 
Mountains, 5 S , 3 9, August 23-27 ( R. W. Hodges) [Cornell U.]. 

California: Calexico, 8 $ , 9 , July 14-15, 1931, "on cotton," with pressed 
leaves showing larval work (T. C. Barber) ; same locality, $ , 9 (O. A. Pratt 
and T. P. Cassidy) [U.S.N.M.]. 

Texas: San Benito, 1 S, 1 9, April 1-7 [U.S.N.M.]; 1 $, 1 9, "on cot- 
ton," 7.VIII.35 [C.N.Coll.]. 

In addition to the above records, five specimens in the United States 
National Museum from South America labeled " Lima " are identified 
(AB) as B. thurberiella. 

The pressed cotton leaves show a short linear mine and eaten 
patches. Busck (I.e.) gives the following description of the larva and 
cocoon on Thurberia: " The larva is dirty white, rough skinned, with 
prominent white tubercles and with two dorsal rows of black dots, one 



ANNETTE I'. BRAUN 187 

on each segment. I lead light ochreous with black eye spots and red- 
dish brown mouth parts. 

" Cocoon ribbed, typical of the genus, pearly white, length 8-9 
nun." The cocoon is slender with eight to ten ridges, not always well- 
defined. 

Specimens reared on cotton often surpass in wing expanse the 
moths of the type series, but, as shown by genitalia, are identical with 
those reared on the native food plant, Thurberia thespesioides Gray. 
The only species which B. thurberiella resembles in markings is the 
Mexican B. gossypiella Morrill, from which it is easily separated by 
genitalia of both sexes; B. thurberiella is further distinguished from B. 
gossypiella by the erect ridged egg and the linear serpentine mine in the 
leaves or bolls. 

McGregor {I.e. ) notes that the cocoon is surrounded by a " pali- 
sade." He raises the question as to whether Thurberia is the original 
food plant and suggests that " the insect has found its way to the 
United States from the ancient cotton-growing areas of Mexico and 
from the insular and maritime regions of tropical America to which 
cotton is indigenous." It should perhaps be noted that Thurberia 
thespesioides Gray is, by some authors, included in Gossypiuui as Gos- 
sypium thurberi Todaro. 



MEM. AMER. EKT. SOC, 18. 



BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



List of the North America 
(Synonyms 
Bucculatrix Zeller 
Ceroclastis Zeller 

1. fusicola Braun 

2. solidaginiella new species 

3. montana Braun 

4. magnella Chambers 

5. needhami Braun 

6. longula new species 

7. simulans new species 
fusicola Breland and Schmitt 

(not Braun) 

8. niveella Chambers 

9. parvinotata new species 

10. ochritincta new species 

11. viguierae new species 

12. micropunctata new species 

13. inusitata new species 

14. seneciensis new species 

15. bicristata new species 

16. cuneigera Meyrick 
errans Braun 

17. albaciliella Braun 

18. ochristrigella Braun 

19. eurotiella Walsingham 
chrysothamni Braun 

20. tenebricosa Braun 

21. ericameriae new species 

22. variabilis Braun 

23. separabilis new species 
variabilis Braun (in part) 

24. brunnescens new species 

25. evanescens new species 

26. benenotata new species 

27. floccosa Braun 

28. flourensiae new species 

29. franseriae new species 

30. staintonella Chambers 

albclla Chambers (not Stainton) 
pcrtenuis Braun 

31. immaculatella Chambers 



x Species of Bucculatrix 
in italics) 



32. agnella Clemens 
capitealbella Chambers 
capitialbella Chambers 
albicapitella Chambers 

33. kimballi new species 

34. ivella Busck 

35. ambrosiaefoliella Chambers 
rileyi Frey and Boll 

36. pallidula new species 

37. taeniola new species 

38. carolinae new species 

39. angustata Frey and Boll 
cresccutella Braun 

40. adelpha new species 

41. plucheae new species 

42. eupatoriella Braun 

43. polymniae new species 

44. speciosa new species 

45. subnitens Walsingham 

46. sexnotata Braun 

47. divisa Braun 

48. illecebrosa new species 

49. insolita Braun 

50. transversata Braun 

51. koebelella Busck 

52. salutatoria Braun 

53. leptalea new species 

54. arnicella Braun 

55. tridenticola new species 

56. spectabilis new species 

57. seorsa new species 

58. angustisquamella Braun 

59. columbiana new species 

60. sororcula new species 

61. nigripunctella Braun 

62. atrosignata new species 

63. enceliae new species 

64. latella Braun 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 



189 



65. sporobolella Busck 

66. packardella Chambers 

67. albertiella Busck 
tetrelia Braun 

68. coni forma new species 

69. platyphylla new species 

70. ochrisuffusa new species 

71. trifasciella Clemens 
obscurofasciella Chambers 

72. quinquenotella Chambers 

73. clomicola new species 

74. zophopasta new species 

75. litigiosella Zeller 

76. coronatella Clemens 

77. canadensi sella Chambers 

78. improvisa new species 

79. polytita new species 

80. luteella Chambers 

81. recognita new species 
litigiosella Forbes (not Zeller) 

82. paroptila new species 



83. 
84. 
85. 
86. 
87. 
88. 
89. 
90. 
91. 
92. 
93. 
94. 



95. 
96. 

97. 
98. 
99. 



fugitans Braun 
callistricha new species 
eugrapha new species 
cerina new species 
copeuta Meyrick 
locuples Meyrick 
ainsliella Murtfeldt 
eclecta new species 
anaticula new species 
disjuncta new species 
ceanothiella Braun 
pomifoliella Clemens 
curvilineatella (Packard) (as 
Lithocolletis curvilineatella ) 
pomonella Packard 
ilecella Busck 
quadrigemina Braun 
althaeae Busck 
gossypiella Morrill 
sphaeralceae new species 
thurberiella Busck 



Literature Cited 

Braun, Annette F. 1958. Modification of the ovipositor in certain species 

of Bucculatrix. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 84: 105-108, 9 figs. 
Diakonoff, A. 1954. Considerations on the terminology of the genitalia in 

Lepidoptera. Lepid. News 8 : 67-74, 2 figs. 
Forbes, Wm. T. M. 1923. The Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring 

states. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Memoir 68. 
Friend, Roger B. 1927. The biology of the birch leaf skeletonizer, Bucculatrix 

canadensisella Chambers. Conn. Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 288. 
McAtee, W. L. 1954. Speciation without isolation. Ohio Journ. Sci. 54 : 104- 

106. 
Meyrick, Edward. 1927. A revised handbook of British Lepidoptera. 914 

pp., illus. Watkins and Doncaster, London. 
Needham, James G. 1948. A bucculatricid gall maker and its hypermetamor- 

phosis. Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 56: 43-50. 
Pierce, F. M. and J. W. Metcalfe. 1935. The genitalia of the Tineina. 116 

pp., 68 plates. T. Chell and Son, Liverpool. 



MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



190 bucculatrix in north america 

Explanation of Figures 

Plate I 
The line represents 1 mm. 

Fig. 1. — Bucculatrix solidaginiella new species, paratype, front view of head of 
male; eye-cap (scape), pedicel and two segments of flagellum 
shown ; note antennal notch in first segment of flagellum. Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 2. — Bucculatrix solidaginiella new species, paratype, eye-cap (scape), pedi- 
cel and two segments of flagellum of female. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 3. — Bucculatrix fusicola Braun, fore wing (female). Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 4. — Bucculatrix viguierae new species, allotype, fore wing. Sierra County, 
New Mexico. 

Fig. 5. — Bucculatrix needhami Braun, paratype, fore wing (male). Glades 
County, Florida. 

Fig. 6. — Bucculatrix magnella Chambers, paratype, fore wing (male). Texas. 

Plate II 

Wing Pattern of Fore Wings 

The line represents 1 mm. 

-Bucculatrix sphaeralceae new species, allotype. Presidio, Texas. 
-Bucculatrix copeuta Meyrick. Sparrow Lake, Ontario. 
-Bucculatrix polymniae new species, paratype. Highland County, Ohio. 
-Bucculatrix illecebrosa new species, type. Colfax, Placer County, 

California. 
-Bucculatrix taeniola new species, type. Salinas, California. 
-Bucculatrix salutatoria Braun. Lillooet, British Columbia. 
-Bucculatrix thurberiella Busck. Mesa, Arizona. 

-Bucculatrix leptalea new species, paratype. Whitman County, Wash- 
ington. 
Fig. 15. — Bucculatrix trifasciella Clemens, fore wing of male (compared with 

type). Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Fig. 16. — Bucculatrix trifasciella Clemens, fore wing of female. Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Fig. 17. — Bucculatrix callistricha new species, allotype. Beaver Pond, Adams 

County, Ohio. 
Fig. 18. — Bucculatrix fugitans Braun. Scioto County, Ohio. 



Fig. 
Fig. 


7. 
8. 


Fig. 


9. 


Fig. 


10. 


Fig. 


11. 


Fig. 


12. 


Fig. 


13, 


Fig. 


14, 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 191 

Plate III 
Venation 

Fig. 19. — Bucculatrix ainsliella Murtfeldt, female; 19a, tip of fore wing, male. 

Essex County Park, New Jersey. 
Fig. 20. — Bucculatrix coronatella Clemens, female. Floradale, Adams County, 

Pennsylvania. 
Fig. 21. — Bucculatrix packardella Chambers, female. Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Fig. 22. — Bucculatrix quadrigemina Braun, male. Berkeley, California. 
Fig. 23. — Bucculatrix thurberiella Busck, male. Tucson, Arizona. 
Fig. 24. — Bucculatrix enceliae new species, paratype, female. Palm Springs, 

California. 
Fig. 25. — Bucculatrix eupatoriella Braun, paratype, female. Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Fig. 26. — Bucculatrix eupatoriella Braun, paratype, male, fore wing. Cincinnati, 

Ohio. 

Plate IV 
Venation 

Fig. 27. — Bucculatrix ochristrigella Braun, paratype, female; frenulum magni- 
fied to show close association of the two frenulum spines. Ala- 
meda County, California. 

Fig. 28. — Bucculatrix cuneigera Meyrick, female. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 29. — Bucculatrix cuneigera Meyrick, male. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 30. — Buccidatrix solidaginiella new species, paratype, male; variation in 
venation shown in fig. 30a. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Plate V 

The line represents 1 mm. 

Fig. 31. — Bucculatrix needhami Braun, last instar feeding larva; note single 
claw on thoracic legs. Englewood, Florida. 

Fig. 32. — Bucculatrix trifasciella Clemens, 5th instar larva. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 33. — Bucculatrix callistricha new species, 8th, 9th and 10th abdominal seg- 
ments of 5th instar larva, dorsal view. Beaver Pond, Adams 
County, Ohio. 

Fig. 34. — Bucculatrix canadensis ella Chambers, setal pattern of 5th instar larva 
(after Friend). 

Fig. 35. — Bucculatrix quadrigemina Braun, egg shell (x 100). Berkeley, Cali- 
fornia. 

Fig. 36. — Bucculatrix polymniae new species, egg shell (x 100). Rowan County, 
Kentucky. 

Fig. 37. — Buccidatrix callistricha new species, egg shell (x 100). Beaver Pond, 
Adams County, Ohio. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



192 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Plate VI 
The line represents 1 mm. 

Fig. 38. — Buccnlatrix domicola new species, pupa of male, dorsal view. Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. 

Fig. 39. — Buccnlatrix domicola new species, pupa of male, ventral view. Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 40. — Buccnlatrix domicola new species, terminal segments of abdomen of 
pupa of female, ventral view. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 41. — Buccnlatrix fusicola Braun, gall and cocoon on Helianthus tracheli- 
folius Mill. (x2). Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 42. — Buccnlatrix needhami Braun, gall on Helianthus agrestis Pollard; 42a, 
cocoon (x2). Englewood, Florida. 

Plate VII 
The line represents 1 mm. 

Fig. 43. — Buccnlatrix sexnotata Braun, mines and eaten patches on leaf of Aster 
divaricatus L. (natural size) ; 43a, cocoon. Great Smoky Moun- 
tains National Park, Tennessee. 

Fig. 44. — Buccnlatrix cuneigera Meyrick, mines on leaf of Aster shortii Lindl. 
(natural size) ; 44a, terminal portion of mine with overwintering 
cocoon (x 2) ; 44b, cocoon. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 45. — Buccnlatrix angustata Frey and Boll. Leaf of Aster novae-angliae L., 
showing work of a single larva: (1) linear mine, (2) small mines 
made by larva on leaving linear mine, (3) trumpet-shaped mines 
made in 4th and 5th instars, respectively (x2); 45a, cocoon. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Plate VIII 
The line represents 1 mm. 

Fig. 46. — Buccnlatrix speciosa new species; 46a, upper side of leaf of Solidago 
sp. with long linear mine and small eaten patches (natural size) ; 
46b, underside of leaf with moulting cocoon and leaf patches eaten 
by 5th instar larva (natural size) ; 46c, cocoon. Cranberry 
Glades, Pocahontas County, West Virginia. 

Fig. 47. — Buccnlatrix polymniae new species, cocoon. Rowan County, Kentucky. 

Fig. 48. — Bucculatrix divisa Braun; 48a, leaf-fragment showing early mine on 
Balsamorrhiza sagittata (Pursh) Nutt. (x2); 48b, small Cole- 
ophora-like mines made by larva on leaving the early mine, under- 
side of leaf as seen by transmitted light (x2); 48c, cocoon on 
underside of leaf of Balsamorrhiza sagittata. Cache County, Utah. 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 193 

Fig. 49. — Bucculatrix iridenticola new species, cocoon on leaf of Artemisia tri- 

dentata Xutt. Logan, Utah. 
Fig. 50. — Bucculatrix amicella Braun, cocoon. Logan Canyon, near Logan, 

Utah. 
Fig. 51. — Bucculatrix salutatoria Braun; leaf of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. 

(upper side) mined by 4th and 5th instar larva; 51a, cocoon on 

underside of leaf of Artemisia tridentata. Grand Teton National 

Park, Wyoming. 

Plate IX 
The line represents 1 mm. 

Fig. 52. — Bucculatrix packardclla Chambers; 52a, mined leaf of Quercus much- 
lenbergii Engelm. (natural size) ; 52b, second moulting cocoon 
and eaten patch on underside of leaf (x4) ; 52c, cocoon on bark 
of tree. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 53. — Bucculatrix trifasciella Clemens, cocoon on leaf of Quercus bicolor 
Willd. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 54. — Bucculatrix domicola new species ; 54a, mine on leaf of Quercus shu- 
mardii Buckl. (natural size); 54b, mine enlarged (x4); 54c, 
cocoon. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 55. — Bucculatrix jugitans Braun; 55a, leaf of Corylns americana Walt., 
with mine and small eaten patches (natural size) ; 55b, feeding 
pattern of the last larval instar (natural size) ; 55c, cocoon. Sci- 
oto County, Ohio. 

Fig. 56. — Bucculatrix pallidula new species, mine of the type; 56a, cocoon. Zion 
Canyon, Utah. 

Fig. 57. — Bucculatrix locuples Meyrick, cocoon. Rowan County, Kentucky. 

Plate X 
Genitalia 

Fig. 58. — Bucculatrix fusicola Braun, male genitalia, ventral view; 58a, aede- 
agus ; 58b, tip of aedeagus greatly enlarged. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 59. — Bucculatrix fusicola Braun, female genitalia, ventral view; 59a, two 
ventral ribs of signum highly magnified. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 60. — Bucculatrix montana Braun, type, male genitalia, ventral view; 60a, 
apex of harpe, greatly enlarged. Mountain Lake, Virginia. 

Fig. 61. — Bucculatrix montana Braun, female genitalia, ventral view (bursa 
copulatrix omitted), signum as in solidaginiella. Adams County, 
Ohio. 

Fig. 62. — Bucculatrix solidaginiella new species, paratype, male genitalia, ven- 
tral view ; 62a, conical setae of apex of harpe, greatly enlarged. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



194 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Fig. 63. — Bucculatrix solidaginiella new species, paratype, female genitalia, ven- 
tral view ; 63a, two ventral ribs of signum highly magnified, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio ; 63b, two ventral ribs of signum highly magnified, 
Bonneville, Washington. 

Plate XI 

Genitalia 

Fig. 64. — Bucculatrix magnella Chambers, paratype (slide by A. Busck), lateral 

view of male genitalia, left harpe omitted; 64a, conical setae of 

apex of harpe, much enlarged. Texas. 
Fig. 65. — Bucculatrix magnella Chambers, female genitalia, ventral view ; 65a, 

one ventral rib of signum highly magnified. Chicago, Illinois. 
Fig. 66. — Bucculatrix needhami Braun, type, male genitalia (anellus and aede- 

agus omitted), ventral view; 66a, aedeagus. Englewood, Florida. 
Fig. 67. — Bucculatrix needhami Braun, allotype, female genitalia, ventral view 

(bursa copulatrix omitted) ; 67a, several ribs of signum highly 

magnified. Englewood, Florida. 
Fig. 68. — Bucculatrix longula new species, paratype, male genitalia, ventral 

view ; 68a, tip of aedeagus, much enlarged. Wilma, Whitcom 

County, Washington. 
Fig. 69. — Bucculatrix longula new species, paratype, female genitalia, ventral 

view (bursa copulatrix omitted) ; 69a, several ribs of signum 

highly magnified. Wilma, Whitcom County, Washington. 

Plate XII 
Genitalia 

Fig. 70. — Bucculatrix simulans new species, paratype, aedeagus ; 70a, tip of aede- 
agus much enlarged. Austin, Texas. 70b, tip of aedeagus much 
enlarged. East St. Louis, Illinois. 70c, tip of aedeagus much en- 
larged (from specimen of the Colorado series). 

Fig. 71. — Bucculatrix simulans new species, paratype, female genitalia, ventral 
view; 71a, one ventral rib of signum highly magnified. Austin, 
Texas. 

Fig. 72. — Bucculatrix parvinotata new species, type, male genitalia, ventral view 
(anellus omitted). Mesilla Park, New Mexico. 

Fig. 73. — Bucculatrix ochritincta new species, type, female genitalia, ventral 
view (bursa copulatrix omitted) ; 73a, one ventral rib of signum; 
73b, dorsal ribs of signum highly magnified. Fall Creek Falls 
State Park, Tennessee. 

Fig. 74. — Bucculatrix viguierae new species, allotype, female genitalia, ventral 
view (bursa copulatrix omitted) ; 74a, several ribs of signum 
highly magnified. Sierra County, New Mexico. 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 195 

Fig. 75. — Bucculatrix viguierae new species, type, male genitalia, ventral view 

(anellus omitted). Sierra County, New Mexico. 

Plate XIII 
Genitalia 

Fig. 76. — Bucculatrix inusitata new species, paratype; 76a, male genitalia, ven- 
tral view, right harpe detached; 76b, inner face of right harpe; 
76c, subscaphium and free arms of gnathos, much enlarged. Barn- 
stable, Massachusetts. 

Fig. 77. — Bucculatrix inusitata new species, paratype, female genitalia, ventral 
view; 77a, one ventral rib of signum highly magnified. Augusta, 
Maine. 

Fig. 78. — Bucculatrix bicristata new species, type, male genitalia, ventral view. 
St. Petersburg, Florida. 

Fig. 79. — Bucculatrix micropunctata new species, type, male genitalia, ventral 
view ; 79a, aedeagus ; 79b, tip of aedeagus, much enlarged. Nee- 
dles, California. 

Fig. 80. — Bucculatrix scnecicnsis new species, paratype, male genitalia, ventral 
view (aedeagus omitted) ; 80a, aedeagus; 80b, scale sac. Lovejoy 
Buttes, Los Angeles County, California. 

Fig. 81. — Bucculatrix scnecicnsis new species, paratype, female genitalia (bursa 
copulatrix omitted), ventral view; 81a, signum; 81b, one ventral 
rib of signum highly magnified. Mint Canyon, Los Angeles 
County, California. 

Plate XIV 
Genitalia 

Fig. 82. — Bucculatrix cuneigera Meyrick, male genitalia, ventral view ; 82a, scale 
sac everted, scales expanded. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 83. — Bucculatrix cuneigera Meyrick, female genitalia, ventral view. Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 84. — Bucculatrix ochristrigella Braun, paratype, female genitalia (bursa 
copulatrix omitted), ventral view. Mills College, Alameda County, 
California. 

Fig. 85. — Bucculatrix ochristrigella Braun, paratype, male genitalia, ventral 
view ; 85a, aedeagus. Mills College, Alameda County, California. 

Fig. 86. — Bucculatrix albaciliclla Braun, paratype, male genitalia, ventral view. 
Mills College, Alameda County, California. 

Fig. 87. — Bucculatrix albaciliella Braun, paratype, female genitalia (bursa copu- 
latrix omitted), ventral view; 87a, one ventral rib of signum 
highly magnified. Alameda County, California. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



196 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Plate XV 
Genitalia 

Fig. 88. — Bucculatrix eurotiella Walsingham, male genitalia, ventral view; 88a, 
right harpe (detached); 88b, aedeagus; 88c, scale sac. Cache 
County, Utah. 

Fig. 89. — Bucculatrix eurotiella Walsingham, female genitalia, ventral view; 
89a, two ribs of signum highly magnified. From slide of speci- 
men from Cache County, Utah, agreeing with slide of type (J. F. 
G. Clarke, 10415). 

Fig. 90. — Bucculatrix eurotiella Walsingham, type, female, left lateral lobe of 
segment 7 overlying basal part of segment 8, showing marginal 
scales of lobe of segment 7, and the tuft of specialized scales be- 
neath it on the intersegmental membrane. (Slide 10415, J. F. G. 
Clarke). Lancaster, Los Angeles County, California. 

Fig. 91. — Bucculatrix tenebricosa Braun, paratype, female genitalia (bursa copu- 
latrix omitted), ventral view. Logan, Cache County, Utah. 

Fig. 92. — Bucculatrix tenebricosa Braun, paratype, male genitalia, ventral view. 
Logan, Cache County, Utah. 

Fig. 93. — Bucculatrix ericameriae new species, paratype, female genitalia (bursa 
copulatrix omitted), ventral view; 93a, specialized setae of lobes 
of segment 8, one highly magnified ; 93b, several ribs of signum, 
highly magnified. Placerville, California. 

Plate XVI 
Genitalia 

-Bucculatrix variabilis Braun, male genitalia, ventral view ; 94a, aede- 
agus. Stanford, California. 

-Bucculatrix variabilis Braun, female genitalia (bursa copulatrix omit- 
ted), ventral view; 95a, lateral plate of segment 7, more highly 
magnified. San Francisco, California. 

-Bucculatrix separabilis new species, allotype, male genitalia, ventral 
view ; 96a, aedeagus. Stanford, Santa Clara County, California. 

-Bucculatrix separabilis new species, type, female genitalia (bursa copu- 
latrix omitted), ventral view; 97a, lateral lobe of segment 7, more 
highly magnified. Stanford, Santa Clara County, California. 

-Bucculatrix evanescens new species, type, male genitalia, ventral view; 
98a, aedeagus. Olancha, Inyo County, California. 

-Bucculatrix brunnescens new species, type, male genitalia, ventral 
view ; 99a, aedeagus ; 99b, scale sac. Elk Point, South Dakota. 



Fig. 


94. 


Fig. 


95. 


Fig. 


96. 


Fig. 


97. 


Fig. 


98. 


Fig. 


99. 



ANNETTE F. BRA UN 197 

Plate XVII 
Genitalia 

Fig. 100. — Bucculatrix fioccosa Braun, paratype, male genitalia, ventral view; 
100a, cucullus of harpe highly magnified ; 100b, aedeagus. Olancha, 
Inyo County, California. 

Fig. 101. — Bucculatrix fioccosa Braun, paratype, female genitalia, ventral view; 
101a, specialized scales of segment 8 highly magnified; 101b, sev- 
ral ribs of signum highly magnified. Olancha, Inyo County, Cali- 
fornia. 

Fig. 102. — Bucculatrix bencnotata new species, type, female genitalia (to the same 
scale as fig. 104, evanescens) (bursa copulatrix omitted). Pena 
Blanca Canyon, Santa Cruz County, Arizona. 

Fig. 103. — Bucculatrix cva>icsccns new species, paratype, female genitalia (bursa 
copulatrix omitted, specialized scales of segment 8 removed), ven- 
tral view; 103a, several ribs of signum highly magnified. Supe- 
rior, Arizona. 

Fig. 104. — Bucculatrix evanescens new species, allotype, ostium and sternite of 
segment 8, much enlarged, to show the specialized scaling. Olancha, 
Inyo County, California. 

Plate XVIII 
Genitalia 

Fig. 105. — Bucculatrix flour ensiae new species, paratype, male genitalia, ventral 
view ; 105a, aedeagus ; 105b, left harpe of allotype. Pearce, Arizona. 

Fig. 106. — Bucculatrix flourensiae new species, type, female genitalia, ventral 
view ; v, ventral rib of signum, d, mid-dorsal rib, highly magni- 
fied. Pearce, Arizona. 

Fig. 107. — Bucculatrix flourensiae new species, paratype, dorsal view of eighth 
abdominal segment of female. Pearce, Arizona. 

Fig. 108. — Bucculatrix franseriae new species, paratype, male genitalia, ventral 
view. Tempe, Arizona. 

Fig. 109. — Bucculatrix franseriae new species, allotype, female genitalia, ventral 
view. Tempe, Arizona. 

Plate XIX 
Genitalia 

Fig. 110. — Bucculatrix staintonella Chambers, male genitalia, ventral view; 110a, 
portion of apex of harpe more highly magnified; 110b, aedeagus; 
110c, scale sac. Winnfield, Louisiana. 

Fig. 111. — Bucculatrix staintonella Chambers, female genitalia, ventral view; 
Winnfield, Louisiana. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



198 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Fig. 112. — Bucculatrix agnella Clemens, female genitalia, ventral view; 112a, one 

ventral rib of signum highly magnified; 112b, vaginal setae highly 

magnified. Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Fig. 113. — Bucculatrix agnella Clemens, male genitalia, harpes omitted; 113a, 

right harpe; 113b, lateral view of tegumen, socii and subscaphium; 

113c, aedeagus; 113d, scale sac (same magnification as genitalia). 

Cincinnati, Ohio and Mineral Springs, Adams County, Ohio. 

Plate XX 
Genitalia 

Fig. 114. — Bucculatrix kimballi new species, type, male genitalia, lateral view 
(harpes omitted); 114a, right harpe; 114b, aedeagus. Oneco, 
Manatee County, Florida. 

Fig. 115. — Bucculatrix kimballi new species, paratype, female genitalia, ventral 
view; 115a, a portion of signum highly magnified. Oneco, Mana- 
tee County, Florida. 

Fig. 116. — Bucculatrix ivclla Busck, cotype, male genitalia, ventral view. Palm 
Beach, Florida. 

Fig. 117. — Bucculatrix ivclla Busck, female genitalia (bursa copulatrix omitted), 
ventral view; 117a, several ribs of signum highly magnified. 
(Slide compared with slide of a cotype). " N. Riv. Hwy 50," 
Maryland. 

Plate XXI 

Genitalia 

Fig. 118. — Bucculatrix anibrosiaefoliella Chambers, male genitalia, ventral view. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 119. — Bucculatrix anibrosiaefoliella Chambers, female genitalia (bursa copu- 
latrix omitted), ventral view; 119a, one ventral rib of signum 
highly magnified. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 120. — Bucculatrix pallidula new species, type, female genitalia, ventral view ; 
120a, a section of signum highly magnified. Zion Canyon, Utah. 

Fig. 121. — Bucculatrix taeniola new species, allotype, female genitalia (bursa 
copulatrix omitted), ventral view; 121a, one of the groups of 
spined ribs of signum, highly magnified. Mt. Wilson, California. 

Fig. 122. — Bucculatrix taeniola new species, type, male genitalia, ventral view; 
122a, aedeagus; 122b, scale sac (slide by Busck). Salinas, Cali- 
fornia. 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 199 

Plate XXII 
Genitalia 

Fig. 123. — Bucculatrix carolinae new species, type, female genitalia, ventral view; 
123a, one ventral rib of signum highly magnified; 123b, tergite of 
basal half of segment 8. Cherry Hill Recreation Area, Oconee 
County, South Carolina. 

Fig. 124. — Bucculatrix adelpha new species, allotype, female genitalia, ventral 
view; 124a, one signum rib highly magnified. Ottawa, Ontario. 

Fig. 125. — Bucculatrix angustata Frey and Boll, female genitalia, ventral view. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 126. — Bucculatrix angustata Frey and Boll, male genitalia, ventral view; 
126a, inner surface of right harpe; 126b, aedeagus. Cincinnati, 
Ohio. 

Fig. 127. — Bucculatrix adelpha new species, type, male genitalia (left harpe de- 
tached), ventral view; 127a, inner surface of left harpe; 127b, 
aedeagus. East Ottawa, Ontario. 

Plate XXIII 
Genitalia 

Fig. 128. — Bucculatrix plucheae new species, type, male genitalia, ventral view; 
128a, inner surface of harpe, to show concave margin of costa 
below apex. Key West, Florida. 

Fig. 129. — Bucculatrix plucheae new species, allotype, female genitalia (bursa 
copulatrix omitted), ventral view; 129a, two ventral ribs of sig- 
num, with minute spines between, highly magnified. Key West, 
Florida. 

Fig. 130. — Bucculatrix cupatoriclla Braun, paratype, male genitalia, ventral view. 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 131. — Bucculatrix eupatoriella Braun, paratype, female genitalia (bursa cop- 
ulatrix omitted), ventral view; 131a, one ventral rib of signum 
highly magnified. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 132. — Bucculatrix polymniae new species, paratype, male genitalia, ventral 
view; 132a, aedeagus. Rowan County, Kentucky. 

Fig. 133. — Bucculatrix polymniae, new species, paratype, female genitalia, ven- 
tral view; 133a, two ventral ribs of signum highly magnified. 
Rowan County, Kentucky. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



200 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Plate XXIV 

Genitalia 

Fig. 134. — Bucculatrix sexnotata Braun, male genitalia, ventral view. Ash Cave, 
Hocking County, Ohio. 

Fig. 135. — Bucculatrix sexnotata Braun, female genitalia (bursa copulatrix omit- 
ted), ventral view; 135a, two ribs of signum highly magnified. 
Ash Cave, Hocking County, Ohio. 

Fig. 136. — Bucculatrix speciosa new species, type, female genitalia (bursa copu- 
latrix omitted), ventral view; 136a, one ventral rib of signum 
highly magnified. Cranberry Glades, Pocahontas County, West 
Virginia. 

Fig. 137. — Bucculatrix subnitens Walsingham, female genitalia (bursa copulatrix 
omitted), ventral view, specialized scales of left scale pocket lost; 
137a, one ventral rib of signum highly magnified. Madera Can- 
yon, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona. 

Plate XXV 

Genitalia 

Fig. 138. — Bucculatrix divisa Braun, paratype, male genitalia, ventral view. 
Cache County, Utah. 

Fig. 139. — Bucculatrix divisa Braun, female genitalia (bursa copulatrix omit- 
ted), ventral view; highly magnified vaginal setae to the left; 
139a, one ventral rib of signum highly magnified. Clarkston, 
Washington. 

Fig. 140. — Bucculatrix illecebrosa new species, paratype, male genitalia, ventral 
view ; 140a, aedeagus. Colfax, Placer County, California. 

Fig. 141. — Bucculatrix illecebrosa new species, paratype, female genitalia (bursa 
copulatrix omitted), ventral view; highly magnified vaginal setae 
to the left. Colfax, Placer County, California. 

Fig. 142. — Bucculatrix transversata Braun, type, male genitalia, ventral view; 
142a, aedeagus. Rivera, Los Angeles County, California. 

Plate XXVI 
Genitalia 

Fig. 143. — Bucculatrix insolita Braun, type, male genitalia, ventral view ; 143a, 
aedeagus, with tip highly magnified. Camp Baldy, San Ber- 
nardino Mountains, California. 

Fig. 144. — Bucculatrix insolita Braun, allotype, female genitalia (bursa copula- 
trix omitted), ventral view; highly magnified vaginal setae to the 
left; 144a, two ventral ribs of signum highly magnified. Fred- 
alba. San Bernardino Mountains, California. 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 201 

Fig. 145. — Bucculatrix koebelella Busck, ex type series, female genitalia (bursa 
copulatrix omitted), ventral view; highly magnified vaginal setae 
to the left. Los Angeles County, California. 

Fig. 146. — Bucculatrix koebelella Busck, male genitalia, ventral view. Los Ange- 
les County, California. 

Fig. 147. — Bucculatrix leptalea new species, allotype, female genitalia (bursa 
copulatrix omitted), ventral view; 147a, two ventral ribs of sig- 
num highly magnified. Snake River, opposite Clarkston, Wash- 
ington. 

Fig. 148. — Bucculatrix leptalea new species, type, male genitalia, ventral view; 
148a, tip of socius, more highly magnified ; 148b, aedeagus ; 148c, 
scale sac. Snake River, opposite Clarkston, Washington. 

Plate XXVII 
Genitalia 

Fig. 149. — Bucculatrix salutatoria Braun, paratype, male genitalia, ventral view. 
Rich County, Utah. 

Fig. 150. — Bucculatrix salutatoria Braun, female genitalia (bursa copulatrix 
omitted), ventral view. Hedley, British Columbia. 150a, para- 
type, two ribs of signum highly magnified. Rich County, Utah. 

Fig. 151. — Bucculatrix salutatoria Braun, paratype, 9th abdominal segment of fe- 
male, showing exserted vagina and highly magnified vaginal setae. 
Rich County, Utah. 

Fig. 152. — Bucculatrix aruicella Braun, paratype, male genitalia, ventral view. 
Logan Canyon, near Logan, Utah. 

Fig. 153. — Bucculatrix aruicella Braun, type, female genitalia (bursa copulatrix 
omitted), ventral view. Logan Canyon, near Logan, Utah. 

Plate XXVIII 

Genitalia 

Fig. 154. — Bucculatrix tridcnticola new species, type, male genitalia, ventral view; 
154a, aedeagus (Slide 10505, J. F. G. Clarke). Spring Creek, 
Baker County, Oregon. 

Fig. 155. — Bucculatrix tridenticola new species, paratype, a different view of tegu- 
men and socii. Entiat, Washington. 

Fig. 156. — Bucculatrix tridenticola new species, paratype, female genitalia (bursa 
copulatrix omitted), ventral view; highly magnified vaginal setae 
to the left; 156a, one ventral rib of signum highly magnified. 
Ephraim, Utah. 

Fig. 157. — Bucculatrix spectabilis new species, type, female genitalia (bursa cop- 
ulatrix omitted), ventral view; highly magnified vaginal setae to 
the left. Madera Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



202 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Fig. 158. — Bucculatrix seorsa new species, type, female genitalia (bursa copula- 
trix omitted), ventral view; highly magnified vaginal setae to the 
left. Wendel, Lassen County, California. 

Fig. 159. — Bucculatrix seorsa new species, allotype, male genitalia (anellus omit- 
ted), ventral view; 159a, aedeagus. Wendel, Lassen County, 
California. 

Plate XXIX 
Genitalia 

Fig. 160. — Bucculatrix angustisquamella Braun, paratype, female genitalia (bursa 
copulatrix omitted), ventral view; highly magnified vaginal setae 
to the left ; 160a, a small area of reticulate surface of segment 8 
highly magnified. Logan Canyon, Utah. 

Fig. 161. — Bucculatrix angustisquamella Braun, paratype, male genitalia, ventral 
view; 161a, scale sac. Logan Canyon, Utah. 

Fig. 162. — Bucculatrix columbiana new species, allotype, female genitalia (bursa 
copulatrix omitted), ventral view; 162a, three ventral ribs of sig- 
num highly magnified. Kelowna, British Columbia. 

Fig. 163. — Bucculatrix columbiana new species, type, male genitalia, ventral view; 
163a, aedeagus. Kelowna, British Columbia. 

Plate XXX 
Genitalia 

Fig. 164. — Bucculatrix sororcula new species, type, male genitalia, ventral view; 
164a, aedeagus. Boyce Thompson Arboretum, Superior, Arizona. 

Fig. 165. — Bucculatrix sororcula new species, allotype, female genitalia (bursa 
copulatrix omitted), ventral view; 165a, one ventral rib of signum 
highly magnified. Olancha, Inyo County, California. 

Fig. 166. — Bucculatrix nigripunctella Braun, paratype, female genitalia (bursa 
copulatrix omitted), ventral view. Palm Springs, California. 

Fig. 167. — Bucculatrix atrosignata new species, type, female genitalia (bursa 
copulatrix omitted), ventral view; 167a, two ventral ribs of sig- 
num highly magnified. Eureka, Utah. 

Plate XXXI 

Genitalia 

Fig. 168. — Bucculatrix atrosignata new species, allotype, male genitalia, ventral 
view ; 168a, aedeagus ; 168b, scale sac. Eureka, Utah. 

Fig. 169. — Bucculatrix latella Braun, paratype, male genitalia, ventral view. Loma 
Linda, California. 

Fig. 170. — Bucculatrix latella Braun, female genitalia (bursa copulatrix omitted), 
ventral view, vagina exserted ; vaginal setae to left, highly magni- 
fied; 170a, two ribs of signum highly magnified. Monache 
Meadows, Tulare County, California. 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 203 

Fig. 171. — Bucculatrix latella Braun, type, ninth abdominal segment of female, 
showing vagina within the body and its anterior margin, which is 
the line of junction with the oviduct. Loma Linda, California. 

Plate XXXII 
Genitalia 

Fig. 172. — Bucculatrix enceliae new species, paratype, male genitalia, ventral 
view ; 172a. aedeagus, with tip enlarged. Palm Springs, California. 

Fig. 173. — Bucculatrix enceliae new species, paratype, female genitalia (bursa 
copulatrix omitted), ventral view; portion of vagina enlarged (to 
left) and vaginal setae highly magnified (to right) ; 173a, one 
ventral rib of signum highly magnified. From slide 560 (A. F. B.), 
San Diego, California; some details from slide 484 (A. F. B.), 
Palm Springs, California, and from slide 548 (A. F. B.), White- 
water, California. 

Fig. 174. — Bucculatrix sporobolclla Busck, male genitalia, ventral view; 174a, 
aedeagus; 174b, several clusters of scales of the scale sac. Loma 
Linda, California. 

Fig. 175. — Bucculatrix sporobolclla Busck, type, female genitalia (bursa copula- 
trix omitted), ventral view; 175a, one ventral rib of signum 
highly magnified (Slide 10414, J. F. G. Clarke). Cimarron, New 
Mexico. 

Plate XXXIII 
Genitalia 

Fig. 176. — Bucculatrix canadensisclla Chambers, lateral aspect of denuded tip of 

female abdomen showing position of fringes and tufts or patches 

of specialized scales (refer to text p. 148 for further explanation 

of this figure). 
Fig. 177. — Bucculatrix eugrapha new species, type, scale sac, dorsal view, as seen 

retracted into the body. For expanded scales, see fig. 82a. 
Fig. 178. — Bucculatrix packardclla Chambers, female genitalia, ventral view; 

178a, one ventral rib of signum highly magnified. Cincinnati, 

Ohio. 
Fig. 179. — Bucculatrix packardclla Chambers, male genitalia, ventral view; 179a, 

lateral view, right harpe removed; 179b, scale sac. Cincinnati, 

Ohio. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



204 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Plate XXXIV 

Genitalia 

Fig. 180. — Buccidatrix albertiella Busck, cotype, female genitalia, ventral view; 
180a, dentate strip of ductus bursae; 180b, one ventral rib of sig- 
num highly magnified. Alameda County, California. 

Fig. 181. — Bncculatrix albertiella Busck, male genitalia (left harpe omitted), 
ventral view. Alameda County, California. 

Fig. 182. — Buccidatrix ochrisuffusa new species, type, female genitalia (bursa 
copulatrix omitted), ventral view; 182a, a series of ribs of signum 
highly magnified. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 183. — Buccidatrix platyphylla new species, type, female genitalia. E. Au- 
rora, New York. 

Plate XXXV 
Genitalia 

Fig. 184. — Buccidatrix coniforma new species, type, female genitalia (bursa copu- 
latrix omitted), ventral view; 184a, a modified scale of the dorsal 
anterior margin of segment 8, highly magnified ; 184b, one ventral 
rib of signum highly magnified. Martha's Vineyard, Massachu- 
setts. 

Fig. 185. — Buccidatrix trifasciella Clemens, female genitalia (bursa copulatrix 
omitted), ventral view; 185a, one ventral rib of signum highly 
magnified. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 186. — Buccidatrix trifasciella Clemens, male genitalia, ventral view; 186a, 
lateral view (right harpe removed). Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 187. — Buccidatrix quinquenotella Chambers, female genitalia (bursa copula- 
trix omitted), ventral view. Iowa City, Iowa. 

Fig. 188. — Buccidatrix quinquenotella Chambers, male genitalia, ventral view. 
Iowa City, Iowa. 

Fig. 189. — Dorsal view (inner surface) of harpe, showing the articulation with 
anellus characteristic of Section IV ; concave membranous basal 
portion of harpe (lightly stippled) lies in contact with the convex 
surface of the anellus. Note also the small costal process which 
engages the slender vinculum. Buccidatrix quinquenotella Cham- 
bers. Highlands, North Carolina. 

Plate XXXVI 

Genitalia 

Fig. 190. — Buccidatrix domicola new species, paratype, male genitalia, most of 
right harpe removed, semi-lateral view. Cincinnati, Ohio. 



ANNETTE F. ISK.UX 205 

Fig. 191. — Bucculatrix domicola new species, paratype, female genitalia (bursa 
copulatrix omitted), ventral view; 191a, one ventral rib of signum 

highly magnified. Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Fig. 192. — Bucculatrix sophopasta new species, type, male genitalia, ventral view. 

Hood River. Oregon. 
Fig. 193. — Bucculatrix sophopasta new species, paratype, male genitalia, lateral 

view (right harpe removed). Victoria, British Columbia. 
Fig. 194. — Bucculatrix sophopasta new species, paratype, female genitalia (bursa 

copulatrix omitted), ventral view; 194a, one ventral rib of signum 

highly magnified. Victoria, British Columbia. 
Fig. 195. — Bucculatrix litigiosella Zeller, type, female genitalia, ventral view ; 

195a, one ventral rib of signum highly magnified ( Slide No. 

10655, J. F. G. Clarke). Dallas. Texas. 

Plate XXXVII 
Genitalia 

Fig. 196. — Bucculatrix corouatclla Clemens, female genitalia (bursa copulatrix 
omitted), ventral view; 196a, one ventral rib of signum highly 
magnified. Washington, D. C. 

Fig. 197. — Bucculatrix corouatclla Clemens, male genitalia, ventral view. Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Fig. 198. — Bucculatrix canadensisella Chambers, male genitalia, ventral view. 
Douglas Lake, Michigan. 

Fig. 199. — Bucculatrix canadensisella Chambers, female genitalia (bursa copula- 
trix omitted ) , ventral view ; 199a, one ventral rib of signum 
highly magnified. Merivale, Ontario. 

Fig. 200. — Bucculatrix improvisa new species, paratype, female genitalia (bursa 
copulatrix omitted), ventral view; 200a, two ventral ribs of sig- 
num highly magnified. Ft. Ancient State Memorial, Warren 
County, Ohio. 

Fig. 201. — Bucculatrix improvisa new species, paratype, male genitalia, ventral 
view. Ft. Ancient State Memorial, Warren County, Ohio. 

Plate XXXVIII 
Genitalia 

Fig. 202. — Bucculatrix polytita new species, allotype, female genitalia (bursa 

copulatrix omitted), ventral view; 202a, ventral ribs of signum 

highly magnified. Bobcaygeon, Ontario. 
Fig. 203. — Bucculatrix polytita new species, type, male genitalia, ventral view. 

Bobcaygeon, Ontario. 
Fig. 204. — Bucculatrix rccoguita new species, paratype, male genitalia, ventral 

view. Cohasset, Massachusetts. 204a, ventral view of aedeagus, 

paratype. Washington, D. C. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



206 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Fig. 205. — Bucculatrix recognita new species, paratype. female genitalia (bursa 
copulatrix omitted), ventral view; 205a, a section of the signum 
highly magnified. Kirkwood, Missouri. 

Fig. 206. — Bucculatrix recognita new species, allotype, ostium and associated 
structures. Ottawa, Ontario. 

Plate XXXIX 
Genitalia 

Fig. 207. — Bucculatrix lutcclla Chambers, male genitalia, ventral view; 207a. 
lateral view of aedeagus and anellus; 207b, scale sac. Cincinnati, 
Ohio. 

Fig. 208. — Bucculatrix lutcclla Chambers, female genitalia (bursa copulatrix 
omitted), ventral view; 208a, two ventral ribs of signum highly 
magnified. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 209. — Bucculatrix paroptila new species, paratype. male genitalia, ventral 
view. Augusta. Maine. 

Fig. 210. — Bucculatrix paroptila new species, paratype, female genitalia (bursa 
copulatrix omitted), ventral view. Augusta, Maine. 

Fig. 211. — Bucculatrix fugitans Braun, type, male genitalia (right harpe re- 
moved), ventral view; 211a, scale sac. Adams County, Ohio. 

Fig. 212. — Bucculatrix fugitans Braun, female genitalia (bursa copulatrix omit- 
ted), ventral view. Scioto County. Ohio. 

Fig. 213. — Bucculatrix callistriclia new species, paratype. female genitalia (bursa 
copulatrix omitted), ventral view; 213a, one ventral rib of signum 
highly magnified. Beaver Pond, Adams County, Ohio. 

Fig. 214. — Bucculatrix callistriclia new species, paratype. male genitalia, ventral 
view; 214a, scale sac (to same scale as fig. 211a). Beaver Pond. 
Adams Count) - , Ohio. 

Plate XL 

Genitalia 

Fig. 215. — Bucculatrix cugraplia new species, type, male genitalia, ventral view. 
Tweed, Ontario. 

Fig. 216. — Bucculatrix cerina new species, type, male genitalia, ventral view; 
216a, aedeagus; 216b, scale sac. Siesta Key, Sarasota County, 
Florida. 

Fig. 217. — Bucculatrix copcula Meyrick, male genitalia, ventral view; 217a, aede- 
agus. Sparrow Lake, Ontario. 

Fig. 218. — Bucculatrix copcuia Meyrick, female genitalia (bursa copulatrix omit- 
ted), ventral view; 218a, two ventral ribs of signum highly mag- 
nified. Sparrow Lake, Ontario. 

Fig. 219. — Bucculatrix locuples Meyrick, male genitalia, ventral view. Fleming 
Countv, Kentuckv. 



ANNETTE F. BRAUN 207 

Fig. 220. — Bucculatrix locuples Meyrick, female genitalia (bursa copulatrix omit- 
ted ). ventral view; 220a, one ventral rib of signum highly magni- 
fied. Rowan County, Kentucky. 

Plate XLI 

Genitalia 

Fig'. 221. — Bucculatrix ainsliella Murtfeldt, female genitalia, ventral view. Essex 
Count}" Park, New Jersey. 

Fig. 222. — Bucculatrix ainsliella Murtfeldt, male genitalia, ventral view. La- 
beled " topotype " but probably from Rochester, New York. Fig. 
222a, harpe from inner side ; 222b, cornuti. Monroe County, New 
York. 

Fig. 223. — Bucculatrix eclecta new species, allotype, female genitalia (bursa copu- 
latrix omitted), ventral view. Albany ( ?), New York. 

Fig. 224. — Bucculatrix eclecta new species, paratype, male genitalia, ventral view ; 
224a, aedeagus and anellus. Augusta, Maine. 

Plate XLII 

Genitalia 

Fig. 225. — Bucculatrix anaticula new species, paratype, male genitalia, ventral 
view ; 225a, aedeagus. Constance Bay, Ontario. 

Fig. 226. — Bucculatrix anaticula new species, paratype, female genitalia, ventral 
view. Constance Bay, Ontario. 

Fig. 227. — Bucculatrix disjuncta new species, type, male genitalia, ventral view; 
227a, aedeagus. Denver, Colorado. 

Fig. 228. — Bucculatrix pomijoliclla Clemens, male genitalia; 228a, ventral aspect; 
228b, dorsal aspect of vinculum, tegumen and socii ; 228c, aede- 
agus. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 229. — Bucculatrix pomijoliclla Clemens, female genitalia, ventral view; 229a, 
one rib of signum highly magnified. Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Fig. 230. — Bucculatrix ceanothiclla Braun, type, female genitalia, ventral view. 
Colton, San Bernardino County, California. 

Plate XLIII 

Genitalia 

Fig. 231. — Bucculatrix ilccclla Busck, female genitalia, ventral view. Browns- 
ville, Texas. 

Fig. 232. — Bucculatrix ilecella Busck, male genitalia (ventral lobe of right harpe 
removed), ventral view; 232a, aedeagus. Brownsville, Texas. 

MEM. AMER. ENT. SOC, 18. 



208 BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 

Fig. 233. — Bucculatrix gossypiella Morrill, paratype, male genitalia, ventral view 
(slide by A. Busck, " type material, photo subjects ") ; 233a, right 
harpe, flattened inner surface (Slide No. 9944, J. F. G. Clarke) ; 
233b, aedeagus. Cajeme, Sonora, Mexico. 

Fig. 234. — Bucculatrix gossypiella Morrill, paratype, female genitalia, ventral 
view (Slide No. 9945, J. F. G. Clarke) ; 234a, a portion of the 
signum highly magnified. Cajeme, Sonora, Mexico. 

Plate XLIV 
Genitalia 

Fig. 235. — Bucculatrix quadrigcmina Braun, paratype, male genitalia, ventral 
view ; 235a, sclerotized plate of sternite of segment 8. Loma 
Linda, San Bernardino County, California. 

Fig. 236. — Bucculatrix quadrigcmina Braun, female genitalia (bursa copulatrix 
omitted), ventral view; 236a, dorsal aspect of sclerotized basal 
half of segment 8; 236b, one ventral rib of signum highly magni- 
fied. San Diego, California. 

Fig. 237. — Bucculatrix sphacralceae new species, paratype, male genitalia, ven- 
tral view; 237a, arms of gnathos, enlarged; 237b, aedeagus; 237c, 
ventral plate of eighth abdominal segment. Blythe, California. 

Fig. 238. — Bucculatrix sphacralceae new species, allotype, female genitalia (bursa 
copulatrix omitted), ventral view. Presidio, Texas. 238a. a repre- 
sentative section of signum highly magnified. Blythe, California. 

Plate XLV 
Genitalia 

Fig. 239. — Bucculatrix tlmrberiella Busck, paratype, male genitalia, ventral view 
(slide by A. Busck) ; 239a, inner surface of right harpe, flattened 
out ; 239b, aedeagus ; 239c, ventral plate of segment 8 ; 239d, dor- 
sal plate of segment 8 ; 239e, scale sac. ( All figures to the same 
scale.) From type material from Santa Catalina Mountains, Ari- 
zona, and material on cotton from Mesa and Tucson, Arizona. 

Fig. 240. — Bucculatrix tlmrberiella Busck, paratype, female genitalia (bursa 
copulatrix omitted), ventral view (slide by A. Busck); 240a, 
setae on sclerotized area of membrane of segment 8; 240b, a small 
area of signum highly magnified. Santa Catalina Mountains, 
Arizona. 



Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc, No. 18. 



PI. I. 




solidoginiella 




4 viguieroe 



fusicola 







mognella 



5 needhami 

BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



.Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc, No. 18. 



PL II. 






7 sphaeralceoe 



8 copeuta 




13 thurberiella 




15 trifasciella 




17 callistricha 



14 leptalea 






16 trifasciella 




18 fugifans 



BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc, No. 18. 



PI. III. 




19 ainsliella 



20 coronatella 




23 thurberiella 



25 eupatoriella 




26 eupatoriella 



24 encellae 

BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Anier. Ent. Soc, Xo. 18. 



VI IV. 




27 ochnstrigello 





28 cuneigera 



cuneigera 



29 




30 solidagmiella 

BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc, Xo. 18. 



PI. V. 




31 needhami 




32 trifasciello 



33 ca I list r i cha 





^a 




"Tr^ 




fy.c 




tp 



-f 



o 



7" 



V 



m 



y 



*\ 




proUo 



Tnfjo-»"a 7nri»-- l B nd2 3*>ai<ii 



34 canadensisello 






35 quadrigemino 36 polymniae 37 ca || lstncho 

BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amor. Ent. Sue, No. 18. 



IM. VI. 




38 domicola 





39 domicolo 



40 domicola 




42a 



fusicola 42 needhami 

BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amor. Ent. Soc, No. 18. 



VII. 




45o 





45 angustota 
BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amor. Ent. Soc. No. 18. 



PI. VIII. 







k&fofc? 



Imm 




46 speciosa 



m 



nil?. 

km 

mm 



:';<■, 



mm 

1 

tm 



50 

arnicello 




48c 




fndenticolo 



51 salufotoria 



BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc, No. 18. 



PI. IX. 




52c 52 packordella 56a 

BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



57 locuples 



Mom. Amor. Ent. Soc, No. IS. 



IM. X. 




60 montana 



61 montana 




solidaginiella 



solidaginiella 

63a m 

BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amer. Km. Soc. No. 18. 



PI. X 




BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



W N \ longula 



Mem. Anier. Ent. Soc, Xo. 18. 



I'l. XII. 





70b 



70c 




70 simulons 




72 



parvinotata 



71a 




,// /J viguierae 




71 simulans 




73a 




i^/ A 73b 



73 ochritincta 



74a 




viguierae 



BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc, No. 18. 



IM. XIII. 




81 seneciensis 



BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc, No. 18. 



PI. XIV 




cuneigero 




84 ochristrigella 





82a 



83 cuneigera 




85a 



85 ochristrigella 




albociliella 

i 87 albaciliella 

BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc, Xo. 18. 



I'l. XV. 




tenebricosa 
BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



ericamenae 



Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc, No. 18. 



PI. XVI. 




94a 



98a 




94 variabilis 



95 variabilis 






96a 



96 

separabilis 



97 separabilis 





99 

brunnescens 



98 evanescens 

BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amer. Knt. Sue, Xo. 18. 



PI. XVII. 




102 benenotata 



evanescens 



BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Ainer. Ent. Soc, Xo. 15 



PI. XVIII. 




BRAUX— BUCCULATRIX IX XORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc, No. IS 



PI. XIX. 




staintonello 




HOa 



112a 




112 agnella 



113c 




agnella 
! i : i , i- 1 NORTH AMERICA 



.Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc. No. 18. 



PI. XX. 




ivella 



1 1 7a 



117 ivella 
BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Anier. Ent. Soc, No. 18. 



PI. XXL 




ambrosiaefoliella 




m 

12 la Wife 



/■ft y 

Jiff,* taeniola 




119 

ambrosiaefoliella 



119a 



120a 




pallldula 




122 taeniola 

; i I'.m i i in i IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Anier. Ent. Soc, No. 18. 



PI. XXII. 




127 odelpho 
BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc, No. 18. 



PI. XXIII. 




BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc. Xo. 18. 



PI. XXIV. 



136a 




BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc, No. 18. 



PI. XXV 




llecebrosa 



142 transversata 



BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc, No. 18. 



PI. XXVI. 




147 
leptalea 
147a ^ leptalea 

BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



.Mem. Anicr. Ent. Soc, Xo. 18. 



I'l. XXVII. 




arnicella 



BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc, No. 18. 



PI. XXVIII. 




156a 



155 




tridenticola 



<^v 



156 tridenticola 




seorsa 



159 seorsa 
BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc, Xo. 18. 



l'l. XXIX. 



4m»j^ 



mi&M 








161a 



161 angusf isquomello 



angustisquomello 




163 columbiana 



BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Anier. Knt. Soc. No. 18. 



PI. XXX. 




BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amor. Ent. Sue, Xo. 18. 



PI. KXXI. 




la fella 170a 170 lotella 

BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amer. Ent. Sue. No. 18. 



l'l. XXXII. 



i... 




sporobolella 



175 sporobolella 

BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amor. Ent. Sue, Xo. 18. 



l'l. XXXIII. 




179a 
178 packardella __^P^=— packardella 

BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Anier. Ent. Soc, Xo. 18. 



XXXIV. 




182a 



183 

platyphylla 



182 ochrisuffusa 

BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amer. F.nt. Sue, No. 18. 



I'l. WW 




840 #- J^'fl 

Pi 1 



184b 



184 



m 






/ 



* 



comformo 



186a 





Us 

185 a $> 




N 185 trifasciella 




tnfasciella 




186 



«$ \ yJ ■■■■ . , 



187 quinquenofella 




188 quinquenofella 



189 

quinquenofella 



BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Anier. Ent. Soc No. 18. 



IM. XXXVI. 




I9la 



190 domicolo 





194 zophoposto 

BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc, No. 18. 



PI. XXXVII. 




I96a 





197 coronatella 



196 



coronatella 



mm 



^^W^f-4^ 




199 canadensisello 



198 canadensisello 




11 

1 ¥ 






200 i ; improvisa 201 improv.sa 

BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 




Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc, No. 18. 



PI. XXXVIII. 




'V>-.\. 

i ; .v: , 

205o * "?4 



recognito 206 recognita 

BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc, No. 18. 



PI. XXXIX. 




2L3q 
213 callistricha 

BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc, Xo. 18. 



PI. XL. 





216a 




216 



215 eugrapha 



216b 




BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Anier. Ent. Sue, Xo. 18. 



PI. XI. I. 





222 a 



222 b 



222 



a i n s 1 1 e 1 1 a 



221 ainsliella 




224o 





224 



eclecta 



223 eclecta 

BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc, No. 15 



PI. Xl.II. 



225a 




225 anaticula 




227 disjuncta 





226 anaticula 



228c 




2 29 a / 



228 pomifoliella w 



230 ceanothiella 



BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc, No. 18. 



PI. XLIII. 




231 ilecella 




232o 




233 a 



gossypiella 




232 ilecella 




204 



233 b 



-fcA, 

/M^ 234 a 
f 



gossypiella 



BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amer. Ent. Soc, No. \l 



PI. XLIV. 




235o 



quadrigemina 



236 b 




237 c 




236 



236a 




quadrigemina 




238 



1 / >- 






sir I 



\\ 



.A 



238a 



sphaeralceae 



sphaeralceae 
BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



Mem. Amer. Ent. Sue. No. 18. 



XI. \ 




239e 240 thurbenella 

BRAUN— BUCCULATRIX IN NORTH AMERICA 



INDEX 

All names printed in bold face are synonyms. 

The page on which a species description appears is indicated by bold face 
type. 



adelpha, 22, 25. 31, 91 
agnella, 19, 20, 29. 31, 77 
ainsliella. 6, 19, 27, 34, 167 
albaciliella, 16, 29, 32, 59 
albedinella, 4 
albella, 74 
albicapitella, 1, 77 
albertiella, 24, 26, 35, 132 
althaeae, 2, 180 

ambrosiaefoliella, 5, 24, 27, 33, 79, 83 
anaticula, 18, 26, 32, 171 
angustata, 9, 21, 28, 33, 89 
angustisquamella, 19, 30, 36, 117 
arnicella, 8, 14, 22, 30, 36, 111, 114 
arnicella, 113 
artemisiae, 110 
atrosignata, 17, 29, 37, 121 

benenotata, 14, 20, 33, 69 
bicristata, 16, 28, 55 
boyerella, 4 
brunnescens, 20, 29, 68 

callistricha, 12, 20, 26, 35, 160 
canadensisella, 3, 4, 22, 27, 34, 147 
capitealbella, 77 
capitialbella, 1, 77 
carolinae, 23, 32, 88 
ceanothiella, 19, 32, 174 
cerina, 23, 27, 163 
chrysothamni, 1, 61 
cidarella, 166 

columbiana, 18, 29, 36, 118 
coniforma, 24, 35, 133 
copeuta, 18, 25, 35, 163 
coronatella, 23, 27, 34, 145 



crataegi, 175, 178 
crescentella, 1, 89 
cuneigera, 9, 21, 29, 31, 37, 56 
curvilineatella, 175 

disjuncta, 18, 26, 173 
divisa, 8, 18. 23, 30, 36, 101 
domicola, 21, 27, 35, 140 

eclecta, 20, 25. 35, 169 
enceliae, 17, 19, 29, 37, 122 
ericameriae, 19, 33, 64 
errans, 56 

eugrapha, 22, 27, 162 
eupatoriella, 21, 26, 31, 94 
eurotiella, 19, 28, 33. 61 
evanescens, 14, 17, 18, 28, 33, 68 

floccosa, 19, 30, 33, 70 
flourensiae, 11, 24, 28, 33, 72 
franseriae, 20, 25, 32, 73 
fugitans, 20, 26, 35, 158 
fusicola, 9, 17, 28, 31, 38, 41 
fusicola, 37 

gossypiella, 2, 18, 25, 31, 182 

ilecella, 19, 25, 31, 179 
illecebrosa, 24, 30, 36, 103 
immaculatella, 2, 17, 49, 76 
improvisa, 23, 26, 34, 149 
insolita, 22, 30, 36, 104 
inusitata, 16, 25, 31, 37, 52 
ivella, 24, 27, 32, 81 

kimballi, 19, 29. 31, 80 



INDEX 



koebelella, 19, 30, 36, 106 

latella, 18, 29. 36, 125 
lavaterella, 180 
leptalea, 18,29, 36, 109, 117 
litigiosella, 23. 34, 144 
litigiosella, 155 
locuples, 20. 27, 35, 165 
longula, 17, 28, 31, 45, 48 
luteella, 2, 22, 27, 35, 153 

magnella, 16, 29, 31, 41, 42 
micropunctata, 16, 28, 51 
montana, 16, 29, 31, 41 

needhami. 2, 9, 17, 28, 31, 44 
nigricomella, 4 
nigripunctella, 17, 37, 120 
niveella, 2, 16, 47, 48 
obscurofasciella, 136 
ochristrigella, 16, 29, 32, 60 
ochrisuffusa, 22, 34, 135 
ochritincta, 16, 32, 49 

packardella, 2, 23, 26, 35, 129 

pallidula, 22, 32, 58, 86 

paroptila, 21, 26, 35, 157 

parvinotata, 16, 29, 49 

pertenuis, 2, 74 

platyphylla, 6, 22, 35, 134 

plucheae, 22, 28, 31, 92 

polymniae, 21, 26, 34, 95 

polytita, 24, 26, 34, 151 

pomifoliella, 19, 24, 25, 31, 86, 169, 175 

pomonella, 175 

quadrigemina, 20, 24, 25, 32, 180 



quinquenotella, 21, 26, 34, 138 

recognita, 24, 27, 35, 155 
rileyella, 85, 86 
rileyi, 1, 83 

salutatoria, 8, 20, 27, 36, 107 
seneciensis, 16, 28, 32, 54 
seorsa, 18, 30, 36, 116 
separabilis, 14, 19, 28, 33, 66 
sexnotata, 12, 20, 25, 34, 99 
simulans, 17, 28, 31, 39, 47 
solidaginiella, 9, 16, 29, 31. 39 
sororcula, 18, 29, 36, 119 
speciosa, 22, 34, 97 
spectabilis, 19, 36, 115 
sphaeralceae, 18, 25, 32, 184 
sporobolella, 24, 27, 33, 126 
staintonella, 17, 18, 22, 28, 33, 74 
subnitens, 2, 21, 34, 98 

taeniola, 21, 28, 34, 58, 87 
tenebricosa, 19, 28, 33, 63 
tetrella, 1, 132 
thoracella, 128 

thurberiella, 7. 18, 25, 32, 183, 185 
transversata, 23, 30, 105 
tridenticola, 14, 22, 27, 36, 113 
trifasciella, 21, 26, 34, 136 

ulmella, 171 

variabilis, 14, 19, 22, 28, 33, 65 

variabilis, 66 

viguierae, 9, 17, 27, 31, 50 

zophopasta, 23, 24, 26, 35, 142 






Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 

An irregular serial of monographic papers by students of authority in their 
respective subjects. 

1. The Cresson Types of Hymenoptera. Ezra T. Cresson. 1916. $3.00. 
The Blattidae of North America, North of the Mexican Boundary. Morgan 
Hebard. 1917. $5.50. 

A Yenational Study of the Suborder Zygoptera (Odonata), with Keys for 
the Identification of Genera. Philip A. Munz. 1919. $2.00. 

4. The Blattidae of Panama. Morgan Hebard. 1920. $3.00. 

The Types of Hymenoptera in the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- 
delphia other than those of Ezra T. Cresson. Ezra T. Cresson. 1928. $2.00. 

6. Revision of the Rhipiphoridae of North and Central America (Coleoptera). 
Ezekiel Rivnay. 1929. $2.00. 

7. A Revision of the Dipterous Family Rhagionidae (Leptidae) in the United 
States and Canada. Mortimer D. Leonard. 1930. $4.50. 

8. The Eumastacinae of Southern Mexico and Central America. James A. G. 
Rehn and John W. H. Rehn. 1934. $2.50. 

9. The Generic Names of the Sphecoid Wasps and their type species. V. S. L. 
Pate. 1937. $2.50. 

10. A Revision of the North American species belonging to the genus Pegomyia. 
H. C. Huckett. 1941. $3.00. 

11. Catalogue and reclassification of the Nearctic Ichneumonidae. Henry K. 
Townes, Jr. 1944. $15.00. 

12. The Biology and Identification of Trypetid Larvae. Venia Tarris Phillips. 
1946. $5.00. 

13. Elachistidae of North America (Microlepidoptera). Annette F. Braun. 
1948. $4.50. 

14. Classification of the Blattaria as Indicated by their Wings (Orthoptera). 
John W. H. Rehn. 1951. $5.00. 

15. The Neotropical Species of the "Subgenus Aeschna" sensu Selysii 1883 
(Odonata). Philip P. Calvert. 1956. $10.00. 

16. A Taxonomic Study of the North American Licinini with Notes on the Obi 
World Species of the Genus Diplocheila Brulle (Coleoptera). George E. 
Ball. 1959. $10.00. 

17. A Taxonomic Study of the Milliped Family Spirobolidae (Diplopoda: 
Spirobolida). William T. Keeton. 1960. $5.50. 

18. The Genus Bucculatrix in America North of Mexico (Microlepidoptera). 
Annette F. Braun. 1963. $8.50. 

In making inquiries relative to publications, address : 

THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 
1900 Race Street, Philadelphia 3, Pa. 










3 9088 00905 6979 




I